A border barrier is a separation barrier that runs along or near an international border. Such barriers are typically constructed for border control purposes such as curbing illegal immigration, human trafficking, and smuggling.Some such barriers are constructed for defence or security reasons. In cases of a disputed or unclear border, erecting a barrier can serve as a de facto unilateral consolidation of a territorial claim that can supersede formal delimitation. A border barrier does not usually indicate the location of the actual border, and is usually constructed unilaterally by a country, without the agreement or cooperation of the other country.
Examples of border walls include the ancient Great Wall of China, a series of walls separating China from nomadic empires to the north. The construction of border barriers increased in the early 2000s; half of all the border barriers built since World War II which ended in 1945, were built after 2000.
Note: The table can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the icon.
|Belize–Guatemala||Belize and Guatemala||Proposed, agreed||N/A||Disputed territory and anti-illegal immigration|
|Botswana–Zimbabwe||Botswana and Zimbabwe||2003||500||Anti-illegal immigration|
|Brunei–Malaysia||Brunei and the city of Limbang, Malaysia||2005||20||Anti-illegal immigration|
|Bulgaria–Turkey barrier||Bulgaria and Turkey||2014||30||Anti-illegal immigration|
|Ceuta border fence||Spain and Morocco||2001||8||Anti-illegal immigration|
|China–Hong Kong||Hong Kong and China||1960s – early||32||Anti-illegal immigration|
|Costa Rica–Nicaragua||Costa Rica and Nicaragua||Proposed||N/A||Anti-illegal immigration|
|Green Line (Cyprus)||Cyprus and Northern Cyprus||1964||180||Buffer Zone|
|Chinese–Korean border fence||China and North Korea||Under construction||1,416||Anti-illegal immigration|
|Egypt–Gaza barrier||Egypt and Gaza Strip||1979, subterranean barrier under construction||3.1||Anti-terrorism and anti-illegal immigration|
|Estonia–Russia barrier||Estonia and Russia||Planned||106–108||Against Russian intrusion, illegal trade and illegal immigration|
|Greece–Turkey border||Greece and Turkey||2012||200||Anti-illegal immigration|
|North Macedonia–Greece barrier||North Macedonia and Greece||2015||30||Anti-illegal immigration|
|Malaysia–Thailand border||Thailand and Malaysia||Proposed||650||Anti-terrorism|
|Melilla border fence||Spain and Morocco||1998||11||Anti-illegal immigration|
|Hungary–Serbia barrier||Hungary and Serbia||2015||175||Anti-illegal immigration|
|Hungary–Croatia barrier||Hungary and Croatia||2015||41||Anti-illegal immigration|
|India–Bangladesh barrier||India and Bangladesh||Under construction||3,268||Anti-illegal immigration|
|India–Myanmar barrier||India and Myanmar||Under construction||1,624||Anti-drug smuggling and anti-terrorism|
|India–Pakistan barrier||India Pakistan||2004||550||Anti-terrorism.|
|Iran–Pakistan barrier||Iran and Pakistan||Under construction||959||Anti-terrorism and Anti-drug smuggling|
|Kazakhstan–Uzbekistan barrier||Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan||2006||45||Anti-drug smuggling|
|Korean Demilitarized Zone||North Korea and South Korea||1953||248||Conflict zone|
|Kruger National Park||South Africa and Mozambique||1975||120||Anti-illegal immigration|
|South Africa–Zimbabwe Border||South Africa and Zimbabwe||2000s||225||Anti-illegal immigration, anti-drug smuggling, anti-weapon smuggling|
|Kuwait–Iraq barrier||Kuwait and Iraq||1991||193||Conflict zone|
|Libya–Tunisia barrier||Libya and Tunisia||TBA||460||Anti-Terrorism, Anti-illegal immigration|
|Norway–Russia border barrier||Norway and Russia||2016||200||Anti-illegal immigration|
|Pakistan–Afghanistan barrier||Pakistan and Afghanistan||Under construction||2,670||Anti-terrorism, anti-illegal immigration, anti drug smuggling|
|Saudi–Yemen barrier||Saudi Arabia and Yemen||2004||75||Anti-illegal immigration|
|Saudi–Iraq barrier||Saudi Arabia and Iraq||2014||900||Anti-illegal immigration and conflict zone|
|Slovenia–Croatia barrier||Slovenia and Croatia||under construction||220||Anti-illegal immigration|
|Serbia–North Macedonia barrier||Serbia and North Macedonia||2020||240||Anti-illegal immigration|
|Turkey–Syria border barrier||Turkey and Syria||Under construction||828||Anti-terrorism, anti-illegal immigration and smuggling|
|Turkey–Iran border barrier||Turkey and Iran||Under construction||144||Anti-terrorism, anti-illegal immigration and smuggling|
|Turkmen–Uzbekistan barrier||Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan||2001||1,700||Anti-illegal immigration|
|Ukraine–Russia barrier||Ukraine and Russia||Under construction||2,000||Anti Weapon Smuggling and Conflict zone|
|United Arab Emirates–Oman barrier||United Arab Emirates and Oman||Under construction||410||Anti-illegal immigration|
|Mexico–United States barrier||United States and Mexico||Partially Constructed||1,000||Anti-illegal immigration and smuggling|
|Uzbek–Afghanistan barrier||Uzbekistan and Afghanistan||2001||209||Anti-illegal immigration|
|Uzbek–Kyrgyzstan barrier||Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan||1999||870||Conflict zone|
|Israel-West Bank barrier||Israel and Palestine||Partially Completed||708||Anti-terrorism (disputed territory)|
|Israel-Egypt barrier||Israel and Egypt||2013||245||Anti-illegal immigration|
|Israel-Lebanon barrier||Israel and Lebanon||2018||11||Conflict zone|
|Israel-Gaza barrier||Israel and Gaza Strip||1994||N/A||Anti-terrorism|
In 2003, Botswana began building a 480-kilometre-long (300 mi) electric fence along its border with Zimbabwe. The official reason for the fence is to stop the spread of foot-and-mouth disease among livestock. Zimbabweans argue that the height of the fence is clearly intended to keep out people. Botswana has responded that the fence is designed to keep out cattle, and to ensure that entrants have their shoes disinfected at legal border crossings. Botswana also argued that the government continues to encourage legal movement into the country. Zimbabwe was unconvinced, and the barrier remains a source of tension.
The Ceuta border fence was erected in 1993 at the Morocco–Spain border at Ceuta, a city on the North African coast that is Spanish territory in order to block the entrance of illegal immigrants to Spain.
The Melilla border fence stands at the Morocco–Spain border at Melilla, a city on the North African coast that is Spanish territory, in order to block the entrance of illegal immigrants to Spain.
The Moroccan Wall is an approximately 2,700 kilometres (1,700 mi) long structure, mostly a sand wall (or "berm"), running through the region of Western Sahara and the southeastern portion of Morocco. It acts as a barrier between the Moroccan-controlled areas (Southern Provinces) and the Polisario-controlled section of the territory – Free Zone or de facto the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic that lies along its eastern and southern border.
According to maps from MINURSOor the UNHCR, part of the wall extends several kilometers into internationally recognized Mauritanian territory.
In 1975 a security fence of 120 kilometres (75 mi) was erected by South Africa to keep the violent revolution in Mozambique from spilling into Kruger National Park. In 1990 it was reported:
Concern is growing in South Africa over the country's use of a lethal, 3,300 volt one amp electrified fence on its borders with Mozambique and Zimbabwe. According to a report recently published by the South African Catholic Bureau for Refugees, the fence has caused more deaths in three years than the Berlin Wall did in its entire history. Local people call the fence the 'Snake of Fire'. There have been calls by South African church leaders over the past months for the fence to be switched off permanently. Most of its victims have been women and children fleeing the war in Mozambique. The Berlin Wall resulted in 80 deaths over 28 years. Official figures provided by the South African Defence Force (SADF) indicate that 89 people were electrocuted at the fence between August 1986 and August 1989. Church leaders dispute these figures, and claim that the true figure is nearer 200 each year.
On December 9, 2002, by the presidents of South Africa, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe signed a treaty authorizing the fence to be torn down in order to re-open the ancient elephant migration route between South Africa and Mozambique. The Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park of 35,000 square kilometres (14,000 sq mi) will connect the national parks of the three countries – South Africa's Kruger National Park, Mozambique's Limpopo National Park, and Zimbabwe's Gonarezhou National Park.
In 2005 it was reported that only a relatively small portion of the high-security border fence separating South Africa's Kruger National Park with Zimbabwe's Gonarezhou Park had been removed. Security concerns, especially about illegal immigrants and the smuggling of weapons and four-wheel-drive vehicles, have been hindering the removal of more sections of the border fence.
Argentina has constructed a wall at the Paraguay border between Posadas, Argentina and Encarnación, Paraguay. The wall is 5 meters high and1,300 meters (0.8 mile) long.
The Dominican Republic announced on February 27, 2021, it will fence the border between the DR and Haiti in order to curb migration, drug trafficking, and the movement of stolen vehicles.
The United States has constructed a border barrier along 654 miles (1,053 km), some say more than 705 miles (1,135 km), (most of this section's data is from 2018), of its border with Mexico of 1,969 miles (3,169 km) to prevent illegal immigration and to deter smuggling of contraband, particularly illegal drugs.[ citation needed ] There has been discussion in the U.S. Congress on lengthening the barrier, but progress has been slow due to lobbying and lack of funding. In parts of the US (deserts and mountainous areas), there is only inferior fencing if anything. President Donald Trump promised to build a 1,954-mile (3,145 km) border wall along the US–Mexico border during his campaign in the 2016 presidential election, famously pledging to "build the wall and make Mexico pay for it." After his election, he authorized construction in January 2017 with Executive Order 13767. In early 2018, 54% of Americans supported building a combination of physical and electronic barriers across the U.S.-Mexico border. In 2018, the federal government partly shut down for the longest period in U.S. history due to President Trump's refusal to consider a spending bill without funding for the proposed wall. In February 2019, President Trump declared the National Emergency Concerning the Southern Border of the United States in order to use U.S. Department of Defense funding for the wall despite opposition from both houses of Congress. In 2019, a majority of Americans (58%) now oppose substantially expanding the wall along the U.S.-Mexico border.
Brunei is building a security fence along its 20 kilometres (12 mi) border with Limbang, Malaysia, to stop the flow of irregular migrants and smuggled goods.[ citation needed ]
The People's Republic of China (PRC) has two Special Administrative Regions on its southeastern coast – Hong Kong and Macau, both of which maintain controlled intra-national borders with the neighbouring Guangdong province in Mainland China. A Resident Identity Card is inspected when one crosses the border.
Hong Kong was a Dependent Territory of the UK until its sovereignty was handed over to the PRC in 1997, while Macau was a Special Territory of Portugal until its sovereignty was handed over to the PRC in 1999. Before the transfers of sovereignty back to the PRC, the Hong Kong–Guangdong and Macau–Guangdong borders were regarded as international borders.
Under the principle of "One Country, Two Systems", the two Special Administrative Regions continue to maintain their own customs and immigration policies, which are independent of those in Mainland China after the handovers. Due to differences in the policies between the special administrative regions and the Mainland, the Hong Kong–Guangdong and Macau–Guangdong borders have been maintained in operation after the returns.
Hong Kong has a border stretching 32 kilometres (20 mi) with the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone of Guangdong that features fences (topped with barbed tape/razor wire), thermal image sensors, lights, and closed-circuit television. Some sections are along the Shenzhen River thus acting as a physical barrier. The border is also patrolled regularly by police (and previously by the British Army until a short time before the handover in 1997). Just south of Shenzhen River (the geographical delimitation of the border) is a strip of rural land with restricted access, the 28 square kilometres (11 sq mi) Closed Area. Currently, the four road border crossings are located at Sha Tau Kok, Man Kam To, Lok Ma Chau, and Shenzhen Bay, and a railway and traveller crossing is located at Lo Wu. The residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region are required to have their Hong Kong ID Cards inspected by the Hong Kong Immigration Department and their Home Return Permits inspected by the Public Security Bureau of Guangdong when they cross the border. Travelers from other countries and regions are required to present their passports or other types of travel documents for immigration clearance at both Hong Kong immigration checkpoints and Mainland China immigration ports.
Macau has been maintaining a 340 metres (1,120 ft) controlled border with Zhuhai City in Guangdong with a crossing available at the Border Gate (built in 1870). The border crossing is equipped with 54 counters for travelers and 8 for vehicular traffic. Opened in 1999, Macau's Lotus Bridge supplemented what has been the only border crossing into mainland China through Border Gate. Both border crossings allow access to Zhuhai. Canal dos Patos, a former canal forms part of the border area along with Sun Yat-sen Municipal Park located to west of Border Gate area. Fencing along both sides of the canal restricts access to either side. Pagoda-like sentry towers are located along the Mainland China side of the border.
China, in October 2006, started building a security barrier along its border with North Korea to prevent illegal immigrants.
Egypt began construction of a formidable barrier between Egypt and Gaza in 2009 prompted by concern that militant Islamist factions were making use of the Gaza Strip smuggling tunnels to move weapons and personnel between Gaza and Egypt.
Since the mid-1990s, India has been involved in the construction of some of the lengthiest border barriers along its international borders. Six of the nine countries neighboring India are classified as Least Developed Countries, and thus thousands of people from these countries – especially from Bangladesh and Burma – illegally immigrate into India.
The India–Bangladesh barrier and India–Myanmar barrier are being built to check smuggling, illegal immigration, and infiltration by Islamist terrorists. The refugee crisis could also ensue should a climate catastrophe ravage South Asia.
In addition, India completed the construction of the India–Pakistan barrier, which runs along the Line of Control in Kashmir and India–Pakistan international border. The purpose of this barrier is to prevent infiltration by armed militants.
India has fortified parts of their border against Pakistan with a new detection system using lasers.
The Iran–Pakistan barrier wall is 700 kilometres (430 mi) long, which Iran claims is to stop the flow of illegal border crossings, stem the flow of drugs, and prevent terror attacks. However, the Provincial Assembly of Balochistan, whose lands straddle the border region, strongly opposed the barrier as the wall would divide the Baloch people politically and socially, with trade and social activities being seriously impeded.
Leader of the Opposition, Kachkol Ali, said the governments of the two countries had not taken the Baloch into their confidence on this matterand demanded that construction be stopped immediately and he also appealed to the international community. Residents of the Sorap locality in the Mand area of western Mekran region in Balochistan province rely on edible goods from Iran for their livelihood but Iranian border security forces vacate the town. According to BBC, "The Balochistanis, who live on both sides of the border and in the area where both countries neighbour Afghanistan, have had their communities divided by the wall."
Due to Israel's specific security situation, as well as immigration concerns, border fences and walls have been utilized:
South Korea has constructed a border barrier between its territory and North Korea to obstruct any southward movement by the army of North Korea. The border features:[ improper synthesis? ]
The United Nations has constructed a demilitarized zone to stop Iraq from re-invading Kuwait; Kuwait plans to install a new border barrier as well.
In September 2005, Pakistan stated it has plans to build a 2,400-kilometre (1,500 mi) fence along its border with Afghanistan to prevent TTP terrorists and drug smugglers slipping between the two countries. Former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf has subsequently offered to mine the border as well.
There is an electronic security barrier (ex-"Iron Curtain") along the old Soviet border. Also, a security barrier is on the border of Russia with Norway, Finland, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. There is no barrier on Russian territory along the border with Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, or Ukraine, but there are some barriers on the Estonian, Latvian sides. It was reported in 2005 that the Russian government was considering the construction of a security barrier along its internal border with Chechnya to combat terrorism.
Saudi Arabia has begun construction of a border barrier or fence between its territory and Yemen to prevent the unauthorized movement of people and goods. The difference between the countries' economic situations means that many Yemenis head to Saudi Arabia to find work. Saudi Arabia does not have a barrier with its other neighbors in the Gulf Cooperation Council, whose economies are more similar.
In 2006 Saudi Arabia proposed constructing a security fence along the entire length of its desert border of 900 kilometres (560 mi) with Iraq in a multimillion-dollar project to secure the Kingdom's borders in order to improve internal security, control illegal immigration, and bolster its defences against external threats.
As of July 2009 it was reported that Saudis will pay $3.5 billion for security fence. 1,000 km (600 mi) long and include five layers of fencing, watch towers, night-vision cameras, and radar cameras and manned by 30,000 troops.The combined wall and ditch will be
The land borders between Saudi Arabia and Qatar were closed in 2017. Saudi Arabia has proposed the construction of the Salwa Canal along the Saudi-Qatar border, effectively turning Qatar into an island.
Thailand plans to build a concrete fence along parts of its border with Malaysia to keep Muslim militants and dual citizens from crossing Thailand's southern border with Malaysia.
There are 4 border barriers around Turkey :
The barrier on the Syrian border is the third longest wall in the world after the Great Wall of China and the U.S.-Mexico border wall.
The UAE is building a security barrier along its border with Oman.
In 1999 Uzbekistan began constructing a barbed wire fence to secure its border with Kyrgyzstan.
In 2001 Uzbekistan fortified the fence with Afghanistan.
In October 2015, during the European migrant crisis, the Austrian interior minister Johanna Mikl-Leitner announced construction of up to 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) long border barriers at several border crossings with Slovenia. The barrier is to be guarded by Austrian police and Austrian Armed Forces.
There is an electronic security barrier along the Belarus–Poland border consisting of Soviet-made security electric fences S-175 and KS-185. There are no electronic barriers on other borders.
Bulgaria has built a fence on its border with Turkey starting in 2013.
During 2019, Denmark built a 1,5 m (5 ft) high fence along its border to Germany. Officially it is to keep out wild boars which are alleged to carry African swine fever. Denmark also enforces border controls on the border with Germany.
In August 2015, Estonia announced a plan to build a barrier on its border with Russia.
The Calais border barrier built jointly by Britain and France on French soil surrounds the port and Channel Tunnel entrance at Calais.Many migrants have tried to enter Britain by jumping on trucks or trains using the tunnel.
From 1952 onwards, East Germany started to construct a fortified Inner German border to separate it from West Germany. From 1961 the Berlin Wall also divided the city of Berlin into two. Most of the wall was demolished in and after 1989.
After having made an agreement with Frontex on the guard of the maritime borders of Greece with Turkey 12.5 kilometres (7.8 mi) stretch of the Turkish–Greek border along the Evros River. This site is the main entrance of illegal immigrants to the EU from the Asian continent. Illegal immigration is a current sore subject between the two countries.the Greek government decided a wall to be built at the land border with Turkey, the Evros River. These actions have been made as a reaction to the illegal immigration to Greece through the Greco-Turkish borders. These immigrants are originated from Asian and African states. From January to the beginning of November 2010, 32,500 illegal migrants were intercepted in a single
Greece has constructed a barrier on the section of its land border with Turkey that is not separated by the Evros river, between October 2011 and December 2012.
Hungary completed the construction of a 175 kilometres (109 mi) wall between Hungary and Serbia in September 2015 and on the border with Croatia in October 2015 to stop illegal migration into the EU. In April 2016, Hungarian government announced construction of reinforcements of the barrier, which it described as "temporary". In July 2016, nearly 1,300 migrants were "stuck" on the Serbian side of the border. In August 2016, Orbán announced that Hungary will build another larger barrier on its southern border. On April 28, 2017, the Hungarian government announced it had completed a second fence, 155 kilometres (96 mi) long, on the Serbian border.
On September 24, 2015, Hungary began building fence on its border with Slovenia, in the area around Tornyiszentmiklós–Pince border crossing.The razor wire obstacle was removed two days later. As of March 2016, everything is in place if Hungary decides to build a border barrier on the Hungarian–Romanian border – the military is "only waiting for the command from the government".
Attempted border entries have fallen since the barrier was constructed. During the month of September 2015 there was a total number of 138,396 migrant entries, and by the first two weeks of November the average daily number of intercepted migrants decreased to only 15, which is a daily reduction of more than 4,500.
Latvia started to build a fence on its border with Russia in December 2015.
BBC News reported in January 2017, that Lithuania was planning a fence on its border with the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad. 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) tall and 130 kilometres (81 mi) long.The fence is to be
Macedonia began erecting a fence on its border with Greece in November 2015.
In 2016 Norway constructed a barrier along a short part of its border with Russia, near the only official border crossing.
Serbia began construction of a barrier on the Serbian border with North Macedonia in 2020. The leader of Presevo municipality said it is part of a deal with the EU, however, the EU says it is not. The construction is very intensive. The reason of its building is because of migration, and a possible new wave of migrants coming to Serbia from North Macedonia.
Slovenia began erecting a border barrier along its border with Croatia in 2015 to control illegal migration into the Schengen Area. mi) of fences in total. They built extra kilometres in early 2020.As of November 2019 there was 220 kilometres (137
The European Union and Spain have constructed barriers between Morocco and the Spanish exclaves of Ceuta and Melilla to prevent illegal immigration and smuggling.
Even though both the United Kingdom and Spain are part of the European Union, the border fence separating Gibraltar and Spain is still relevant because Gibraltar, a British Overseas Territory, is not part of the Schengen Area so remains outside of the customs union and VAT area. The border crossing is open twenty-four hours a day to facilitate customs collection by Spain.
In Belfast, Derry, and other settlements in Northern Ireland, barriers called "peace lines" have been built to separate the two main communities. Their purpose is to minimize inter-communal violence between Irish nationalists/republicans (who mainly self-identify as Irish and/or Catholic) and unionists/loyalists (who mainly self-identify as British and/or Protestant). They were first built following the 1969 riots and beginning of the "Troubles". They have continued to be built and expanded since the Belfast Agreement of 1998. In 2008 a public discussion began about how and when the barriers could be removed.On 1 September 2011, Belfast City Council agreed to develop a strategy regarding the removal of peace walls. At the end of 2011 several local community initiatives resulted in several interface structures being opened for a trial period. In January 2012, the International Fund for Ireland launched a Peace Walls funding programme to support local communities who want to work towards removing the peace walls.
A separation barrier or separation wall is a barrier, wall or fence, constructed to limit the movement of people across a certain line or border, or to separate peoples or cultures. A separation barrier that runs along an internationally recognized border is known as a border barrier.
The Saudi–Yemen barrier is a physical barrier constructed by Saudi Arabia along part of its 1,800-kilometer (1,100 mi) border with Yemen. It is a structure made of pipeline three metres (10 ft) high filled with concrete, acting as a "security barrier along sections of the now fully demarcated border with Yemen" and fitted with electronic detection equipment.
The Gaza–Israel barrier is a border barrier located on the Israeli side of the Gaza–Israel border. There are two main crossing points on the Israel-Gaza border: the northern Erez Crossing and the eastern Karni Crossing used only for cargo. Other cargo crossing points are the Kerem Shalom border crossing on the border with Egypt and the Sufa Crossing further north.
The Mexico–United States barrier, also known as the border wall, is a series of vertical barriers along the Mexico–United States border intended to reduce illegal immigration to the United States from Mexico. The barrier is not a continuous structure but a series of obstructions variously classified as "fences" or "walls".
The Melilla border fence forms part of the Morocco–Spain border in the city of Melilla, one of two Spanish cities in north Africa. Constructed by Spain, its stated purpose is to stop illegal immigration and smuggling. Melilla's border and its equivalent in Ceuta, also bordering Morocco, are the only two land borders between the European Union and an African country.
The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean in the west to the Gulf of Mexico in the east. The border traverses a variety of terrains, ranging from urban areas to deserts. The Mexico–United States border is the most frequently crossed border in the world, with approximately 350 million documented crossings annually. It is the tenth-longest border between two countries in the world.
Illegal immigration refers to the migration of people into a country in violation of the immigration laws of that country, or the continued residence without the legal right to live in that country. Illegal immigration tends to be financially upward, from poorer to richer countries. Illegal residence in another country creates the risk of detention, deportation, and/or other sanctions.
Illegal entry is the act of foreign nationals arriving in or crossing the borders into a country in violation of its immigration law. Human smuggling is the practice of aiding people in crossing international borders for financial gain, often in large groups. Human smuggling is associated with human trafficking. A human smuggler will facilitate illegal entry into a country for a fee, but on arrival at their destination, the smuggled person is usually free. Trafficking involves physical force, fraud, or deception to obtain and transport people, usually for enslavement or forced prostitution.
The Bangladesh–India border, known locally as the International Border (IB), is an international border running between Bangladesh and India that demarcates the eight divisions of Bangladesh and the Indian states.
The Egypt–Israel barrier refers to a border barrier built by Israel along its border with Egypt. It was originally an attempt to curb the influx of illegal migrants from African countries. Construction began on 22 November 2010. However, following increased insurgent movement across the southern border in 2011 in wake of the crisis in Egypt, Israel upgraded the steel barrier project to include cameras, radar, and motion detectors. In January 2013, construction of the barrier was completed in its main section. The final section of the fence was completed in December 2013.
The Afghanistan–Pakistan barrier refers to the border barrier being built by Pakistan along its border with Afghanistan, otherwise known as the Durand Line. The purpose of barrier is to prevent terrorism, smuggling, illegal immigration and infiltrations across the approximately 2,640-kilometre-long (1,640 mi) international border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Major-General Shaukat Sultan, a former Pakistani military spokesman, said the move was necessary to block the infiltration of militants across the border into Pakistan. The initially proposed fortifications and fence, about 2,400 km (1,500 mi) in length, was backed by the United States in 2005. Construction on the border barrier unilaterally began in March 2017 following a series of deadly and costly clashes between Pakistani security forces and Afghan-aligned militants in Pakistan's tribal areas that greatly intensified hostilities in the War in North-West Pakistan.
In 2015, Hungary built a border barrier on its border with Serbia and Croatia. The fence was constructed during the European migrant crisis, with the aim to ensure border security by preventing illegal immigrants from entering, and enabling the option to enter through official checkpoints and claim asylum in Hungary in accordance with international and European law. The number of illegal entries to Hungary declined greatly after the barrier was finished as it effectively abolished the access to asylum in Hungary.
Austrian border barriers are border barriers and migration management facilities constructed by Austria between November 2015 and January 2016 on its border with Slovenia and in 2016 on its border with Italy, as a response to European migrant crisis. They are located on internal European Union borders, since Austria, Italy, and Slovenia are members of the EU and the free travel Schengen Area with a common visa policy. The barrier on the Slovenian border is several kilometres long, located near the busiest border crossing, Spielfeld-Šentilj, and includes police facilities for screening and processing migrants. Another migration management facility with barriers located on Austria's Italian border near Brenner, South Tyrol was constructed in 2016.
The North Macedonia border barrier is a border barrier built by North Macedonia on its border with Greece. It was constructed as a response to the European migrant crisis. The construction of the barrier began in November 2015, modeled similarly to the Hungarian border barrier.
The Bulgaria–Turkey border is a 269 km (167 mi) long international border between the Republic of Bulgaria and the Republic of Turkey. It was established by the Treaty of San Stefano in 1878 as an inner border within the Ottoman Empire. The current borders are defined by the Treaty of Constantinople (1913) and the Bulgarian–Ottoman convention (1915). The border was reaffirmed by the Treaty of Lausanne ten years later, though Bulgaria was not a party to the latter treaty as it had earlier ceded to Greece that part of its border with Turkey which was modified by the Bulgarian-Ottoman convention.
The Norway–Russia border barrier is an international border barrier built by Norway on the Norway–Russia border. Construction of the barrier began in September 2016 and took a few months. The intent of the project was to prevent the smuggling and illegal crossing of migrants from the Middle East, mainly from Syria, who have used Russia as a route of entry into Norway.
The Calais border barrier is an international border barrier under construction jointly by France and the United Kingdom designed to prevent illegal migrants from gaining access to the Channel Tunnel and from the port of Calais as a means of illegal entry to Britain. Construction, funded by Britain, began in September 2016.
The Syria–Turkey barrier is a border wall and fence under construction along the Syria–Turkey border seemingly built in an attempt at preventing illegal crossings and smuggling from Syria into Turkey.
Albania and Montenegro share a border.
Turkey's migrant crisis, was a period during the 2010s characterized by high numbers of people arriving in Turkey. Turkey became the top refugee receiving country in 2014 (1,587,374), mid-2015 (1,838,848), and mid-2016 (2,869,421) reported on UNHCR registered refugees by country/territory of asylum [sort each year on descending]. Turkey's refugee breakdown in 2019 was "neighbor countries:" Syrians 3.6 M, Iraqis 142,000, Iranians 39,000, "Asia:" Afghans 172,000, "Africa:" 11,700. Reported by UNHCR in 2018, Turkey hosted 63.4% of all the "registered Syrian refugees." As of 26 June 2020, refugees of the Syrian Civil War in Turkey numbered 3,591,892.
61 percent think that current border security is inadequate, and ... 54 percent support a physical barrier
Most Americans ... oppose building a border wall, but seven in 10 Republicans support it.
59 percent of Americans oppose building a wall... A large majority of Republicans support the wall -- 79 percent. A majority of independents -- 66 percent -- oppose the wall, and 84 percent of Democrats are also against it.
Given the choice between "open borders" ... and a "secure border," 79 percent of Americans agreed that the U.S. needs "secure borders." ... In a different poll, 58 percent of Americans support "building a combination of physical and electronic barriers across the U.S.-Mexico border."
WASHINGTON (Reuters) – Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf said on Monday his country was doing all it could in the U.S.-led war against terrorism and offered to fence and mine its border with Afghanistan to stem Taliban infiltration. "I have been telling Karzai and the United States, 'Let us fence the border and let us mine it.' Today I say it again. Let us mine their entire border. Let us fence it. It's not difficult", Musharraf said, referring to Afghan President Hamid Karzai.
Now the other thing that I've said: if he thinks everyone is crossing from here, I've been saying let us fence the border and let us also mine the border. We are experts at mining, they should mine the border on their side. We will fence it on our side. If that is all right I am for it, so that they are not allowed to go across at all. And then let us see what is happening in Afghanistan. Why don't they agree to this, I've said this openly many times before, they don't do it, for whatever are their reasons. I know how effective the fence, the Indian fence which is about 1,800 kilometres, and they are fencing the Kashmir mountains also, it is so difficult. Why are they doing that, are they mad, they are spending billions of rupees. Because it is effective. Let's fence this border so that this blame game is killed once for ever.
The Russian government is mulling the construction of a security barrier along the border with Chechnya similar to Israel's West Bank security fence as part of its efforts to combat Muslim terror[ permanent dead link ]
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