Barium oxide

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Barium oxide
Barium-oxide-3D-vdW.png
Barium oxide.JPG
Names
Other names
Neutral barium oxide (1:1)
Barium protoxide
Calcined baryta
Baria
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.013.753 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 215-127-9
PubChem CID
RTECS number
  • CQ9800000
UNII
UN number 1884
  • InChI=1S/Ba.O Yes check.svgY
    Key: QVQLCTNNEUAWMS-UHFFFAOYSA-N Yes check.svgY
  • InChI=1/Ba.O/rBaO/c1-2
    Key: QVQLCTNNEUAWMS-FXUTYLCTAB
  • [Ba]=O
Properties
BaO
Molar mass 153.326 g/mol
Appearancewhite solid
Density 5.72 g/cm3, solid
Melting point 1,923 °C (3,493 °F; 2,196 K)
Boiling point ~ 2,000 °C (3,630 °F; 2,270 K)
3.48 g/100 mL (20 °C)
90.8 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Reacts to form Ba(OH)2
Solubility soluble in ethanol, dilute mineral acids and alkalies; insoluble in acetone and liquid ammonia
-29.1·10−6 cm3/mol
Structure
cubic, cF8
Fm3m, No. 225
Octahedral
Thermochemistry
47.7 J/K mol
70 J·mol−1·K−1 [1]
−582 kJ·mol−1 [1]
Hazards
GHS labelling:
GHS-pictogram-acid.svg GHS-pictogram-skull.svg GHS-pictogram-exclam.svg
Danger
H301, H302, H314, H315, H332, H412
P210, P220, P221, P260, P261, P264, P270, P271, P273, P280, P283, P301+P310, P301+P312, P301+P330+P331, P302+P352, P303+P361+P353, P304+P312, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P306+P360, P310, P312, P321, P330, P332+P313, P362, P363, P370+P378, P371+P380+P375, P405, P501
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
3
0
0
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Other anions
Barium hydroxide
Barium peroxide
Other cations
Beryllium oxide

Magnesium oxide
Calcium oxide
Strontium oxide

Supplementary data page
Barium oxide (data page)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
X mark.svgN  verify  (what is  Yes check.svgYX mark.svgN ?)
Infobox references

Barium oxide, also known as baria, is a white hygroscopic non-flammable compound with the formula BaO. It has a cubic structure and is used in cathode ray tubes, crown glass, and catalysts. It is harmful to human skin and if swallowed in large quantity causes irritation. Excessive quantities of barium oxide may lead to death.

Contents

It is prepared by heating barium carbonate with coke, carbon black or tar or by thermal decomposition of barium nitrate.[ citation needed ]

Uses

Barium oxide is used as a coating for hot cathodes, for example, those in cathode ray tubes. It replaced lead(II) oxide in the production of certain kinds of glass such as optical crown glass. While lead oxide raised the refractive index, it also raised the dispersive power, which barium oxide does not alter. [2] Barium oxide also has use as an ethoxylation catalyst in the reaction of ethylene oxide and alcohols, which takes place between 150 and 200 °C. [3]

It is also a source of pure oxygen through heat fluctuation. It readily oxidises to BaO2 by formation of a peroxide ion. The complete peroxidation of BaO to BaO2 occurs at moderate temperatures but the increased entropy of the O2 molecule at high temperatures means that BaO2 decomposes to O2 and BaO at 1175K. [4] The reaction was used as a large scale method to produce oxygen before air separation became the dominant method in the beginning of the 20th century. The method was named the Brin process, after its inventors. [5]

Preparation

Barium oxide is made by heating barium carbonate at temperatures between 1000-1450 °C. It may also be prepared by thermal decomposition of barium nitrate. [6] Likewise, it is often formed through the decomposition of other barium salts. [7]

2Ba + O2 → 2BaO
BaCO3 → BaO + CO2

Safety issues

Barium oxide is an irritant. If it contacts the skin or the eyes or is inhaled it causes pain and redness. However, it is more dangerous when ingested. It can cause nausea and diarrhea, muscle paralysis, cardiac arrhythmia, and can cause death. If ingested, medical attention should be sought immediately.

Barium oxide should not be released environmentally; it is harmful to aquatic organisms. [8]

See also

Related Research Articles

Barium Chemical element, symbol Ba and atomic number 56

Barium is a chemical element with the symbol Ba and atomic number 56. It is the fifth element in group 2 and is a soft, silvery alkaline earth metal. Because of its high chemical reactivity, barium is never found in nature as a free element.

Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula H
2
O
2
. In its pure form, it is a very pale blue liquid, slightly more viscous than water. It is used as an oxidizer, bleaching agent, and antiseptic, usually as a dilute solution in water for consumer use, and in higher concentrations for industrial use. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide, or "high-test peroxide", decomposes explosively when heated and has been used as a propellant in rocketry.

Manganese dioxide Chemical compound

Manganese dioxide is the inorganic compound with the formula MnO
2
. This blackish or brown solid occurs naturally as the mineral pyrolusite, which is the main ore of manganese and a component of manganese nodules. The principal use for MnO
2
is for dry-cell batteries, such as the alkaline battery and the zinc–carbon battery. MnO
2
is also used as a pigment and as a precursor to other manganese compounds, such as KMnO
4
. It is used as a reagent in organic synthesis, for example, for the oxidation of allylic alcohols. MnO
2
is α polymorph that can incorporate a variety of atoms in the "tunnels" or "channels" between the manganese oxide octahedra. There is considerable interest in α-MnO
2
as a possible cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

Barium nitrate Chemical compound

Barium nitrate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ba(NO3)2. It, like most barium salts, is colorless, toxic, and water-soluble. It burns with a green flame and is an oxidizer; the compound is commonly used in pyrotechnics.

Mercury(II) oxide Chemical compound

Mercury(II) oxide, also called mercuric oxide or simply mercury oxide, has a formula of HgO. It has a red or orange color. Mercury(II) oxide is a solid at room temperature and pressure. The mineral form montroydite is very rarely found.

Thermal decomposition Chemical decomposition caused by heat

Thermal decomposition, or thermolysis, is a chemical decomposition caused by heat. The decomposition temperature of a substance is the temperature at which the substance chemically decomposes. The reaction is usually endothermic as heat is required to break chemical bonds in the compound undergoing decomposition. If decomposition is sufficiently exothermic, a positive feedback loop is created producing thermal runaway and possibly an explosion or other chemical reaction.

Organic peroxides Type of organic compounds

Organic peroxides are organic compounds containing the peroxide functional group (ROOR′). If the R′ is hydrogen, the compounds are called hydroperoxides, which are discussed in that article. Peresters are the peroxy analog of esters and have general structure RC(O)OOR. The O−O bond of peroxides easily breaks, producing free radicals of the form RO. Thus, organic peroxides are useful as initiators for some types of polymerisation, such as the epoxy resins used in glass-reinforced plastics. MEKP and benzoyl peroxide are commonly used for this purpose. However, the same property also means that organic peroxides can either intentionally or unintentionally initiate explosive polymerisation in materials with unsaturated chemical bonds, and this process has been used in explosives. Organic peroxides, like their inorganic counterparts, are powerful bleaching agents.

Copper chromite Chemical compound

Copper chromite is an inorganic compound with the formula Cu2Cr2O5. It is a black solid that is used to catalyze reactions in organic synthesis.

Uranium trioxide Chemical compound

Uranium trioxide (UO3), also called uranyl oxide, uranium(VI) oxide, and uranic oxide, is the hexavalent oxide of uranium. The solid may be obtained by heating uranyl nitrate to 400 °C. Its most commonly encountered polymorph, γ-UO3, is a yellow-orange powder.

Uranate

A uranate is a ternary oxide involving the element uranium in one of the oxidation states 4, 5 or 6. A typical chemical formula is MxUyOz, where M represents a cation. The uranium atom in uranates(VI) has two short collinear U–O bonds and either four or six more next nearest oxygen atoms. The structures are infinite lattice structures with the uranium atoms linked by bridging oxygen atoms.

Samarium(III) oxide Chemical compound

Samarium(III) oxide (Sm2O3) is a chemical compound. Samarium oxide readily forms on the surface of samarium metal under humid conditions or temperatures in excess of 150°C in dry air. Similar to the metal, iron, this oxide layer spalls off the surface of the metal, exposing more metal to continue the reaction. The oxide is commonly white to off yellow in color and is often encountered as a highly fine dust like powder.

A pyrotechnic composition is a substance or mixture of substances designed to produce an effect by heat, light, sound, gas/smoke or a combination of these, as a result of non-detonative self-sustaining exothermic chemical reactions. Pyrotechnic substances do not rely on oxygen from external sources to sustain the reaction.

Barium peroxide Chemical compound

Barium peroxide is the inorganic compound with the formula BaO2. This white solid (gray when impure) is one of the most common inorganic peroxides, and it was the first peroxide compound discovered. Being an oxidizer and giving a vivid green colour upon ignition (as do all barium compounds), it finds some use in fireworks; historically, it was also used as a precursor for hydrogen peroxide.

Barium chlorate Chemical compound

Barium chlorate, Ba(ClO3)2, is the barium salt of chloric acid. It is a white crystalline solid, and like all soluble barium compounds, irritant and toxic. It is sometimes used in pyrotechnics to produce a green color. It also finds use in the production of chloric acid.

Barium ferrate Chemical compound

Barium ferrate is the chemical compound of formula BaFeO4. This is a rare compound containing iron in the +6 oxidation state. The ferrate(VI) ion has two unpaired electrons, making it paramagnetic. It is isostructural with BaSO4, and contains the tetrahedral [FeO4]2− anion.

Magnesium acetate Chemical compound

Anhydrous magnesium acetate has the chemical formula Mg(C2H3O2)2 and in its hydrated form, magnesium acetate tetrahydrate, it has the chemical formula Mg(CH3COO)2 • 4H2O. In this compound magnesium has an oxidation state of 2+. Magnesium acetate is the magnesium salt of acetic acid. It is deliquescent and upon heating, it decomposes to form magnesium oxide. Magnesium acetate is commonly used as a source of magnesium in biological reactions.

Brin process is a now-obsolete industrial scale production process for oxygen. In this process barium oxide reacts at 500–600 °C with air to form barium peroxide which decomposes at above 800 °C by releasing oxygen.

Barium perchlorate is a powerful oxidizing agent, with the formula Ba(ClO4)2. It is used in the pyrotechnic industry.

Metal peroxide

Metal peroxides are metal-containing compounds with ionically- or covalently-bonded peroxide (O2−
2
) groups. This large family of compounds can be divided into ionic and covalent peroxide. The first class mostly contains the peroxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals whereas the covalent peroxides are represented by such compounds as hydrogen peroxide and peroxymonosulfuric acid (H2SO5). In contrast to the purely ionic character of alkali metal peroxides, peroxides of transition metals have a more covalent character.

Praseodymium (III,IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Pr6O11 that is insoluble in water. It has a cubic fluorite structure. It is the most stable form of praseodymium oxide at ambient temperature and pressure.

References

  1. 1 2 Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN   978-0-618-94690-7.
  2. "Barium Oxide (chemical compound)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-19.
  3. Nield, Gerald; Washecheck, Paul; Yang, Kang (1980-07-01). "United States Patent 4210764" . Retrieved 2007-02-20.
  4. S.C. Middleburgh; K.P.D. Lagerlof; R.W. Grimes (2012-09-29). "Accommodation of Excess Oxygen in Group II Oxides". Journal of the American Ceramic Society. Retrieved 2022-03-27.
  5. Jensen, William B. (2009). "The Origin of the Brin Process for the Manufacture of Oxygen". Journal of Chemical Education. 86 (11): 1266. Bibcode:2009JChEd..86.1266J. doi:10.1021/ed086p1266.
  6. Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN   0-07-049439-8
  7. "Compounds of barium: barium (II) oxide". Web Elements. The University of Sheffield. 2007-01-26. Retrieved 2007-02-22.
  8. "Barium Oxide (ICSC)". IPCS. October 1999. Archived from the original on 26 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-19.