Citarum River

Last updated
Citarum River
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Luchtfoto van de brug over de rivier Tjitaroem bij Batoedjadjar Tjimahi Preanger West-Java TMnr 10007687.jpg
Bridge over the Citarum River
Native nameᮝᮜᮥᮍᮔ᮪ ᮎᮤᮒᮛᮥᮙ᮪
Location
Country Indonesia
Physical characteristics
Source 
  location Mount Wayang, Bandung Regency, West Java
Mouth  
  location
Java Sea, Ujung Karawang, Karawang Regency, West Java
Length270 km (170 mi) [1]
Basin size6600 km2 [1]

The Citarum River (Sundanese : Walungan Citarum) is the longest and largest river in West Java, Indonesia. [2] It is the third longest river in Java, after Bengawan Solo and Brantas. It has an important role in the life of the people of West Java, as it supports agriculture, water supply, fishery, industry, sewerage, and electricity for 25 million people. It has been noted for being considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world. [3]

Contents

History

In Indonesian history the Citarum is linked with the 4th-century Tarumanagara kingdom, as the kingdom and the river shared the same etymology, derived from the word "tarum" (Sundanese for indigo plant). The earlier 4th-century BCE prehistoric Buni clay pottery-making culture flourished near the river's mouth. Stone inscriptions, Chinese sources, and archaeological sites such as Batujaya and Cibuaya suggest that human habitation and civilization flourished in and around the river estuaries and river valley as early as the 4th century and even earlier.

Geography

The river flows in the northwest area of Java with a predominantly tropical monsoon climate. The annual average temperature in the area is 24 °C. The warmest month is May, when the average temperature is around 26 °C, and the coldest is January, at 22 °C. [4] The average annual rainfall is 2646 mm. The wettest month is January, with an average of 668 mm rainfall, and the driest month is September, with 14 mm rainfall. [5]

Hydroelectric and irrigation dams

Three hydroelectric powerplant dams are installed along the Citarum: Saguling, Cirata, and Ir. H. Djuanda (Jatiluhur), all supplying the electricity for the Bandung and Greater Jakarta areas. The waters from these dams are also used to irrigate vast rice paddies in Karawang and Bekasi area, making northern West Java lowlands one of the most productive rice farming areas. [6]

The Jatiluhur Dam with a 3 billion cubic meter storage capacity has the largest reservoir in Indonesia. [7]

The river makes up around 80 percent of the surface water available to the people who use it. Pollution has affected agriculture so much that farmers have sold their rice paddies for half their normal price. [8]

Pollution

The surface of the Citarum is completely covered by waste at some places. Citarum River pollution, 2009.jpg
The surface of the Citarum is completely covered by waste at some places.

The river is heavily polluted by human activity; about five million people live in its basin. [9] Textile factories in Bandung and Cimahi were major toxic waste contributors. [10] More than 2,000 industries contaminate 5,020 sq miles of the river with lead, mercury, arsenic, and other toxins. [11] According to the documentary Green Warriors Indonesia by Martin Boudot, some of the other toxins include sulphites, nonylphenol, phtalates, PCB 180, paranitrophenol, tributylphosphate. The documentary also mentions that the most dangerous pollution comes from the Indonesian textile industry (with many textile factories being part of Asosiasi Pertekstilan Indonesia). It is also mentioned that the textile factory effluents are only tested on a very select number of parameters. It was thus also proposed in the documentary that a revisal on the textile industry guidelines could include more parameters such as sulphites and heavy metals.

On December 5, 2008, the Asian Development Bank approved a $500 million loan for cleaning up the river, calling it the world's dirtiest. [12]

Environmentalists have observed that over 20,000 tons of waste and 340,000 tons of wastewater from those textile factories are disposed into the river on a daily basis. A result of this pollution has been the elimination of a significant part of the river's fish population estimated at 60% since 2008. [13] [14]

In 2011, the Indonesian government began a river revitalization project, aiming to return the whole river to clean drinking water status.

Revitalization

In November 2011, the river revitalization began, with an expected cost of Rp35 trillion ($4 billion) over 15 years. The revitalization is occurring from Mount Wayang through eight regencies and three cities for a distance of 180 kilometers. The target for the first three years is to collect 10.5 million cubic meters of sedimentation. [15] In February 2018, the President of Indonesia Joko Widodo launched a seven-year plan to clean up the whole river to achieve clean drinking-water status, ordering 7,000 regular soldiers to clean up allocated sections of the river on a regular basis. They have powers to block up outlets conveying polluted wastewater from factories into the river and are installing rubbish treatment and water treatment facilities. Problems are - lack of money for continuing action, lack of coordination at local level, bribes paid by factories to avoid change, and upstream soil erosion from deforestation that enhances the silting of the lower river. But with wider internet publicity, and now the top-down government enforcement, more foreign consultants are coming in to recommend necessary changes upstream, and local awareness and anti-plastics campaigns are beginning to take effect. [16]

See also

Related Research Articles

Pollution Introduction of contaminants that cause adverse change

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. In 2015, pollution killed 9 million people worldwide.

West Java Province of Indonesia

West Java is a province of Indonesia on the western part of the island of Java, with its provincial capital in Bandung. West Java is bordered by the province of Banten and the country's capital region of Jakarta to the west, the Java Sea to the north, the province of Central Java to the east and the Indian Ocean to the south. The province is the native homeland of the Sundanese people, the second-largest ethnic group in Indonesia after the Javanese.

Bandung City in West Java, Indonesia

Bandung is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia and fourth-largest city in Indonesia. Greater Bandung is the country's second-largest metropolitan area with over 11 million inhabitants. Located 768 metres above sea level, approximately 140 kilometres southeast of Jakarta, Bandung has cooler year-round temperatures than most other Indonesian cities. The city lies on a river basin surrounded by volcanic mountains that provides a natural defense system, which was the primary reason for the Dutch East Indies government's plan to move the capital from Batavia to Bandung.

Blackstone River River in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, USA

The Blackstone River is a river in the U.S. states of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. It flows approximately 48 mi (80 km) and drains a watershed of approximately 540 sq. mi (1,400 km2). Its long history of industrial use has left a legacy of pollution, and it was characterized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1990 as "the most polluted river in the country with respect to toxic sediments."

Buriganga River

The Buriganga River is a river in Bangladesh which flows past the southwest outskirts of the capital city, Dhaka. Its average depth is 7.6 metres (25 ft) and its maximum depth is 18 metres (58 ft). It ranks among the most polluted rivers in the country.

Cimahi City in West Java

Cimahi is a city located immediately west of the larger city of Bandung, in West Java Province, Indonesia and within the Bandung Metropolitan Area. It covers an area of 40.37 km2 and had a population at the 2010 Census of 541,177 and at the 2020 Census of 568.400. The city is a major textile producer, and is home to several military training centres.

Environmental issues in Indonesia

Environmental issues in Indonesia are associated with the country's high population density and rapid industrialisation, and they are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels, and an under-resourced governance.

Purwakarta District in West Java, Indonesia

Purwakarta is a district and town in the West Java, Indonesia which serves as the regency seat of the Purwakarta Regency. It had a population of 165,447 at the 2010 Census,. rising to 179,233 at the 2020 Census.

Pure Earth Environmental organization

Pure Earth is a New York City-based international not-for-profit organization founded in 1999 that works to identify, clean up, and solve pollution problems in low- and middle-income countries, where high concentrations of toxic pollution have devastating health impacts, especially on children. These communities suffer disproportionately from pollution-related diseases. Pure Earth remains the only significant organization of its kind working to solve pollution on a global scale.

Galuh Kingdom

KingdomofGaluh was an ancient Sundanese kingdom located in the eastern part of Tatar Pasundan, present-day Indonesia. It was established following the end of the Tarumanagara kingdom around the 7th century. Traditionally the kingdom was associated with Eastern Priangan cultural region, around the Citanduy and Cimanuk rivers, with territory spanned from Citarum river on the west, Pamali and Serayu river on the east. Its capital was first located in Karangkamulyan, Ciamis Regency, then Saunggalah, Kuningan, and Kawali, near today Ciamis City. The etymology of "galuh" is Old Sundanese and Old Javanese word for "gemstone".

Beet River

Beet River is a river in northern West Java, Indonesia. It is a tributary of the Citarum River.

Jatiluhur Dam Dam in Purwakarta

The Jatiluhur Dam is a multi-purpose embankment dam on the Citarum River in West Java, Indonesia. It is located 70 km (43 mi) east of Jakarta, close to the medium-size town of Purwakarta.

Cidayeuh River

Cidayeuh River is a river in Dayeuhluhur, Cilacap, Central Java in Indonesia, about 220 km southeast of the capital Jakarta.

Cikapundung River

The Cikapundung River divides the city of Bandung, in West Java, Indonesia. The river flows from its headwaters in Lembang on the northern edge of the city, to the south, where it empties into the Citarum River.

Martin Boudot is a French investigative journalist and documentary filmmaker based in Paris, France.

Ci Tanduy

Ci Tanduy is a river in the island of Java, Indonesia, about 270 km to the southeast of the capital Jakarta. It flows from West Java to Central Java province, exiting through the Bay of Citanduy to the Indian Ocean, forming a delta called "Muara Citanduy."

Ci Kaengan

Ci Kaengan is a river in the island of Java, Indonesia, that flows mainly in the Garut Regency of West Java province, about 210 km to the southeast of the capital Jakarta.

Buaran River

Buaran River is a river flowing in the Bekasi, West Java and eastern part of the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, Indonesia. The lower portions of the original river have been channelized and directed into the eastern flood canal, "Banjir Kanal Timur", which continues to flow to the Java Sea in the district of Marunda, Cilincing, North Jakarta. The river regularly causes flooding in the city of Bekasi and Jakarta.

Endangered river River that is likely to partly or fully dry up

An endangered river is one which has the potential to partly or fully dry up, or one that is thought to have ecological issues now or in the near future. Some such issues are natural while others are the direct result of human development. Organisations including the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) have published lists of rivers at risk. The WWF's 2007 list featured the Danube, the Nile, and the Rio Grande amongst others, stating that these "once great rivers" are in danger and "can no longer be assured of reaching the sea unhindered". The US National Park Service reported in 2015 that part of the Rio Grande "often lies dry". Dangers may be the result of the natural change of conditions in the local environment but many are due to human development projects such as dams and irrigation. Humans have also caused significant water pollution which endangers life which relies upon the water source.

Fifie Rahardja is an Indonesian environmental activist. She is notable for her founding of an activist organization and for her efforts to clean the Citarum River in West Java.

References

  1. 1 2 Citarum River Basin Management (retrieved 2020-05-20)
  2. "Citarum Nadiku, Mari Rebut Kembali" (in Indonesian). Greenpeace . Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  3. "Indonesia's Citarum: The World's Most Polluted River". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 2020-03-04.
  4. "NASA Earth Observations Data Set Index". NASA. 30 January 2016.
  5. "NASA Earth Observations: Rainfall (1 month - TRMM)". NASA/Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission. 30 January 2016.
  6. "Karawang Tantangan Si Lumbung Padi" (in Indonesian). citarum.org. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  7. "Genjot Proyek Waduk Jatigede" (in Indonesian). Indopos Intermedia Press. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  8. Williams, Alex (30 June 2013). "Citarum: Possibly the world's most polluted river". Inside Investor. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  9. Nana Terangna Bukit (May 1995). "Water quality conservation for the Citarum River in West Java". Water Science and Technology . IWA Publishing. 31 (9): 1–10. doi:10.1016/0273-1223(95)00400-h. ISSN   0273-1223. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007.
  10. Nadya Natahadibrata (6 November 2013). "Citarum, Kalimantan world's most polluted". Jakarta Post . Retrieved 9 November 2013.
  11. Leahy, Stephen (8 November 2013). "Toxic towns and poisoned rivers: a byproduct of industry for the rich". The Guardian . Retrieved 9 November 2013.
  12. Collins, Nancy-Amelia (5 December 2008). "ADB Gives Indonesia $500 Million to Clean Up World's Dirtiest River". VOA News . Retrieved 24 May 2010.
  13. "Indonesia's Citarum: The World's Most Polluted River". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
  14. "The Death of the Citarum River: Indonesia's Most Toxic Waterway". Pulitzer Center. 2017-03-13. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
  15. "Rehabilitasi Total Sungai Citarum Butuh Rp 35 Triliun dalam Waktu 15 Tahun". Pikiran Rakyat (in Indonesian). 10 November 2011. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013.
  16. Freischlad, Nadine (5 Jan 2019). "In Indonesia, cleaning up the Citarum, 'the world's dirtiest river', is now a military operation". South China Morning Post.
  17. "Citarum River Is Polluted by Factories That Make Your Clothes". Fabric of the world. 2017-12-18. Archived from the original on 2020-04-27. Retrieved 2020-01-09.

Coordinates: 5°56′09″S106°59′43″E / 5.935833°S 106.995278°E / -5.935833; 106.995278