|Other names |
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||739.656 g/mol|
|Density||6 g/cm3, solid|
|Melting point||570 °C (1,058 °F; 843 K)|
|Boiling point||837 °C (1,539 °F; 1,110 K)|
|8 coordinate square antiprismatic|
Std enthalpy of
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|(what is ?)|
Thorium(IV) iodide (Th I4) is an inorganic chemical compound composed of thorium and iodine. It is one of three known thorium iodides, the others being thorium(II) iodide and thorium(III) iodide.
The actinoid series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium. The actinoid series derives its name from the first element in the series, actinium. The informal chemical symbol An is used in general discussions of actinoid chemistry to refer to any actinoid.
Iodine is a chemical element with the symbol I and atomic number 53. The heaviest of the stable halogens, it exists as a lustrous, purple-black non-metallic solid at standard conditions that melts to form a deep violet liquid at 114 degrees Celsius, and boils to a violet gas at 184 degrees Celsius. However, it readily sublimes with gentle heat, resulting in a widespread misconception even taught in some science textbooks that it does not melt at standard pressure. The element was discovered by the French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811, and was named two years later by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, after the Greek ἰώδης "violet-coloured".
Protactinium is a chemical element with the symbol Pa and atomic number 91. It is a dense, silvery-gray actinide metal which readily reacts with oxygen, water vapor and inorganic acids. It forms various chemical compounds in which protactinium is usually present in the oxidation state +5, but it can also assume +4 and even +3 or +2 states. Concentrations of protactinium in the Earth's crust are typically a few parts per trillion, but may reach up to a few parts per million in some uraninite ore deposits. Because of its scarcity, high radioactivity and high toxicity, there are currently no uses for protactinium outside scientific research, and for this purpose, protactinium is mostly extracted from spent nuclear fuel.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with the symbol Th and atomic number 90. Thorium is silvery and tarnishes black when it is exposed to air, forming thorium dioxide; it is moderately hard, malleable, and has a high melting point. Thorium is an electropositive actinide whose chemistry is dominated by the +4 oxidation state; it is quite reactive and can ignite in air when finely divided.
An iodide ion is the ion I−. Compounds with iodine in formal oxidation state −1 are called iodides. In everyday life, iodide is most commonly encountered as a component of iodized salt, which many governments mandate. Worldwide, iodine deficiency affects two billion people and is the leading preventable cause of intellectual disability.
A gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) is an instrument for measuring the distribution of the intensity of gamma radiation versus the energy of each photon. The study and analysis of gamma-ray spectra for scientific and technical use is called gamma spectroscopy, and gamma-ray spectrometers are the instruments which observe and collect such data. Because the energy of each photon of EM radiation is proportional to its frequency, gamma rays have sufficient energy that they are typically observed by counting individual photons.
The crystal bar process was developed by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925. This process was the first industrial process for the commercial production of pure ductile metallic zirconium. It is used in the production of small quantities of ultra-pure titanium and zirconium. It primarily involves the formation of the metal iodides and their subsequent decomposition to yield pure metal. This process was superseded commercially by the Kroll process.
Ammonium iodide is the chemical compound NH4I. It is used in photographic chemicals and some medications. It can be prepared by the action of hydroiodic acid on ammonia. It is easily soluble in water, from which it crystallizes in cubes. It is also soluble in ethanol. It gradually turns yellow on standing in moist air, owing to decomposition with liberation of iodine.
Sodium iodide (chemical formula NaI) is an ionic compound formed from the chemical reaction of sodium metal and iodine. Under standard conditions, it is a white, water-soluble solid comprising a 1:1 mix of sodium cations (Na+) and iodide anions (I−) in a crystal lattice. It is used mainly as a nutritional supplement and in organic chemistry. It is produced industrially as the salt formed when acidic iodides react with sodium hydroxide. It is a chaotropic salt.
Lithium iodide, or LiI, is a compound of lithium and iodine. When exposed to air, it becomes yellow in color, due to the oxidation of iodide to iodine. It crystallizes in the NaCl motif. It can participate in various hydrates.
Terbium(III) iodide (TbI3) is an inorganic chemical compound.
Thorium(IV) chloride (ThCl4) is an inorganic chemical compound. In addition to the anhydrous ThCl4, two hydrates have been reported: ThCl4(H2O)4 and ThCl4(H2O)8. These hygroscopic salts are water-soluble and white, at room temperature. Similar to other thorium complexes thorium(IV) chloride has a high melting point 770 °C (1,418 °F) and a boiling point of 921 °C (1,690 °F). Like all the other actinides, thorium is radioactive and has sometimes been used in the production of nuclear energy. Thorium(IV) chloride does not appear naturally.
Thorium(IV) fluoride (ThF4) is an inorganic chemical compound. It is a white hygroscopic powder which can be produced by reacting thorium with fluorine gas. At temperatures above 500 °C, it reacts with atmospheric moisture to produce ThOF2.
Thorium(IV) sulfide (ThS2) is an inorganic chemical compound composed of one thorium atom ionically bonded to two atoms of sulfur. It is dark brown and has a melting point of 1905 °C. ThS2 adopts the same lattice structure as TiO2.
Magnesium iodide is the name for the chemical compounds with the formulas MgI2 and its various hydrates MgI2(H2O)x. These salts are typical ionic halides, being highly soluble in water.
Beryllium iodide is the chemical compound with the formula BeI2. It is very hygroscopic and reacts violently with water, forming hydroiodic acid.
Isopropamide (R5) is a long-acting anticholinergic drug. It is used in the treatment of peptic ulcers and other gastrointestinal disorders involving hyperacidity and hypermotility. Chemically, it contains a quaternary ammonium group. It is most often provided as an iodide salt, but is also available as a bromide or chloride salt. It was discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1954.
Manganese(II) iodide is the chemical compound composed of manganese and iodine with the formula MnI2.
Iron(II) iodide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula FeI2. It is used as a catalyst in organic reactions.
Thorium monoxide, is the binary oxide of thorium having chemical formula ThO. The covalent bond in this diatomic molecule is highly polar. The effective electric between the two atoms has been calculated to be about 80 gigavolts per centimeter, one of the largest known internal effective electric fields.