| IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
Std enthalpy of
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Tin(II) hydroxide, Sn(OH)2, also known as stannous hydroxide, is an inorganic compound tin(II). The only related material for which definitive information is available is the oxy hydroxide Sn6O4(OH)4, but other related materials are claimed. They are all white solids that are insoluble in water.
Crystals of Sn6O4(OH)4 has been characterized by X-ray diffraction. This cluster is obtained from solution of basic solutions of tin(II). The compound consists of an octahedron of Sn centers, each face of which is capped by an oxide or a hydroxide. The structure is reminiscent of the Mo6S8 subunit of the Chevrel phases..The structure of pure Sn(OH)2 is not known.
Sn(OH)2 has been claimed to arise from the reaction of (CH3)3SnOH with SnCl2 in an aprotic solvent:
No crystallographic characterization is available on this material.
Stannous hydroxide is easily oxidized to stannic oxide (SnO2) by air.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−. It consists of an oxygen and hydrogen atom held together by a single covalent bond, and carries a negative electric charge. It is an important but usually minor constituent of water. It functions as a base, a ligand, a nucleophile, and a catalyst. The hydroxide ion forms salts, some of which dissociate in aqueous solution, liberating solvated hydroxide ions. Sodium hydroxide is a multi-million-ton per annum commodity chemical. The corresponding electrically neutral compound HO• is the hydroxyl radical. The corresponding covalently bound group –OH of atoms is the hydroxy group. Hydroxide ion and hydroxy group are nucleophiles and can act as catalysts in organic chemistry.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. Tin is a silvery-colored metal that characteristically has a faint yellow hue.
The oxidation state, or oxidation number, is the hypothetical charge of an atom if all of its bonds to different atoms were fully ionic. It describes the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. Conceptually, the oxidation state may be positive, negative or zero. While fully ionic bonds are not found in nature, many bonds exhibit strong ionicity, making oxidation state a useful predictor of charge.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid and as a base. What exactly this can mean depends on which definitions of acids and bases are being used. The prefix of the word 'amphoteric' is derived from a Greek prefix amphi which means "both".
In chemistry the term stannate refers to compounds of tin (Sn). Stannic acid (Sn(OH)4), the formal precursor to stannates, does not exist and is actually a hydrate of SnO2. The term is also used in naming conventions as a suffix; for example the hexachlorostannate ion is SnCl2−
Organotin compounds or stannanes are chemical compounds based on tin with hydrocarbon substituents. Organotin chemistry is part of the wider field of organometallic chemistry. The first organotin compound was diethyltin diiodide ((C2H5)2SnI2), discovered by Edward Frankland in 1849. The area grew rapidly in the 1900s, especially after the discovery of the Grignard reagents, which are useful for producing Sn-C bonds. The area remains rich with many applications in industry and continuing activity in the research laboratory.
Tin(II) chloride, also known as stannous chloride, is a white crystalline solid with the formula SnCl2. It forms a stable dihydrate, but aqueous solutions tend to undergo hydrolysis, particularly if hot. SnCl2 is widely used as a reducing agent (in acid solution), and in electrolytic baths for tin-plating. Tin(II) chloride should not be confused with the other chloride of tin; tin(IV) chloride or stannic chloride (SnCl4).
Tin(II) oxide is a compound with the formula SnO. It is composed of tin and oxygen where tin has the oxidation state of +2. There are two forms, a stable blue-black form and a metastable red form.
Tin(IV) oxide, also known as stannic oxide, is the inorganic compound with the formula SnO2. The mineral form of SnO2 is called cassiterite, and this is the main ore of tin. With many other names, this oxide of tin is an important material in tin chemistry. It is a colourless, diamagnetic, amphoteric solid.
Octahedral clusters are inorganic or organometallic cluster compounds composed of six metals in an octahedral array. Many types of compounds are known, but all are synthetic.
Lead(II) hydroxide, Pb(OH)2, is a hydroxide of lead, with lead in oxidation state +2. In 1964 it was believed that such a simple compound did not exist as Lead basic carbonate (PbCO3·2Pb(OH)2) or lead(II) oxide (PbO) was encountered where lead hydroxide was expected. This has been a subject of considerable confusion in the past. However, subsequent research has demonstrated that lead(II) hydroxide does indeed exist as one of a series of lead hydroxides.
Tin(II) fluoride, commonly referred to commercially as stannous fluoride (from Latin stannum, 'tin'), is a chemical compound with the formula SnF2. It is a colourless solid used as an ingredient in toothpastes.
Trimethyltin chloride is an organotin compound with the formula (CH3)3SnCl. It is a white solid that is highly toxic and malodorous. It is susceptible to hydrolysis.
Barium ferrate is the chemical compound of formula BaFeO4. This is a rare compound containing iron in the +6 oxidation state. The ferrate(VI) ion has two unpaired electrons, making it paramagnetic. It is isostructural with BaSO4, and contains the tetrahedral [FeO4]2− anion.
Germanium dichloride is a chemical compound of germanium and chlorine with the formula GeCl2. It is a solid and contains germanium in the +2 oxidation state.
Tin(IV) fluoride is a chemical compound of tin and fluorine with the chemical formula SnF4 and is a white solid with a melting point above 700 °C.
Cobalt(II) hydroxide or cobaltous hydroxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Co(OH)
2, consisting of divalent cobalt cations Co2+
and hydroxide anions HO−
. The pure compound, often called the "beta form" is a pink solid insoluble in water.
Sodium stannate, formally sodium hexahydroxostannate(IV), is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2[Sn(OH)6]. This colourless salt forms upon dissolving metallic tin or tin(IV) oxide in sodium hydroxide, and is used as a stabiliser for hydrogen peroxide. In older literature, stannates are sometimes represented as having the simple oxyanion SnO32−, in which case this compound is sometimes named as sodium stannate–3–water and represented as Na2SnO3·3H2O, a hydrate with three waters of crystallisation. The anhydrous form of sodium stannate, Na2SnO3, is recognised as a distinct compound with its own CAS Registry Number, 12058-66-1, and a distinct material safety data sheet.
Bismuth oxynitrate is the name applied to a number of compounds that contain Bi3+, nitrate ions and oxide ions and which can be considered as compounds formed from Bi2O3, N2O5 and H2O. Other names for bismuth oxynitrate include bismuth subnitrate and bismuthyl nitrate. In older texts bismuth oxynitrate is often simply described as BiONO3 or basic bismuth nitrate. Bismuth oxynitrate was once called magisterium bismuti or bismutum subnitricum, and was used as a white pigment, in beauty care, and as a gentle disinfectant for internal and external use. It is also used to form Dragendorff reagent, which is used as a TLC stain.
The metallic elements in the periodic table located between the transition metals and the chemically weak nonmetallic metalloids have received many names in the literature, such as post-transition metals, poor metals, other metals, p-block metals and chemically weak metals; none have been recommended by IUPAC. The most common name, post-transition metals, is generally used in this article. Depending on where the adjacent sets of transition metals and metalloids are judged to begin and end, there are at least five competing proposals for which elements to count as post-transition metals: the three most common contain six, ten and thirteen elements, respectively. All proposals include gallium, indium, tin, thallium, lead, and bismuth.