Barium iodide

Last updated
Barium iodide [1]
Cotunnite structure.png
Names
IUPAC name
Barium iodide
Other names
Barium iodide, anhydrous
Identifiers
  • 13718-50-8 (anhydrous) Yes check.svgY
  • 7787-33-9(dihydrate) X mark.svgN
  • 13477-15-1(hexahydrate) X mark.svgN
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.033.873 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 237-276-9
PubChem CID
UNII
  • InChI=1S/Ba.2HI/h;2*1H/q+2;;/p-2 Yes check.svgY
    Key: SGUXGJPBTNFBAD-UHFFFAOYSA-L Yes check.svgY
  • InChI=1/Ba.2HI/h;2*1H/q+2;;/p-2
    Key: SGUXGJPBTNFBAD-NUQVWONBAS
  • I[Ba]I
  • [Ba+2].[I-].[I-]
Properties
BaI2 (anhydrous)
BaI2·2H2O (dihydrate)
Molar mass 391.136 g/mol (anhydrous)
427.167 g/mol (dihydrate)
AppearanceWhite orthorhombic crystals (anhydrous) colorless crystals (dihydrate)
Odor odorless
Density 5.15 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
4.916 g/cm3 (dihydrate)
Melting point 711 °C (1,312 °F; 984 K)(anhydrous)
decomposes at 740 °C (dihydrate)
166.7 g/100 mL (0 °C)
221 g/100 mL (20 °C)
246.6 g/100 mL (70 °C)
Solubility soluble in ethanol, acetone
-124.0·10−6 cm3/mol
Structure
Orthorhombic, oP12, SpaceGroup = Pnma, No. 62
Thermochemistry
-602.1 kJ·mol−1
Hazards
Main hazards toxic
Related compounds
Other anions
barium fluoride
barium chloride
barium bromide
Other cations
beryllium iodide
magnesium iodide
calcium iodide
strontium iodide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
X mark.svgN  verify  (what is  Yes check.svgYX mark.svgN ?)
Infobox references

Barium iodide is an inorganic compound with the formula BaI2. The compound exists as an anhydrous and a hydrate (BaI2(H2O)2), both of which are white solids. When heated, hydrated barium iodide converts to the anhydrous salt. The hydrated form is freely soluble in water, ethanol, and acetone.

Contents

Structure

The structure of the anhydrous form resembles that of lead(II) chloride with each Ba center bound to nine iodide ligands [2] and has a crystalline packing structure that is quite similar to BaCl2. [3]

Reactions

Anhydrous BaI2 can be prepared by treating Ba metal with 1,2-diiodoethane in ether. [4]

BaI2 reacts with alkyl potassium compounds to form organobarium compounds. [5]

BaI2 can be reduced with lithium biphenyl, to give a highly active form of barium metal. [6]

Safety

Like other soluble salts of barium, barium iodide is toxic.

Related Research Articles

Copper(II) nitrate Chemical compound

Copper(II) nitrate describes any member of the family of inorganic compounds with the formula Cu(NO3)2(H2O)x. The hydrates are blue solids. Anhydrous copper nitrate is blue-green crystals and sublimes in a vacuum at 150-200 °C. Common hydrates are the hemipentahydrate and trihydrate.

Zinc chloride Chemical compound

Zinc chloride is the name of chemical compounds with the formula ZnCl2 and its hydrates. Zinc chlorides, of which nine crystalline forms are known, are colorless or white, and are highly soluble in water. This white salt is hygroscopic and even deliquescent. Samples should therefore be protected from sources of moisture, including the water vapor present in ambient air. Zinc chloride finds wide application in textile processing, metallurgical fluxes, and chemical synthesis. No mineral with this chemical composition is known aside from the very rare mineral simonkolleite, Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O.

Barium chloride Chemical compound

Barium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula BaCl2. It is one of the most common water-soluble salts of barium. Like most other barium salts, it is white, toxic, and imparts a yellow-green coloration to a flame. It is also hygroscopic, converting first to the dihydrate BaCl2(H2O)2. It has limited use in the laboratory and industry.

Cerium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Cerium(III) chloride (CeCl3), also known as cerous chloride or cerium trichloride, is a compound of cerium and chlorine. It is a white hygroscopic salt; it rapidly absorbs water on exposure to moist air to form a hydrate, which appears to be of variable composition, though the heptahydrate CeCl3·7H2O is known. It is highly soluble in water, and (when anhydrous) it is soluble in ethanol and acetone.

Praseodymium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Praseodymium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula PrCl3. It is a blue-green solid that rapidly absorbs water on exposure to moist air to form a light green heptahydrate.

Samarium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Samarium(III) chloride, also known as samarium trichloride, is an inorganic compound of samarium and chloride. It is a pale yellow salt that rapidly absorbs water to form a hexahydrate, SmCl3.6H2O. The compound has few practical applications but is used in laboratories for research on new compounds of samarium.

Water of crystallization

In chemistry, water(s) of crystallization or water(s) of hydration are water molecules that are present inside crystals. Water is often incorporated in the formation of crystals from aqueous solutions. In some contexts, water of crystallization is the total mass of water in a substance at a given temperature and is mostly present in a definite (stoichiometric) ratio. Classically, "water of crystallization" refers to water that is found in the crystalline framework of a metal complex or a salt, which is not directly bonded to the metal cation.

Cobalt(II) chloride Chemical compound

Cobalt(II) chloride is an inorganic compound of cobalt and chlorine, with the formula CoCl
2
. It is a red crystalline solid.

Nickel(II) chloride Chemical compound

Nickel(II) chloride (or just nickel chloride) is the chemical compound NiCl2. The anhydrous salt is yellow, but the more familiar hydrate NiCl2·6H2O is green. Nickel(II) chloride, in various forms, is the most important source of nickel for chemical synthesis. The nickel chlorides are deliquescent, absorbing moisture from the air to form a solution. Nickel salts have been shown to be carcinogenic to the lungs and nasal passages in cases of long-term inhalation exposure.

Cadmium chloride Chemical compound

Cadmium chloride is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chloride, with the formula CdCl2. This salt is a hygroscopic solid that is highly soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. The crystal structure of cadmium chloride (described below), is a reference for describing other crystal structures. Also known are CdCl2•H2O and CdCl2•5H2O.

Iridium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Iridium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula IrCl3. The anhydrous compound is relatively rare, but the related hydrate is useful for preparing other iridium compounds. The anhydrous salt is a dark green crystalline solid. More commonly encountered is the trihydrate IrCl3(H2O)3.

Tantalum(V) chloride Chemical compound

Tantalum(V) chloride, also known as tantalum pentachloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula TaCl5. It takes the form of a white powder and is commonly used as a starting material in tantalum chemistry. It readily hydrolyzes to form tantalum(V) oxychloride (TaOCl3) and eventually tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5); this requires that it be synthesised and manipulated under anhydrous conditions, using air-free techniques.

Iron(II) fluoride Chemical compound

Iron(II) fluoride or ferrous fluoride is an inorganic compound with the molecular formula FeF2. It forms a tetrahydrate FeF2·4H2O that is often referred to by the same names. The anhydrous and hydrated forms are white crystalline solids.

Yttrium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Yttrium(III) chloride is an inorganic compound of yttrium and chloride. It exists in two forms, the hydrate (YCl3(H2O)6) and an anhydrous form (YCl3). Both are colourless solids that are highly soluble in water and deliquescent.

An alkalide is a chemical compound in which alkali metal atoms are anions with a charge or oxidation state of −1. Until the first discovery of alkalides in the 1970s, alkali metals were known to appear in salts only as cations with a charge or oxidation state of +1. These types of compounds are of theoretical interest due to their unusual stoichiometry and low ionization potentials. Alkalide compounds are chemically related to the electrides, salts in which trapped electrons are effectively the anions.

Group 2 organometallic chemistry

Group 2 organometallic chemistry refers to the chemistry of compounds containing carbon bonded to any group 2 element. By far the most common group 2 organometallic compounds are the magnesium-containing Grignard reagents which are widely used in organic chemistry. Other organmetallic group 2 compounds are rare and are typically limited to academic interests.

Barium bromide Chemical compound

Barium bromide is the chemical compound with the formula BaBr2. Like barium chloride, it dissolves well in water and is toxic.

Metal bis(trimethylsilyl)amides

Metal bis(trimethylsilyl)amides are coordination complexes composed of a cationic metal with anionic bis(trimethylsilyl)amide ligands and are part of a broader category of metal amides.

Metal halides

Metal halides are compounds between metals and halogens. Some, such as sodium chloride are ionic, while others are covalently bonded. A few metal halides are discrete molecules, such as uranium hexafluoride, but most adopt polymeric structures, such as palladium chloride.

Barium perchlorate is a powerful oxidizing agent, with the formula Ba(ClO4)2. It is used in the pyrotechnic industry.

References

  1. Lide, David R. (1998), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87 ed.), Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 4–44, ISBN   0-8493-0594-2
  2. Wells, A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry, Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN   0-19-855370-6.
  3. Brackett, E. B.; Brackett, T. E.; Sass, R. L.; The Crystal Structures of Barium Chloride, Barium Bromide, and Barium Iodide. J. Phys. Chem., 1963, volume 67, 2132 – 2135
  4. Duval, E.; Zoltobroda, G.; Langlois, Y.; A new preparation of BaI2: application to (Z)-enol ether synthesis. Tetrahedron Letters, 2000, 41, 337-339
  5. Walter, M. D.; Wolmershauser, G.; Sitzmann, H.; Calcium, Strontium, Barium, and Ytterbium Complexes with Cyclooctatetraenyl or Cyclononatetraenyl Ligands. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 127 (49), 17494 – 17503.
  6. Yanagisawa, A.; Habaue, S.; Yasue, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Allylbarium Reagents: Unprecedented Regio- and Stereoselective Allylation Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1994, 116,6130-6141