|Shah Karim al-Hussaini|
|Aga Khan IV|
|Imam of Nizari-Ismaili Shia Islam|
|Reign||11 July 1957 – present|
|Installation||19 October 1957|
|Predecessor||Aga Khan III|
|Born||Shah Karim al-Hussaini|
13 December 1936
(m. 1969;div. 1995)
Gabriele Renate Thyssen
(m. 1998;div. 2011)
|Issue|| Zahra Aga Khan |
Rahim Aga Khan
Hussain Aga Khan
Aly Muhammad Aga Khan
|House|| Fatimid |
Nizari Ismaili state
|Father||Prince Aly Khan|
|Mother||Tajuddawlah Aly Khan / Joan Yarde-Buller|
|Religion||Nizari-Ismaili Shia Islam|
|Occupation||Imam (Spritual Leader), Philanthropist, businessman|
Prince Shah Karim Al Hussaini, Aga Khan IV, KBE , CC (Arabic : شاه كريم الحسيني، الآقاخان الرابع; Persian : شاه کریم حسینی، آقاخان چهارم; Urdu : شاه کریم حسینی، آقاخان چهارم; Aga Khan is also transliterated as Aqa Khan and Agha Khan; born 13 December 1936) is the 49th and current Imam of Nizari Ismailism, a denomination of Isma'ilism within Shia Islam with an estimated 10–15 million adherents (10–12% of the world's Shia Muslim population). The Aga Khan is a business magnate with British citizenship, as well as a racehorse owner and breeder. He has held this position of Imam, under the title of Aga Khan IV, since 11 July 1957, when, at the age of 20, he succeeded his grandfather, Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah Aga Khan III. It is believed that the Aga Khan is a direct lineal descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Ali, considered the first Imam in Shia Islam, and Ali's wife Fatima az-Zahra, Muhammad's daughter from his first marriage.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.
The Nizaris are the largest segment of the Ismaili Shi'i Muslims, who are the second-largest branch of Shia Islam, second only to the largest, the Twelver. Nizari teachings emphasize human reasoning, or ijtihad—using educated, independent reasoning in solving legal questions; pluralism—the acceptance of racial, ethnic, cultural and inter-religious differences; and social justice. The Aga Khan, currently Aga Khan IV, is the spiritual leader and Imam of the Nizaris. The global seat of the Ismaili Imamate is in Lisbon, Portugal.
Ismāʿīlism is a branch of Shia Islam. The Ismāʿīlī get their name from their acceptance of Imam Isma'il ibn Jafar as the appointed spiritual successor (imām) to Ja'far al-Sadiq, wherein they differ from the Twelvers who accept Musa al-Kadhim, younger brother of Isma'il, as the true Imām.
Forbes describes the Aga Khan as one of the world's ten richest royals with an estimated net worth of US$3 billion. Additionally he is unique among the richest royals as he does not rule over a geographic territory.Among the goals the Aga Khan has said he works toward are the elimination of global poverty; the promotion and implementation of religious pluralism; the advancement of the status of women; and the honouring of Islamic art and architecture. He is the founder and chairman of the Aga Khan Development Network, one of the largest private development networks in the world. The organisation works toward improvement of the environment, health, education, architecture, culture, microfinance, rural development, disaster reduction, the promotion of private-sector enterprise and the revitalisation of historic cities.
Forbes is an American business magazine. Published bi-weekly, it features original articles on finance, industry, investing, and marketing topics. Forbes also reports on related subjects such as technology, communications, science, politics, and law. Its headquarters is located in Jersey City, New Jersey. Primary competitors in the national business magazine category include Fortune and Bloomberg Businessweek. The magazine is well known for its lists and rankings, including of the richest Americans, of the world's top companies, and The World's Billionaires. The motto of Forbes magazine is "The Capitalist Tool". Its chair and editor-in-chief is Steve Forbes, and its CEO is Mike Federle. In 2014, it was sold to a Hong Kong-based investment group, Integrated Whale Media Investments.
Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced in the Islamic world. Islamic art is difficult to characterize because it covers a wide range of lands, periods, and genres, including Islamic architecture, Islamic calligraphy, Islamic miniature, Islamic glass, Islamic pottery, and textile arts such as carpets and embroidery.
Islamic architecture comprises the architectural styles of buildings associated with Islam. It encompasses both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day. Early Islamic architecture was influenced by Roman, Byzantine, Persian, Mesopotamian and all other lands which the Muslims conquered in the 7th and 8th centuries. Further east, it was also influenced by Chinese and Indian architecture as Islam spread to Southeast Asia. Later it developed distinct characteristics in the form of buildings, and the decoration of surfaces with Islamic calligraphy and geometric and interlace patterned ornament. The principal Islamic architectural types for large or public buildings are: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort. From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths, fountains and domestic architecture.
Since his ascension to the Imamate of Nizari Ismailis in 1957, the Aga Khan has been involved in complex political and economic changes which have affected his Nizari Ismaili followers, including the independence of African countries from colonial rule, expulsion of Asians from Uganda, the independence of Central Asian countries such as Tajikistan from the former Soviet Union and the continuous turmoil in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Aga Khan IV became the first faith leader to address the Joint Session of the Parliament of Canada on 27 February 2014.
In early August 1972, the President of Uganda, Idi Amin, ordered the expulsion of his country's South Asian minority, giving them 90 days to leave the country. At the time of the expulsion, there were approximately 80,000 individuals of South Asian descent in Uganda, of whom 23,000 had had their applications for citizenship both processed and accepted. Although the latter were ultimately exempted from the expulsion, many chose to leave voluntarily. The expulsion took place against a backdrop of Indophobia in Uganda, with Amin accusing a minority of the Asian population of disloyalty, non-integration and commercial malpractice, claims Indian leaders disputed. Amin defended the expulsion by arguing that he was "giving Uganda back to ethnic Ugandans".
Tajikistan, officially the Republic of Tajikistan, is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an area of 143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi) and an estimated population of 9,275,828 people. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east. The traditional homelands of the Tajik people include present-day Tajikistan as well as parts of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres (4,500 mi) north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.
Born Prince Karim Aga Khan, the Aga Khan IV is the eldest son of Prince Aly Khan (1911–1960), and his first wife, the Hon. Princess Tajuddawlah Aly Khan, formerly the Hon. Joan Yarde-Buller (1908–1997), the eldest daughter of British peer 3rd Baron Churston.
Prince Ali Salman Aga Khan, known as Aly Khan, was a son of Sultan Mahommed Shah, Aga Khan III, the leader of the Nizārī Ismaili Muslims, a sect of Shia Islam, and the father of Aga Khan IV.
Hon. Joan Barbara Yarde-Buller was an English socialite, one of the Bright Young Things.
John Reginald Lopes Yarde-Buller, 3rd Baron Churston, MVO, OBE was a British peer and soldier. He is the grandfather of Karim Aga Khan, leader of the Nizari Ismailis, an Islamic sect.
Born in Geneva, Switzerland, on 13 December 1936, Prince Karim was declared healthy despite being born prematurely.The Aga Khan's brother, Amyn Aga Khan, was born less than a year later. Their parents divorced in 1949, in part due to Prince Aly Khan's extramarital affairs, and Prince Aly Khan shortly after married American actress Rita Hayworth – with whom he had a daughter, Princess Yasmin Aga Khan, the half-sister of Aga Khan IV.
Prince Amyn Muhammad Aga Khan is the younger brother of Aga Khan IV, Imam of the Nizari Isma'ili sect of Shia Islam. He is the son of Prince Aly Khan and Princess Tajuddawlah Aly Khan.
Rita Hayworth was an American actress and dancer. She achieved fame during the 1940s as one of the era's top stars, appearing in 61 films over 37 years. The press coined the term "The Love Goddess" to describe Hayworth after she had become the most glamorous screen idol of the 1940s. She was the top pin-up girl for GIs during World War II.
The Aga Khan IV also had a half-brother, Patrick Benjamin Guinness (1931–1965), from his mother's first marriage, as Joan Yarde-Buller was previously married to Loel Guinness of the banking Guinnesses.
The Guinness family is an extensive aristocratic Irish family noted for their accomplishments in brewing, banking, politics, and religious ministry. They are particularly known among the general public for producing the dry stout, Guinness Beer. The founder of the dynasty, Arthur Guinness, is confirmed to have had McCartan origins. Beginning in the late 18th century, they became a prominent part of what is known in Ireland as 'the Ascendancy'.
Prince Karim spent his childhood in Nairobi, Kenya, [ citation needed ]. Prince Karim later attended the Institut Le Rosey in Switzerland, the most expensive boarding school in Europe, for nine years where he ended up with, in his words, "fair grades." As a youngster Prince Karim would have preferred to attend MIT and study science, but his grandfather, Aga Khan III, vetoed the decision and Prince Karim attended Harvard University where he was elected a member of The Delphic Club. There he majored in oriental history .where his early education was by private tutoring. His grandfather, Aga Khan III, engaged Mustafa Kamil, a teacher from Aligarh Muslim University, for both Prince Karim and Prince Amyn
When his grandfather died, the young Prince was thrust into the position of the Aga Khan (IV), and he went from being not only a university student but also replacing his grandfather as the new Nizari Imam. He said about it: "Overnight, my whole life changed completely. I woke up with serious responsibilities toward millions of other human beings. I knew I would have to abandon my hopes of studying for a doctorate in History."The Aga Khan IV graduated from Harvard in 1959, two years after becoming the Imam of the Nizari Ismailis, with a Bachelor of Arts degree in History (with Cum Laude honours) and his varsity H for football.
The young Aga Khan was a competitive downhill skier, and he skied for Iran (at that time led by the Shah) in the 1964 Winter Olympics.
The Aga Khan married his first wife, former British model Sarah Frances Croker-Poole, who assumed the name Begum Salimah Aga Khan, on 22 October 1969 (civil) and 28 October 1969 (religious), at his home in Paris. The couple were married for 25 years, during which they had three children. By 1984, the Aga Khan and Begum Salimah took to separate lives.However, their marriage did not officially end by divorce until eleven years later, in 1995. The Aga Khan and Begum Salimah had one daughter and two sons together:
The Aga Khan married for the second time to Gabriele Renate Thyssen, who assumed the name Begum Inaara Aga Khan, at his walled compound and chateau, Aiglemont, in Gouvieux, France, on 30 May 1998. However, a little over six years later, on 8 October 2004, an announcement was made that the Aga Khan and Begum Inaara were to seek a divorce.In September 2011, a divorce settlement was reached in French courts. The divorce settlement amount was agreed to by both the Aga Khan and the Begum in March 2014. By Begum Inaara, the Aga Khan has a son:
Following the death of his grandfather the Aga Khan III, Prince Karim, at the age of 20, became the 49th Imam of the Nizari Ismailis and Aga Khan IV, bypassing his father, Prince Aly Khan, and his uncle, Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, who were in direct line to succession. In his will, the Aga Khan III explained the rationale for choosing his eldest grandson as his successor (which marked the second time in the history of the Nizari Ismaili chain of Imamat that a grandson of the preceding Imam – instead of one of the sons of the preceding Imam – was made the next Imam):
In view of the fundamentally altered conditions in the world has provoked many changes, including the discoveries of atomic science, I am convinced that it is in the best interests of the Nizari Ismaili community that I should be succeeded by a young man who has been brought up and developed during recent years and in the midst of the new age, and who brings a new outlook on life to his office.
In light of his grandfather's will, the Aga Khan IV has sometimes been referred to by Nizari Ismailis as the "Imam of the Atomic Age."The will of the Aga Khan III added that the next Aga Khan, in the first several years of his Imamat, should look to the Aga Khan III's widow for guidance on general matters pertaining to the Imamat:
I DESIRE that my successor shall, during the first seven years of his Imamat, be guided on questions of general Imamat Policy, by my said wife, Yvette called Yve Blanche Labrousse Om Habibeh, the BEGUM AGA KHAN, who has been familiar for many years with the problems facing my followers, and in whose wise judgment, I place the greatest confidence.
Upon taking the position of Imam, the Aga Khan IV stated that he intended to continue the work his grandfather had pursued in building modern institutions to improve the quality of life of the Nizari Ismailis. [ citation needed ].Takht nashini (installation of the new Imam) ceremonies occurred at several locations over the course of 1957 and 1958. During this time, the Aga Khan emphasized to his followers the importance of fostering positive relations with different ethnicities – a message highly appropriate considering the racially tense atmosphere in East Africa at the time between blacks and South Asians. During the Aga Khan's installation ceremonies in the Indian subcontinent, the Aga Khan stressed his commitment to improving the standard of living of Nizari Ismailis and encouraged co-operation with individuals of other religions. The main themes that the Aga Khan emphasised to his community during these first few months of his Imamat were material development, education, interracial harmony, and confidence in religion
In 1972, under the regime of President Idi Amin of Uganda, people of South Asian origin, including Nizari Ismailis, were expelled. The South Asians, some of whose families had lived in Uganda for over 100 years, were given 90 days to leave the country.The Aga Khan phoned his long-time friend Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. Trudeau's government agreed to allow thousands of Nizari Ismailis to immigrate to Canada. The Aga Khan also undertook urgent steps to facilitate the resettlement of Nizari Ismailis displaced from Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, and Burma, to other countries. Most of these Nizari Ismailis found new homes in Asia, Europe and North America. Most of the initial resettlement problems were overcome remarkably rapidly by Nizari Ismailis due to their educational backgrounds and high rates of literacy, as well as the efforts of the Aga Khan and the host countries, and moral and material support from Nizari Ismaili community programs.
The Aga Khan has encouraged Nizari Ismailis settled in the industrialised world to contribute towards the progress of communities in the developing world through various development programs.He has described his role as Imam as being partly to uplift the material and spiritual wellbeing of Nizari Ismailis – a duty which requires an understanding of Nizari Ismailis in the context of their geographic location and their time. He elaborated on this concept in a 2006 speech in Germany, saying "The role and responsibility of an Imam, therefore, is both to interpret the faith to the community, and also to do all within his means to improve the quality, and security, of their daily lives and the people with whom Ismailis share their lives." This engagement of the Aga Khan with Nizari Ismailis is said to extend to the people with whom the Nizari Ismailis share their lives, locally and internationally.
The Aga Khan is one of several Shia signatories of the Amman Message which gives a broad foundation for defining those denominations of Islam that should be considered as part of the wider Muslim Ummah.
During the Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy, he said:
I have two reactions to the pope's lecture: There is my concern about the degradation of relations and, at the same time, I see an opportunity. A chance to talk about a serious, important issue: the relationship between religion and logic.
When the Aga Khan IV was asked about his view on the consumption of alcohol in a 1965 interview with The Sunday Times , he said, in line with Muslim teaching:
Our belief is that the thing which separates man from the animals is his power of thought. Anything that impedes this process is wrong. Therefore, alcohol is forbidden. I have never touched alcohol. But this, to me, is not a puritan prohibition. I don't want to drink. I've never wanted to drink. There's no pressure being placed on me by my religion.
|Part of a series on Shīa Islam |
The Ismailis are a community of Shi'a Islam, and their theology is derived from the teachings of the Shi'i Imams – 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad al-Baqir and Ja'far al-Sadiq. According to early Shi'i Ismaili theology, God or Allah is absolutely transcendent and unique.Unlike Sunni theology where God's Essence is conjoined to eternal attributes, the early Shi'i Imams emphasized a theology according to which God's Essence is beyond all names and attributes. The first creation of God is a spiritual entity (Ruhani) or light (nur) called the Intellect ('Aql), the Light of Muhammad (nur Muhammad) or the Light of Ali. This cosmic Intellect or Light exists prior to the creation of the physical world and is the highest of created beings is identified with the Eternal Imam or the spiritual essence of the Prophet Muhammad and the Shi'i Imams. The historical Imams on earth are the locus of manifestation (mazhar) of the Light (nur) or Intellect (aql). Ismaili philosophers developed these ideas further using Neoplatonic frameworks and identified the Intellect ('Aql) or Light of the Imam with the Universal Intellect (Nous) of Plotinus. Similarly, the Imam's human soul – revered as pure based on Qur'an 33:33 – is regarded as the reflective mirror of the Universal Intellect.
The 1975 Ismailia Association Conference – a meeting of the Aga Khan with senior Nizari Ismaili council leaders from several countries – addressed the question of the status of the Imam. It mentioned:
"The Imam to be explained as the 'mazhar' ["locus of manifestation"] of God, and the relationship between God and the Imam to be related to varying levels of inspiration and communication from God to man."Paris Conference Report
The term mazhar is also used in Sufi literature by Ibn 'Arabi ("Bezels of Wisdom"), Nasir al-Din al-Tusi ("Contemplation and Action", "The Paradise of Submission") and many others. The meaning of the word mazhar denotes the idea of a mirror in which an object is reflected as an image but not incarnate. Similarly, the Imam as mazhar (locus of manifestation, mirror) 'differs greatly' from the idea of incarnation or indwelling (hulul) in which the Divine dwells inside a material body. The Imam is not seen as an incarnation of divinity. The Imam is also the Pir (Sufism) within Nizari Ismailism denoting a title from the Sufi heritage of Nizari Ismaili history.
From 11 July 1982 to 11 July 1983 – to celebrate the present Aga Khan's Silver Jubilee, marking the 25th anniversary of his accession to the Imamat – many new social and economic development projects were launched.These range from the establishment of the US$450 million international Aga Khan University with its Faculty of Health Sciences and teaching hospital based in Karachi, the expansion of schools for girls and medical centres in the Hunza region (one of the remote parts of Northern Pakistan bordering on China and Afghanistan that is densely populated with Nizari Ismailis), to the establishment of the Aga Khan Rural Support Program in Gujarat, India – and the extension of existing urban hospitals and primary health care centres in Tanzania and Kenya. Noor Karimi was married during the Silver Jubilee Year of Imamat and he even placed the ring on her finger.
11 July 2007 to 13 December 2008 marked the 50th Anniversary of the Aga Khan's reign of Imamat (Golden Jubilee). On this occasion, leaders representing Nizari Ismailis from different areas of the world gathered at the Aga Khan's residence to pay homage to the Imam.As part of the Golden Jubilee, the Aga Khan made official visits to various countries – using the visits to recognize the friendship and longstanding support of certain leaders of state, government, and others, to the Aga Khan and his Nizari Ismaili community, as well as to lay the foundations for certain future initiatives and programmes. Areas of the world visited included the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa. The Aga Khan also organized a Nizari Ismaili sports meet in Kenya, and teams of Nizari Ismailis from different areas of the world came to play in this event.
One of the initiatives of the Golden Jubilee was the Jubilee Games, firstly named as the Golden Jubilee Games but continued as the Jubilee Games. The first of the event held in Kenya in 2008. The second Jubilee Games were held in Dubai, UAE in July 2016.
11 July 2017 to 11 July 2018 has been designated the Diamond Jubilee Year of the Aga Khan's 60th year of reign.The Aga Khan travelled throughout the Diamond Jubilee year to countries where his humanitarian institutions operate to launch new programs that help alleviate poverty and increase access to education, housing and childhood development. The Aga Khan's Diamond Jubilee opening ceremony was held in his Aiglemont estate. On 8 March 2018, Queen Elizabeth hosted the Aga Khan at Windsor Castle at a dinner to mark his Diamond Jubilee. He has visited a number of countries including the United States, UAE, India, Pakistan, Canada, France, UK, Kenya, and others. During his visit to Houston, he announced The Ismaili Centre Houston. The Diamond Jubilee ended with a grand celebration in Lisbon, Portugal on 11 July 2018. People from around the world came to celebrate with their worldwide community. There were many concerts, a Jubilee Arts festival, and other events planned for tens of thousands of people. Following a historic agreement with the Portuguese Republic in 2015, His Highness the Aga Khan officially designated the premises located at Rua Marquês de Fronteira in Lisbon – the Henrique de Mendonça Palace – as the Seat of the Ismaili Imamat on July 11, 2018, and declared that it be known as the "Diwan of the Ismaili Imamat".
The Aga Khan is the founder and chairman of the Aga Khan Development Network, which coordinates the activities of over 200 agencies and institutions, employing approximately 80,000 paid staff, the majority of whom are based in developing countries. [ citation needed ]. The network operates in more than 35 of the poorest countries in the world.AKDN is partly funded by his followers and donor partners that include numerous governments and several international organisations. AKDN agencies operate in the fields of health, education, culture, rural development, institution-building and the promotion of economic development, with a special focus on countries of the Third World. It is dedicated to improving living conditions and opportunities for the poor, without regard to their faith, origin or sex. The AKDN's annual budget for non-profit development activities in 2010 was approximately US$625 million
AKDN includes the Aga Khan University, the University of Central Asia, the for-profit Aga Khan Fund for Economic Development, the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, the Aga Khan Foundation, the Aga Khan Health Services, the Aga Khan Education Services, the Aga Khan Planning and Building Services, and the Aga Khan Agency for Microfinance. One of the companies that the AKFED is the main shareholder of is the Serena Hotels Group– a chain of luxury hotels and resorts primarily located in Africa and Asia. Despite the Quranic prohibition on alcohol (a prohibition that is accepted by Nizari Ismailis ), many of Serena's properties have bars and serve alcohol to guests – including in Muslim nations like Pakistan. The Aga Khan Award for Architecture is the largest architectural award in the world. The Aga Khan is also the chairman of the Board of Governors of the Institute of Ismaili Studies, which he founded in 1977. He is also a Vice-President of the Royal Commonwealth Society.
Focus Humanitarian Assistance, an affiliate of the AKDN, is responsible for emergency response in the face of disaster. Recent disasters that FOCUS was involved in helping address include the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan (AKDN earthquake response) and the South Asian tsunami.
Significant recent or current projects that are related to development and that are being led by the Aga Khan include the Delegation of the Ismaili Imamat and the Global Centre for Pluralism in Ottawa, the Aga Khan Museum in Toronto, the Al-Azhar Park in Cairo, the Bagh-e Babur restoration in Kabul, and a network of full IB residential schools known as the Aga Khan Academies.
The Aga Khan has expressed concern about the work of the AKDN being described as philanthropy. In his address to the Evangelische Akademie Tutzing, when he was awarded their Tolerance Prize in 2006, he described this concern:
Reflecting a certain historical tendency of the West to separate the secular from the religious, they often describe [the work of the AKDN] either as philanthropy or entrepreneurship. What is not understood is that this work is for us a part of our institutional responsibility – it flows from the mandate of the office of Imam to improve the quality of worldly life for the concerned communities.
In 1977, the Aga Khan established the Aga Khan Award for Architecture, an award recognising excellence in architecture that encompasses contemporary design and social, historical, and environmental considerations. It is the largest architectural award in the world (prize money for which is a million US dollars) and is granted triennially.The award grew out of the Aga Khan's desire to revitalise creativity in Islamic societies and acknowledge creative solutions for buildings facilities and public spaces. The prize winner is selected by an independent master jury convened for each cycle.
In 1979, Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) established the Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture (AKPIA), which is supported by an endowment from Aga Khan. These programs provide degree courses, public lectures, and conferences for the study of Islamic architecture and urbanism. Understanding contemporary conditions and developmental issues are key components of the academic program.The program engages in research at both institutions and students can graduate with a Master of Science of Architectural Studies specialising in the Aga Khan program from MIT's Department of Architecture.
Forbes describes the Aga Khan as one of the world's ten richest royals, one rank richer than the Sultan of Oman, with an estimated net worth of US$1 billion (2010).Additionally he is unique among the richest royals as he does not preside over a geographic territory. He owns hundreds of racehorses, valuable stud farms, an exclusive yacht club on Sardinia, a private island in the Bahamas, two Bombardier jets, a £100 million high speed yacht Alamshar, named after his prize racehorse, and several estates around the world, with his primary residence at Aiglemont estate in the town of Gouvieux, France, north of Paris. The Aga Khan's philanthropic non-profit institutions spend about US$925 million per year – mainly in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East.
The Aga Khan is and has been involved in multiple business ventures, in such areas as communications media and luxury hotels. In 1959 he founded the Kenyan media company Nation Media Group.In the 1990s, the Aga Khan had a group of US$400 a night Italian luxury hotels, called Ciga. Currently the Aga Khan, through his for-profit AKFED, is the largest shareholder in the Serena Hotels chain. The Aga Khan's racing horse businesses bring in considerable income. He owns and operates the largest horse racing and breeding operation in France, the French horse auction house, Arqana, Gilltown Stud near Kilcullen in Ireland, and other breeding/stud farms in Europe.
In 2009, Forbes reported that the Aga Khan's net worth was US$800 million, after a decline of $200 million over the course of the previous year.In 2013, Vanity Fair estimated his fortune to be well over US$1 billion.
At his self-titled estate Aiglemont, in the town of Gouvieux in the Picardy region of France – about 4 kilometres west of the Chantilly Racecourse – the Aga Khan operates the largest horse racing and breeding operation in the country.[ citation needed ] In 1977, he paid £1.3 million for the bloodstock owned by Anna Dupré and in 1978, £4.7 million for the bloodstock of Marcel Boussac.
The Aga Khan is said to be France's most influential owner-breeder and record winner of The Prix de Diane, sometimes referred to as the French Oaks.
The Aga Khan owns Gilltown Stud near Kilcullen, Ireland, and the Haras de Bonneval breeding farm at Le Mesnil-Mauger in France. In March 2005, he purchased the Calvados stud farms, the Haras d'Ouilly in Pont-d'Ouilly and the Haras de Val-Henry in Livarot.Haras d'Ouilly had been owned by such horsemen as the Duc Decazes, François Dupré and Jean-Luc Lagardère.
In 2006 the Aga Khan became the majority shareholder of French horse auction house Arqana.
On 27 October 2009 it was announced that Sea The Stars, regarded by many as one of the greatest racehorses of all time, would stand stud at the Aga Khan's Gilltown Stud in Ireland.
His unbeaten homebred filly, Zarkava, won the 2008 Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe. His homebred colt, Harzand, won the 2016 Epsom Derby and the 2016 Irish Derby.
The Aga Khan is an ardent yachtsman who co-founded the Yacht Club Costa Smeralda in Porto Cervo, Sardinia in 1967. He commissioned a 164-foot yacht, named Alamshar, with a price tag of £200 million; the cost and maintenance are partly covered by chartering. The yacht is named after a prized racehorse of his, and was supposed to have a top speed of 60 knots as part of his hope of setting a new transatlantic speed record. However, the yacht only reached a top speed of 30 knots in its initial trials.
The title Prince(ss) is used by the Aga Khans and their children by virtue of their descent from Shah Fath Ali Shah of the Persian Qajar dynasty. The title was officially recognised by the British government in 1938.
Author Farhad Daftary wrote of how the honorific title 'Aga Khan' (from agha and khan) was first given to Aga Khan I at the age of thirteen after the murder of his father: "At the same time, the Qajar monarch bestowed on him the honorific title (laqab) of Agha Khan (also transcribed as Aqa Khan), meaning lord and master." Daftary additionally commented, "The title of Agha Khan remained hereditary amongst his successors."On the other hand, in a legal proceeding, the Aga Khan III noted that 'Aga Khan' is not a title, but, instead a sort of alias or "pet name" that was given to Aga Khan I when he was a young man.
The style of 'His Highness' was formally granted to the Aga Khan IV by Queen Elizabeth II in 1957 upon the death of his grandfather Aga Khan III.The granting of the title to the Aga Khan IV was preceded by a strong expressed desire of the Aga Khan III to see the British monarchy award the non-hereditary title to his successor. The style of His Royal Highness was granted in 1959 to the Aga Khan IV by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran, later overthrown in the Iranian Revolution of 1979, but he uses instead His Highness. Over the years, the Aga Khan has received numerous honours, honorary degrees, and awards.
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|Ancestors of Aga Khan IV|
Sir Sultan Mahomed Shah, Aga Khan III was the 48th Imam of the Nizari Ismaili religion. He was one of the founders and the first president of the All-India Muslim League (AIML). His goal was the advancement of Muslim agendas and protection of Muslim rights in India. The League, until the late 1930s, was not a large organisation but represented the landed and commercial Muslim interests of the British-ruled 'United Provinces'. He shared Sir Syed Ahmad Khan's belief that Muslims should first build up their social capital through advanced education before engaging in politics. Aga Khan called on the British Raj to consider Muslims to be a separate nation within India, the so-called 'Two Nation Theory'. Even after he resigned as president of the AIML in 1912, he still exerted major influence on its policies and agendas. He was nominated to represent India to the League of Nations in 1932 and served as President of the League of Nations from 1937–38.
Aga Khan is a title held by the Imām of the Nizari Ismāʿīli Shias. Since 1957, the holder of the title has been the 49th Imām, Prince Shah Karim al-Husseini, Aga Khan IV.
Jamatkhana is an amalgamation derived from the Arabic word jama‘a (gathering) and the Persian word khana. It is a term used by some Muslim communities around the world, particularly sufi ones, to denote a place of gathering. Among some communities of Muslims, the term is often used interchangeably with the Arabic word Musallah. The Nizārī Ismā'īlī community uses the term Jama'at Khana to denote their places of worship.
The Khojas are a Nizari-Isma'ili Shia community of people originating in India. The word Khoja derives from Khwāja, a Persian honorific title (خواجه) of pious individuals used in Turco-Persian influenced areas of the Muslim world.
The Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN) is a network of private, non-denominational development agencies founded by the Aga Khan, which work primarily in the poorest parts of Asia and Africa. Aga Khan IV succeeded to the office of the 49th hereditary Imam as spiritual and administrative leader of the Shia faith rooted Nizari Ismaili Muslim supranational union in 1957. Ismailis consist of an estimated 25-30 million adherents. The network focuses on health, education, culture, rural development, institution building and the promotion of economic development. The AKDN aims to improve living conditions and opportunities for the poor, without regard to their faith, origin or gender. Its annual budget for not-for-profit activities is approximately US $ 600 million – mainly in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The AKDN works in 30 countries around the world, and it employs over 80,000 paid staff, mostly in developing countries. While the agencies are secular, they are guided by Islamic ethics, which bridge faith and society.
Imamat Day is celebrated by Nizari Ismaili Shiʿi Muslims to mark the anniversary of the day that their present (Hazar) Imam succeeded his predecessor to become the Imam of the Time.
Princess Gabriele of Leiningen, formerly Begum Inaara Aga Khan, also previously known as Princess Inaara Aga Khan, and was the second wife of the Aga Khan IV, the 49th Imam of the Nizari branch of the Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims; from May 1998 to March 2014, she held the title Begum Aga Khan.
The Global Centre for Pluralism is an international centre for research, education and exchange about the values, practices and policies that underpin pluralist societies. Based in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, the Centre seeks to assist the creation of successful societies and was founded on the premise that tolerance, openness and understanding towards the cultures, social structures, values and faiths of other peoples are now essential to the survival of an interdependent world.
The Delegation of the Ismaili Imamat in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, a building of the Aga Khan Foundation Canada located between the Embassy of Saudi Arabia and the Lester B. Pearson Building on Sussex Drive. It was opened in 2008.
Ginans are devotional hymns or poems recited by Shia Ismaili Muslims.
M. Ali Lakhani, is a writer, lawyer, and editor whose works focus on metaphysics and the perennial principles found in the wisdom traditions of the world.
Holy Du'ā is the mandatory Nizari Isma'ili prayer recited three times a day: Fajr prayer at dawn, Maghrib prayer at sundown and Isha prayer in the evening. Each Holy Du'a consists of 6 rakat, totaling 18 per day, as opposed to the 17 of Sunni and Twelver salat (namaz).
Nizari Ismaili Muslims around the globe are governed by one universal constitution known as "The World Constitution".
The History of Nizari Isma'ilism from the founding of Islam covers a period of over 1400 years. It begins with Muhammad's mission to restore to humanity the universality and knowledge of the oneness of the divine within the Abrahamic tradition, through the final message and what the Shia believe was the appointment of Ali as successor and guardian of that message with both the spiritual and temporal authority of Muhammad through the institution of the Imamate.
The Ismaili Centre, Toronto is a mosque and community centre in Toronto, Canada, the sixth such Ismaili Centre in the world. Situated in a park that it shares with the Aga Khan Museum adjacent to the Don Valley Parkway in North York, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the Centre represents the permanent presence of the Ismaili Muslim community in Toronto and Canada. The building was opened by Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper and His Highness Prince Karim Aga Khan on September 12, 2014.
The Imamate in Nizārī Ismā'īlī doctrine is a concept in Nizari Isma'ilism which defines the political, religious and spiritual dimensions of authority concerning Islamic leadership over the nation of believers. The primary function of the Imamate is to establish an institution between an Imam who is present and living in the world and his following whereby each are granted rights and responsibilities.