Rihanna at the 2017 Met Gala
|Genre||Fundraising gala, contribution of 30K USD per seat to enter the 2019 Met Gala|
|Frequency||Annual, held on the first Monday of May|
|Venue||Metropolitan Museum of Art, Costume Institute|
|Location(s)||Fifth Avenue, Manhattan, New York City|
|Most recent||May 6, 2019|
|Website||Costume Institute Gala|
|Gala started in 1946 and the first event was held in 1948.|
The Met Gala, formally called the Costume Institute Gala or the Costume Institute Benefit and also known as the Met Ball, is an annual fundraising gala for the benefit of the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Costume Institute in New York City. It marks the opening of the Costume Institute's annual fashion exhibit.Each year's event celebrates the theme of that year's Costume Institute exhibition, and the exhibition sets the tone for the formal dress of the night, since guests are expected to choose their fashion to match the theme of the exhibit.
The Met Gala was established in 1948 as a way to raise money for the newly-founded Costume Institute and mark the opening of its annual exhibit. The first Gala was a midnight dinner and tickets were fifty dollars each.Based upon the legacy left by former Vogue editor-in-chief Diana Vreeland as "special consultant" to the Costume Institute, since 1973 the Met Gala has become well known as a luxurious, blockbuster event and is considered "the jewel in New York City's social crown".
The Gala is widely regarded as among the most prominent and most exclusive social events in the world. It is also one of the biggest fundraising nights in New York City, with $9M USD raised in 2013 and a record of $12M USD the following year.The Met Gala is one of the most notable sources of funding for the Institute, with contributions anticipated to surpass $200M USD in total after the 2019 event since Anna Wintour's assuming the chairmanship of the Institute in 1995.
The Met Gala was established in 1948 by fashion publicist Eleanor Lambert as a way to raise money for the newly-founded Costume Institute and mark the opening of its annual exhibit. The first gala was a dinner and tickets were fifty dollars each.For the first few decades of its existence the gala was simply one of many annual benefits held for New York charitable institutions. Accordingly, the attendees of the early galas were almost entirely members of New York high society or the city's fashion industry. From 1948 to 1971, the event was held at venues including the Waldorf-Astoria, Central Park, and the Rainbow Room.
When Diana Vreeland became consultant to the Costume Institute in 1972, the Gala began to evolve into a more glamorous affair, although one that was still aimed at the societal set.The event started to become more celebrity-oriented with attendees like Elizabeth Taylor, Andy Warhol, Bianca Jagger, Diana Ross, Elton John, Liza Minnelli and Cher intermixing with the city's elite. It was during the Vreeland years that the Gala was first held at the Met and that Gala themes were introduced.
The Met Costume Institute Gala is a major fundraising benefit that serves as an opening celebration for the Institute's annual fashion exhibit.Following the event, the exhibition runs for several months. The 2014 exhibition was scheduled to run from May 8 until August 10, 2014. The affair, attended by personalities from the arts, fashion, high-society, film, and music, has been held at the Met since 1948 and is considered to be the fashion industry's premier annual red carpet event. Its red carpet fashions are widely photographed, reviewed, critiqued, and emulated. The museum is closed to the general public on the first Monday of May due to the Gala occurring.
Anna Wintour, Vogue editor-in-chief and a chairwoman of the Gala event since 1995 (excluding 1996 and 1998), oversees both the benefit committee and the guest list, with Vogue staffers helping assemble the list of invitees.In 2014, the individual tickets cost US$30,000 for those outside the official guest list, after prices were raised by $10,000 to increase the exclusivity of the event. The annual guest list is limited to approximately 650 or 700 people.
Each year the event has a theme, and includes a cocktail hour and a formal dinner.During the cocktail hour, guests arrive to walk on the red carpet, tour the year's special themed exhibition, and be seated before the dinner party that includes entertainment from the preeminent entertainers of the day. The theme not only sets the tone for the annual exhibit, but also for the guests who attempt to dress to uphold the theme of the year, oftentimes causing runs on certain fashion themes among the world's leading fashion retailers. Sometimes, such as in 2013, the theme is a bit befuddling because it does not provide a clear stylistic directive, while at other times, such as in 2014, the theme may be far more challenging to one gender than the other.
The 2015 Gala and its theme of "China: Through the Looking Glass" became the subject of a documentary— The First Monday in May' directed by Andrew Rossi produced by Condé Nast Entertainment, Vogue, and Relativity Studios. 225 approved photographers, reporters, and social media participants documented the event for the documentary. All other attendees were forbidden from using social media at the event. Guests received notices about the restriction of selfies and social media inside the gala. The no-selfie ordinance was extended to the following editions of the Met Gala.
The following is a list of Met Galas, as well as the Chairs and entertainment, for the Galas that have taken place since themes were introduced in 1973.
|Date of Gala||Theme||Co-chairs||Honorary Chairs||Headline Performers|
|March 21, 1973||The World of Balenciaga||None||None||N/A|
|December 12, 1973||The 10s, the 20s, the 30s: Inventive Clothes: 1909-1939||Phyllis Ellsworth Dillon||None||N/A|
|November 20, 1974||Romantic and Glamorous Hollywood Design||Jane Engelhard||None||N/A|
|December 10, 1975||American Women of Style||Jane Engelhard||None||N/A|
|December 6, 1976||The Glory of Russian Costume||Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis||None||N/A|
|December 12, 1977||Vanity Fair: A Treasure Trove||Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis||None||N/A|
|November 20, 1978||Diaghilev: Costumes and Designs of the Ballets Russes||Pat Buckley||None||N/A|
|December 3, 1979||Fashions of the Habsburg Era: Austria-Hungary||Pat Buckley||None||N/A|
|December 9, 1980||The Manchu Dragon: Costumes of China, the Chi'ng Dynasty||Pat Buckley||None||N/A|
|December 7, 1981||The Eighteenth-Century Woman||Pat Buckley||None||N/A|
|December 6, 1982||La Belle Époque||Pat Buckley||None||N/A|
|December 5, 1983||Yves Saint Laurent: 25 Years of Design||Pat Buckley||None||N/A|
|December 3, 1984||Man and the Horse||Pat Buckley||None||N/A|
|December 9, 1985||Costumes of Royal India||Pat Buckley||None||N/A|
|December 8, 1986||Dance||Pat Buckley||None||N/A|
|December 7, 1987||In Style: Celebrating Fifty Years of the Costume Institute||Pat Buckley||None||N/A|
|December 5, 1988||From Queen to Empress: Victorian Dress 1837–1877||Pat Buckley||None||N/A|
|December 4, 1989||The Age of Napoleon: Costume from Revolution to Empire, 1789–1815||Pat Buckley||None||N/A|
|December 3, 1990||Théâtre de la Mode – Fashion Dolls: The Survival of Haute Couture||Pat Buckley||None||N/A|
|December 9, 1991||No theme, as no concurrent costume exhibition was held||Pat Buckley||None||N/A|
|December 7, 1992||Fashion and History: A Dialogue||Pat Buckley||None||N/A|
|December 6, 1993||Diana Vreeland: Immoderate Style||Pat Buckley||None||N/A|
|December 5, 1994||Orientalism: Visions of the East in Western dress||Pat Buckley, Oscar de la Renta, Bill Blass||None||N/A|
|December 4, 1995||Haute Couture||Anna Wintour, Annette de la Renta, Clarissa Bronfman||Karl Lagerfeld, Gianni Versace||N/A|
|December 9, 1996||Christian Dior||Elizabeth Tilberis, Marie-Chantal, Crown Princess of Greece, Helene David-Weill||None||N/A|
|December 8, 1997||Gianni Versace||Anna Wintour, Julia Koch, Patrick McCarthy||None||N/A|
|December 7, 1998||Cubism and Fashion||Anna Wintour, Miuccia Prada, Paula Cussi, Pia Getty||None||N/A|
|December 6, 1999||Rock Style||Anna Wintour, Tommy Hilfiger, Aerin Lauder||None||N/A|
|April 23, 2001||Jacqueline Kennedy: The White House Years||Anna Wintour, Christina and Lindsay Owen-Jones, Annette and Oscar de la Renta, Carolina Herrera||Caroline Kennedy and Edwin A. Schlossberg||N/A|
|April 28, 2003||Goddess: The Classical Mode||Anna Wintour, Tom Ford, Nicole Kidman||None||N/A|
|April 26, 2004||Dangerous Liaisons: Fashion and Furniture in the 18th Century||None||Jacob Rothschild, Jayne Wrightsman||N/A|
|May 2, 2005||The House of Chanel||Anna Wintour, Karl Lagerfeld, Nicole Kidman||Caroline, Princess of Hanover||N/A|
|May 1, 2006||AngloMania: Tradition and Transgression in British Fashion||Anna Wintour, Christopher Bailey, Sienna Miller||Rose Marie Bravo, The Duke of Devonshire||N/A|
|May 7, 2007||Poiret: King of Fashion||Anna Wintour, Cate Blanchett, Nicolas Ghesquière||François-Henri Pinault||N/A|
|May 5, 2008||Superheroes: Fashion and Fantasy||Anna Wintour, George Clooney, Julia Roberts||Giorgio Armani||N/A|
|May 4, 2009||The Model As Muse: Embodying Fashion||Anna Wintour, Kate Moss, Justin Timberlake||Marc Jacobs||N/A|
|May 3, 2010||American Woman: Fashioning a National Identity||Anna Wintour, Oprah Winfrey, Patrick Robinson||None||Lady Gaga|
|May 2, 2011||Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty||Anna Wintour, Colin Firth, Stella McCartney||François-Henri Pinault and Salma Hayek||Florence and the Machine|
|May 7, 2012||Schiaparelli and Prada: Impossible Conversations||Anna Wintour, Carey Mulligan, Miuccia Prada||Jeff Bezos||Bruno Mars|
|May 6, 2013||Punk: Chaos to Couture||Anna Wintour, Rooney Mara, Lauren Santo Domingo, Riccardo Tisci||Beyoncé||Kanye West|
|May 5, 2014||Charles James: Beyond Fashion||Aerin Lauder, Anna Wintour, Bradley Cooper, Oscar de la Renta, Sarah Jessica Parker, Lizzie and Jonathan Tisch||None||Frank Ocean|
|May 4, 2015||China: Through the Looking Glass||Anna Wintour, Jennifer Lawrence, Gong Li, Marissa Mayer, Wendi Murdoch||Silas Chou||Rihanna|
|May 2, 2016||Manus x Machina: Fashion in an Age of Technology||Anna Wintour, Taylor Swift, Idris Elba, Jonathan Ive||Nicolas Ghesquière, Karl Lagerfeld, Miuccia Prada||The Weeknd|
|May 1, 2017||Rei Kawakubo/Comme des Garçons: Art of the In-Between||Anna Wintour, Gisele Bündchen and Tom Brady, Katy Perry, Pharrell Williams||Rei Kawakubo||Katy Perry|
|May 7, 2018||Heavenly Bodies: Fashion and the Catholic Imagination||Anna Wintour, Amal Clooney, Rihanna, Donatella Versace||Christine and Stephen A. Schwarzman||Madonna|
|May 6, 2019||Camp: Notes on Fashion||Anna Wintour, Lady Gaga, Harry Styles, Serena Williams, Alessandro Michele||None||Cher|
|TBA||About Time: Fashion and Duration||Anna Wintour, Meryl Streep, Emma Stone, Lin-Manuel Miranda, Nicolas Ghesquiere||None||TBA|
Models Naomi Campbell and Stephanie Seymour pulled out of attending the 2009 Gala at the last minute, in a show of support for designer Azzedine Alaïa.After he found out that none of his work was included in the Costume Institute exhibit, Alaïa asked the models not to wear the dresses he had designed for them to the gala and they chose not to attend altogether. Alaïa was well-known for his close relationships with models so his exclusion from the "Model as Muse" exhibit was seen as a snub. He criticized Wintour (with whom he had a longtime feud) for having "too much power over this museum."
When the Met Gala announced a white tie dress code in 2014, a number of media outlets pointed out the difficulty and expense of obtaining traditional white tie, even for the celebrity guests.
In 2015, the theme "China: Through the Looking Glass" was previously named "Chinese Whispers: Tales of the East in Art, Film and Fashion".The same year's theme was met with critics saying it was "A reminder of the subtle institutionalised racism that's been compounded by centuries of Asian isolationism across the board, and enduring Western stereotypes exacerbated by ignorance and the meme-able nature of social media."
In 2016, Madonna, whilst channeling the theme "Manus x Machina: Fashion in an Age of Technology", provided one of the most controversial outfits in the gala's history. She appeared in an ensemble designed by Givenchy creative director Riccardo Tisci exposing both her breasts and buttocks.Madonna hit back on her official social media channels by stating "We have fought and continue to fight for civil rights and gay rights around the world. When it comes to women’s rights we are still in the dark ages. My dress at the Met Ball was a political statement as well as a fashion statement".
The 2018 Gala had a Roman Catholic theme, and included Rihanna wearing a papal mitre. Critics on social media called it "blasphemous" and "sacrilegious cosplay", even though the Catholic Church lent more than forty papal vestments from the Vatican, and Cardinal Timothy M. Dolan attended.Kyle Smith argued that the Catholic Church was in fact "abetting the mockery of its symbols".
As of 2018, Wintour announced that guests may not be allowed to attend the gala before the age of 18.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States. With 6,479,548 visitors to its three locations in 2019, it was the fourth most visited art museum in the world. Its permanent collection contains over two million works, divided among 17 curatorial departments. The main building at 1000 Fifth Avenue, along the Museum Mile on the eastern edge of Central Park in Manhattan's Upper East Side, is by area one of the world's largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains an extensive collection of art, architecture, and artifacts from medieval Europe. On March 18, 2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum along Madison Avenue on the Upper East Side; it extends the museum's modern and contemporary art program.
Vogue is an American monthly fashion and lifestyle magazine covering many topics including fashion, beauty, culture, living, and runway based in New York City. Vogue began as a weekly newspaper, first published based in New York City in 1892 in the United States, before becoming a monthly publication years later.
Paul Poiret was a leading French fashion designer, a master couturier during the first two decades of the 20th century. He was the founder of his namesake haute couture house. His contributions to his field have been likened to Picasso's legacy in 20th-century art.
Dame Anna Wintour is a British-American journalist and editor who has been editor-in-chief of Vogue since 1988 and artistic director for Condé Nast, Vogue's publisher, since 2013. With her trademark pageboy bob haircut and dark sunglasses, Wintour has become an important figure in much of the fashion world, widely praised for her eye for fashion trends and her support for younger designers. Her reportedly aloof and demanding personality has earned her the nickname "Nuclear Wintour".
Notes on 'Camp' is an essay and a book by Susan Sontag. It was first published as an essay in 1964, and was her first contribution to the Partisan Review. The essay attracted interest in Sontag. It was republished in 1966 in Sontag's debut collection of essays, Against Interpretation. The essay considers meanings and connotations of the word "camp".
Diane von Fürstenberg, formerly Princess Diane of Fürstenberg, is a Belgian fashion designer best known for her wrap dress. She initially rose to prominence when she married into the German princely House of Fürstenberg, as the wife of Prince Egon von Fürstenberg. Following their separation in 1972 and divorce in 1983, she has continued to use his family name.
Charles Wilson Brega James was an English-American fashion designer. He is best known for his ballgowns and highly structured aesthetic. James is one of the most influential fashion designers of the 20th century and continues to influence new generations of designers.
Azzedine Alaïa was a Tunisian couturier and shoe designer, particularly successful beginning in the 1980s.
Rodarte is an American brand of clothing and accessories founded and headquartered in Los Angeles, California by sisters Kate and Laura Mulleavy.
Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty was an art exhibition held in 2011 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art featuring clothing created by British fashion designer Alexander McQueen, as well as accessories created for his runway shows. The exhibit was extremely popular in New York City and resulted in what was then record attendance for the museum. The curators were Andrew Bolton and Harold Koda.
The Anna Wintour Costume Center is a wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art that houses the collection of the Costume Institute. The center is named after Anna Wintour, editor-in-chief of Vogue, artistic director of Condé Nast, and chair of the museum's annual Met Gala since 1995. It was endowed by Lizzie and Jonathan Tisch. As of August 2017, the curator is Andrew Bolton.
Andrew Bolton is a British museum curator and current Head Curator of the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Costume Institute in New York City. Born in Blackburn, Lancashire, UK, Bolton graduated from the University of East Anglia with a BA in Anthropology and an MA in Non-Western Art. In 2017, he was appointed an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Art.
The First Monday in May is a 2016 documentary film directed by Andrew Rossi. The film follows the creation of the Metropolitan Museum of Art's most attended fashion exhibit in history: the 2015 art exhibition China: Through the Looking Glass by curator Andrew Bolton at New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Harold Koda is an American fashion scholar, curator, and the former curator-in-chief of the Anna Wintour Costume Center at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Noa Raviv is an Israeli fashion designer known for her use of grid patterns and employment of 3D printing in her couture creations. She attended Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, graduating in 2014. Collaborating with the tech printing firm Stratasys, she developed, marketed and offered a line of 3D printed garments. Some were exhibited in the exhibition Manus X Machina at the Anna Wintour Costume Center in New York City at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Raviv's work has been as described as manifesting the aesthetic phenomenon of hypertexture.
Sylvana Durrett is director of special projects at Vogue and co-founder and CEO of Maisonette.
Rei Kawakubo/Comme des Garçons Art of the In-Between was an art exhibition about the work of fashion designer Rei Kawakubo and her designs for her fashion house, Comme des Garçons. The exhibition ran from May 4 to September 4, 2017 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. It was curated by Andrew Bolton, who worked closely with Kawakubo to select works for the exhibition. On display were 140 women's costumes spanning the entirety of her career until 2017. This exhibit represents Kawakubo in an immersive world of Gesamtkunstwerk, "total work of art".
“Camp: Notes on Fashion” was the 2019 high fashion art exhibition of the Anna Wintour Costume Center, a wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art (MMA) which houses the collection of the Costume Institute.
"Jacqueline Kennedy: The White House Years – Selections from the John F. Kennedy Library and Museum" was a 2001 exhibition presented by the Costume Institute at the Metropolitan Museum of Art that was timed to mark the "40th anniversary of her "emergence as America’s first lady." Organized by The Metropolitan Museum of Art and the John F. Kennedy Library and Museum, the exhibition was devoted to exploring the former First Lady's iconic style and impact on the fashion world. The exhibition included 80 original costumes and accessories that belonged to Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis that were donated to the JFK Library after she left the White House.
The Model as Muse: Embodying Fashion was an exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art that ran from May 6 to August 9, 2009. It focused on iconic fashion models of the twentieth century who inspired fashion in their respective eras. Organized by historical period from 1947 to 1997, the exhibition was made possible by Marc Jacobs with additional funding from Condé Nast. It was curated by Harold Koda and Kohle Yohannan.