# Faraday's law of induction

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Faraday's law of induction (briefly, Faraday's law) is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF)—a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction. It is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators and solenoids. Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force is carried by electromagnetic fields composed of electric fields and magnetic fields, is responsible for electromagnetic radiation such as light, and is one of the four fundamental interactions in nature. The other three fundamental interactions are the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and gravitation. At high energy the weak force and electromagnetic force are unified as a single electroweak force. A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electric charges in relative motion and magnetized materials. The effects of magnetic fields are commonly seen in permanent magnets, which pull on magnetic materials and attract or repel other magnets. Magnetic fields surround and are created by magnetized material and by moving electric charges such as those used in electromagnets. They exert forces on nearby moving electrical charges and torques on nearby magnets. In addition, a magnetic field that varies with location exerts a force on magnetic materials. Both the strength and direction of a magnetic field vary with location. As such, it is described mathematically as a vector field. Electromotive force, abbreviated emf, is the electrical action produced by a non-electrical source. A device that converts other forms of energy into electrical energy, such as a battery or generator, provides an emf as its output. Sometimes an analogy to water "pressure" is used to describe electromotive force.

## Contents

The Maxwell–Faraday equation (listed as one of Maxwell's equations) describes the fact that a spatially varying (and also possibly time-varying, depending on how a magnetic field varies in time) electric field always accompanies a time-varying magnetic field, while Faraday's law states that there is EMF (electromotive force, defined as electromagnetic work done on a unit charge when it has traveled one round of a conductive loop) on the conductive loop when the magnetic flux through the surface enclosed by the loop varies in time. Maxwell's equations are a set of coupled partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits. The equations provide a mathematical model for electric, optical, and radio technologies, such as power generation, electric motors, wireless communication, lenses, radar etc. Maxwell's equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated by charges, currents, and changes of the fields. An important consequence of the equations is that they demonstrate how fluctuating electric and magnetic fields propagate at a constant speed (c) in a vacuum. Known as electromagnetic radiation, these waves may occur at various wavelengths to produce a spectrum of light from radio waves to γ-rays. The equations are named after the physicist and mathematician James Clerk Maxwell, who between 1861 and 1862 published an early form of the equations that included the Lorentz force law. Maxwell first used the equations to propose that light is an electromagnetic phenomenon.

Faraday's law had been discovered and one aspect of it (transformer EMF) was formulated as the Maxwell–Faraday equation later. The equation of Faraday's law can be derived by the Maxwell–Faraday equation (describing transformer EMF) and the Lorentz force (describing motional EMF). The integral form of the Maxwell–Faraday equation describes only the transformer EMF, while the equation of Faraday's law describes both the transformer EMF and the motional EMF. In physics the Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields. A particle of charge q moving with a velocity v in an electric field E and a magnetic field B experiences a force of

## History

Electromagnetic induction was discovered independently by Michael Faraday in 1831 and Joseph Henry in 1832.  Faraday was the first to publish the results of his experiments.   In Faraday's first experimental demonstration of electromagnetic induction (August 29, 1831),  he wrapped two wires around opposite sides of an iron ring (torus) (an arrangement similar to a modern toroidal transformer). Based on his assessment of recently discovered properties of electromagnets, he expected that when current started to flow in one wire, a sort of wave would travel through the ring and cause some electrical effect on the opposite side. He plugged one wire into a galvanometer, and watched it as he connected the other wire to a battery. Indeed, he saw a transient current (which he called a "wave of electricity") when he connected the wire to the battery, and another when he disconnected it.  :182–183 This induction was due to the change in magnetic flux that occurred when the battery was connected and disconnected.  Within two months, Faraday had found several other manifestations of electromagnetic induction. For example, he saw transient currents when he quickly slid a bar magnet in and out of a coil of wires, and he generated a steady (DC) current by rotating a copper disk near the bar magnet with a sliding electrical lead ("Faraday's disk").  :191–195 Michael Faraday FRS was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include the principles underlying electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis. Joseph Henry was an American scientist who served as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. He was the secretary for the National Institute for the Promotion of Science, a precursor of the Smithsonian Institution. He was highly regarded during his lifetime. While building electromagnets, Henry discovered the electromagnetic phenomenon of self-inductance. He also discovered mutual inductance independently of Michael Faraday, though Faraday was the first to make the discovery and publish his results. Henry developed the electromagnet into a practical device. He invented a precursor to the electric doorbell and electric relay (1835). The SI unit of inductance, the Henry, is named in his honor. Henry's work on the electromagnetic relay was the basis of the practical electrical telegraph, invented by Samuel F. B. Morse and Sir Charles Wheatstone, separately. In geometry, a torus is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis that is coplanar with the circle.

Michael Faraday explained electromagnetic induction using a concept he called lines of force. However, scientists at the time widely rejected his theoretical ideas, mainly because they were not formulated mathematically.  :510 An exception was James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1861–62 used Faraday's ideas as the basis of his quantitative electromagnetic theory.  :510   In Maxwell's papers, the time-varying aspect of electromagnetic induction is expressed as a differential equation which Oliver Heaviside referred to as Faraday's law even though it is different from the original version of Faraday's law, and does not describe motional EMF. Heaviside's version (see Maxwell–Faraday equation below) is the form recognized today in the group of equations known as Maxwell's equations. James Clerk Maxwell was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics. His most notable achievement was to formulate the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation, bringing together for the first time electricity, magnetism, and light as different manifestations of the same phenomenon. Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism have been called the "second great unification in physics" after the first one realised by Isaac Newton. Oliver Heaviside FRS was an English self-taught electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations, reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis. Although at odds with the scientific establishment for most of his life, Heaviside changed the face of telecommunications, mathematics, and science for years to come.

Lenz's law, formulated by Emil Lenz in 1834,  describes "flux through the circuit", and gives the direction of the induced EMF and current resulting from electromagnetic induction (elaborated upon in the examples below). Lenz's law, named after the physicist Emil Lenz who formulated it in 1834, states that the direction of the current induced in a conductor by a changing magnetic field is such that the magnetic field created by the induced current opposes the initial changing magnetic field. Heinrich Friedrich Emil Lenz, usually cited as Emil Lenz, was a Russian physicist. He is most noted for formulating Lenz's law in electrodynamics in 1834. Faraday's experiment showing induction between coils of wire: The liquid battery (right) provides a current which flows through the small coil (A), creating a magnetic field. When the coils are stationary, no current is induced. But when the small coil is moved in or out of the large coil (B), the magnetic flux through the large coil changes, inducing a current which is detected by the galvanometer (G).

The most widespread version of Faraday's law states:

The electromotive force around a closed path is equal to the negative of the time rate of change of the magnetic flux enclosed by the path.  

The closed path here is, in fact, conductive.

### Mathematical statement The definition of surface integral relies on splitting the surface Σ into small surface elements. Each element is associated with a vector dA of magnitude equal to the area of the element and with direction normal to the element and pointing "outward" (with respect to the orientation of the surface).

For a loop of wire in a magnetic field, the magnetic flux ΦB is defined for any surface Σ whose boundary is the given loop. Since the wire loop may be moving, we write Σ(t) for the surface. The magnetic flux is the surface integral:

$\Phi _{B}=\iint \limits _{\Sigma (t)}\mathbf {B} (t)\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {A} \,,$ where dA is an element of surface area of the moving surface Σ(t), B is the magnetic field, and B·dA is a vector dot product representing the element of flux through dA. In more visual terms, the magnetic flux through the wire loop is proportional to the number of magnetic flux lines that pass through the loop.

When the flux changes—because B changes, or because the wire loop is moved or deformed, or both—Faraday's law of induction says that the wire loop acquires an EMF, E, defined as the energy available from a unit charge that has travelled once around the wire loop.    (Note that different textbooks may give different definitions. The set of equations used throughout the text was chosen to be compatible with the special relativity theory.) Equivalently, it is the voltage that would be measured by cutting the wire to create an open circuit, and attaching a voltmeter to the leads.

Faraday's law states that the EMF is also given by the rate of change of the magnetic flux:

${\mathcal {E}}=-{\frac {\mathrm {d} \Phi _{B}}{\mathrm {d} t}},$ where ${\mathcal {E}}$ is the electromotive force (EMF) and ΦB is the magnetic flux.

The direction of the electromotive force is given by Lenz's law.

The laws of induction of electric currents in mathematical form was established by Franz Ernst Neumann in 1845. 

Faraday's law contains the information about the relationships between both the magnitudes and the directions of its variables. However, the relationships between the directions are not explicit; they are hidden in the mathematical formula. A Left Hand Rule for Faraday's Law. The sign of ΔΦB, the change in flux, is found based on the relationship between the magnetic field B, the area of the loop A, and the normal n to that area, as represented by the fingers of the left hand. If ΔΦB is positive, the direction of the EMF is the same as that of the curved fingers (yellow arrowheads). If ΔΦB is negative, the direction of the EMF is against the arrowheads.

It is possible to find out the direction of the electromotive force (EMF) directly from Faraday’s law, without invoking Lenz's law. A left hand rule helps doing that, as follows:  

• Align the curved fingers of the left hand with the loop (yellow line).
• Stretch your thumb. The stretched thumb indicates the direction of n (brown), the normal to the area enclosed by the loop.
• Find the sign of ΔΦB, the change in flux. Determine the initial and final fluxes (whose difference is ΔΦB) with respect to the normal n, as indicated by the stretched thumb.
• If the change in flux, ΔΦB, is positive, the curved fingers show the direction of the electromotive force (yellow arrowheads).
• If ΔΦB is negative, the direction of the electromotive force is opposite to the direction of the curved fingers (opposite to the yellow arrowheads).

For a tightly wound coil of wire, composed of N identical turns, each with the same ΦB, Faraday's law of induction states that  

${\mathcal {E}}=-N{\frac {\mathrm {d} \Phi _{B}}{\mathrm {d} t}}$ where N is the number of turns of wire and ΦB is the magnetic flux through a single loop. An illustration of the Kelvin–Stokes theorem with surface Σ, its boundary ∂Σ, and orientation n set by the right-hand rule.

The Maxwell–Faraday equation states that a time-varying magnetic field always accompanies a spatially varying (also possibly time-varying), non-conservative electric field, and vice versa. The Maxwell–Faraday equation is

$\nabla \times \mathbf {E} =-{\frac {\partial \mathbf {B} }{\partial t}}$ (in SI units) where ∇ × is the curl operator and again E(r, t) is the electric field and B(r, t) is the magnetic field. These fields can generally be functions of position r and time t.

The Maxwell–Faraday equation is one of the four Maxwell's equations, and therefore plays a fundamental role in the theory of classical electromagnetism. It can also be written in an integral form by the Kelvin–Stokes theorem,  thereby reproducing Faraday's law:

$\oint _{\partial \Sigma }\mathbf {E} \cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {l} =-\int _{\Sigma }{\frac {\partial \mathbf {B} }{\partial t}}\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {A}$ where, as indicated in the figure:

Σ is a surface bounded by the closed contour Σ,
E is the electric field, B is the magnetic field.
dl is an infinitesimal vector element of the contour ∂Σ,
dA is an infinitesimal vector element of surface Σ. If its direction is orthogonal to that surface patch, the magnitude is the area of an infinitesimal patch of surface.

Both dl and dA have a sign ambiguity; to get the correct sign, the right-hand rule is used, as explained in the article Kelvin–Stokes theorem. For a planar surface Σ, a positive path element dl of curve Σ is defined by the right-hand rule as one that points with the fingers of the right hand when the thumb points in the direction of the normal n to the surface Σ.

The integral around Σ is called a path integral or line integral.

Notice that a nonzero path integral for E is different from the behavior of the electric field generated by charges. A charge-generated E-field can be expressed as the gradient of a scalar field that is a solution to Poisson's equation, and has a zero path integral. See gradient theorem.

The integral equation is true for any path Σ through space, and any surface Σ for which that path is a boundary.

If the surface Σ is not changing in time, the equation can be rewritten:

$\oint _{\partial \Sigma }\mathbf {E} \cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {l} =-{\frac {\mathrm {d} }{\mathrm {d} t}}\int _{\Sigma }\mathbf {B} \cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {A} .$ The surface integral at the right-hand side is the explicit expression for the magnetic flux ΦB through Σ.

The electric vector field induced by a changing magnetic flux, the solenoidal component of the overall electric field, can be approximated in the non-relativistic limit by the following volume integral equation: 

$\mathbf {E} _{s}(\mathbf {r} )\approx -{\frac {1}{4\pi }}\iiint _{V}\ {\frac {({\frac {\partial \mathbf {B} }{\partial t}}\,dV)\times \mathbf {{\hat {r}}'} }{|\mathbf {r} '|^{2}}}$ ## Proof

The four Maxwell's equations (including the Maxwell–Faraday equation), along with Lorentz force law, are a sufficient foundation to derive everything in classical electromagnetism.   Therefore, it is possible to "prove" Faraday's law starting with these equations.  

The starting point is the time-derivative of flux through an arbitrary surface Σ (that can move or be deformed) in space:

${\frac {\mathrm {d} \Phi _{B}}{\mathrm {d} t}}={\frac {\mathrm {d} }{\mathrm {d} t}}\int _{\Sigma (t)}\mathbf {B} (t)\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {A}$ (by definition). This total time derivative can be evaluated and simplified with the help of the Maxwell–Faraday equation and some vector identities; the details are in the box below:

 Consider the time-derivative of magnetic flux through a closed boundary (loop) that can move or be deformed. The area bounded by the loop is denoted as Σ(t)), then the time-derivative can be expressed as ${\frac {\mathrm {d} \Phi _{B}}{\mathrm {d} t}}={\frac {\mathrm {d} }{\mathrm {d} t}}\int _{\Sigma (t)}\mathbf {B} (t)\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {A}$ The integral can change over time for two reasons: The integrand can change, or the integration region can change. These add linearly, therefore:$\left.{\frac {\mathrm {d} \Phi _{B}}{\mathrm {d} t}}\right|_{t=t_{0}}=\left(\int _{\Sigma (t_{0})}\left.{\frac {\partial \mathbf {B} }{\partial t}}\right|_{t=t_{0}}\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {A} \right)+\left({\frac {\mathrm {d} }{\mathrm {d} t}}\int _{\Sigma (t)}\mathbf {B} (t_{0})\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {A} \right)$ where t0 is any given fixed time. We will show that the first term on the right-hand side corresponds to transformer EMF, the second to motional EMF (from the magnetic Lorentz force on charge carriers due to the motion or deformation of the conducting loop in the magnetic field). The first term on the right-hand side can be rewritten using the integral form of the Maxwell–Faraday equation:$\int _{\Sigma (t_{0})}\left.{\frac {\partial \mathbf {B} }{\partial t}}\right|_{t=t_{0}}\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {A} =-\oint _{\partial \Sigma (t_{0})}\mathbf {E} (t_{0})\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {l}$ Next, we analyze the second term on the right-hand side:${\frac {\mathrm {d} }{\mathrm {d} t}}\int _{\Sigma (t)}\mathbf {B} (t_{0})\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {A}$  The area swept out by a vector element dl of a loop ∂Σ in time dt when it has moved with velocity vl .The proof of this is a little more difficult than the first term; more details and alternate approaches for the proof can be found in the references.    As the loop moves and/or deforms, it sweeps out a surface (see the right figure). As a small part of the loop dl moves with velocity vl over a short time dt, it sweeps out an area which vector is dAsweep = vl dt × dl (note that this vector is toward out from the display in the right figure). Therefore, the change of the magnetic flux through the loop due to the deformation or movement of the loop over the time dt is$\mathbf {d} \Phi _{B}=\int \mathbf {B} \cdot \mathbf {dA} _{sweep}=\int \mathbf {B} \cdot (\mathbf {v} _{\mathbf {l} }\mathrm {d} t\times \mathrm {d} \mathbf {l} )=-\int \mathrm {d} t\mathrm {d} \mathbf {l} \cdot (\mathbf {v} _{\mathbf {l} }\times \mathbf {B} )$ Here, identities of triple scalar products are used. Therefore,${\frac {\mathrm {d} }{\mathrm {d} t}}\int _{\Sigma (t)}\mathbf {B} (t_{0})\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {A} =-\oint _{\partial \Sigma (t_{0})}(\mathbf {v} _{\mathbf {l} }(t_{0})\times \mathbf {B} (t_{0}))\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {l}$ where vl is the velocity of a part of the loop ∂Σ.Putting these together results in,$\left.{\frac {\mathrm {d} \Phi _{B}}{\mathrm {d} t}}\right|_{t=t_{0}}=\left(-\oint _{\partial \Sigma (t_{0})}\mathbf {E} (t_{0})\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {l} \right)+\left(-\oint _{\partial \Sigma (t_{0})}{\bigl (}\mathbf {v} _{\mathbf {l} }(t_{0})\times \mathbf {B} (t_{0}){\bigr )}\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {l} \right)$ $\left.{\frac {\mathrm {d} \Phi _{B}}{\mathrm {d} t}}\right|_{t=t_{0}}=-\oint _{\partial \Sigma (t_{0})}{\bigl (}\mathbf {E} (t_{0})+\mathbf {v} _{\mathbf {l} }(t_{0})\times \mathbf {B} (t_{0}){\bigr )}\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {l} .$ The result is:

${\frac {\mathrm {d} \Phi _{B}}{\mathrm {d} t}}=-\oint _{\partial \Sigma }\left(\mathbf {E} +\mathbf {v} _{\mathbf {l} }\times \mathbf {B} \right)\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {l} .$ where ∂Σ is the boundary (loop) of the surface Σ, and vl is the velocity of a part of the boundary.

In the case of a conductive loop, EMF (Electromotive Force) is the electromagnetic work done on a unit charge when it has traveled around the loop once, and this work is done by the Lorentz force. Therefore, EMF is expressed as

${\mathcal {E}}=\oint \left(\mathbf {E} +\mathbf {v} \times \mathbf {B} \right)\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {l}$ where ${\mathcal {E}}$ is EMF and v is the unit charge velocity.

In a macroscopic view, for charges on a segment of the loop, v consists of two components in average; one is the velocity of the charge along the segment vt, and the other is the velocity of the segment vl (the loop is deformed or moved). vt does not contribute to the work done on the charge since the direction of vt is same to the direction of $d\mathbf {l}$ . Mathematically,

$(\mathbf {v} \times B)\cdot d\mathbf {l} =((\mathbf {v} _{t}+\mathbf {v} _{l})\times B)\cdot d\mathbf {l} =(\mathbf {v} _{t}\times B+\mathbf {v} _{l}\times B)\cdot d\mathbf {l} =(\mathbf {v} _{l}\times B)\cdot d\mathbf {l}$ since $(\mathbf {v} _{t}\times B)$ is perpendicular to $d\mathbf {l}$ as $\mathbf {v} _{t}$ and $d\mathbf {l}$ are along the same direction. Now we can see that, for the conductive loop, EMF is same to the time-derivative of the magnetic flux through the loop except for the sign on it. Therefore, we now reach the equation of Faraday's law (for the conductive loop) as

${\frac {\mathrm {d} \Phi _{B}}{\mathrm {d} t}}=-{\mathcal {E}}$ where ${\mathcal {E}}=\oint \left(\mathbf {E} +\mathbf {v} _{l}\times \mathbf {B} \right)\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {l}$ . With breaking this integral, $\oint \mathbf {E} \cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {l}$ is for the transformer EMF (due to a time-varying magnetic field) and $\oint \left(\mathbf {v} _{l}\times \mathbf {B} \right)\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {l}$ is for the motional EMF (due to the magnetic Lorentz force on charges by the motion or deformation of the loop in the magnetic field).

## EMF for non-thin-wire circuits

It is tempting to generalize Faraday's law to state: If ∂Σ is any arbitrary closed loop in space whatsoever, then the total time derivative of magnetic flux through Σ equals the EMF around ∂Σ. This statement, however, is not always true and the reason is not just from the obvious reason that EMF is undefined in empty space when no conductor is present. As noted in the previous section, Faraday's law is not guaranteed to work unless the velocity of the abstract curve ∂Σ matches the actual velocity of the material conducting the electricity.  The two examples illustrated below show that one often obtains incorrect results when the motion of ∂Σ is divorced from the motion of the material. 

One can analyze examples like these by taking care that the path ∂Σ moves with the same velocity as the material.  Alternatively, one can always correctly calculate the EMF by combining Lorentz force law with the Maxwell–Faraday equation:  

${\mathcal {E}}=\int _{\partial \Sigma }(\mathbf {E} +\mathbf {v} _{m}\times \mathbf {B} )\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {l} =-\int _{\Sigma }{\frac {\partial \mathbf {B} }{\partial t}}\cdot \mathrm {d} \Sigma +\oint _{\partial \Sigma }(\mathbf {v} _{m}\times \mathbf {B} )\cdot \mathrm {d} \mathbf {l}$ where "it is very important to notice that (1) [vm] is the velocity of the conductor ... not the velocity of the path element dl and (2) in general, the partial derivative with respect to time cannot be moved outside the integral since the area is a function of time." 

## Faraday's law and relativity

### Two phenomena

Faraday's law is a single equation describing two different phenomena: the motional EMF generated by a magnetic force on a moving wire (see the Lorentz force), and the transformer EMF generated by an electric force due to a changing magnetic field (described by the Maxwell–Faraday equation).

James Clerk Maxwell drew attention to this fact in his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force .  In the latter half of Part II of that paper, Maxwell gives a separate physical explanation for each of the two phenomena.

A reference to these two aspects of electromagnetic induction is made in some modern textbooks.  As Richard Feynman states:

So the "flux rule" that the emf in a circuit is equal to the rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit applies whether the flux changes because the field changes or because the circuit moves (or both) ...

Yet in our explanation of the rule we have used two completely distinct laws for the two cases – v × B for "circuit moves" and ∇ × E = −∂tB for "field changes".

We know of no other place in physics where such a simple and accurate general principle requires for its real understanding an analysis in terms of two different phenomena.

Richard P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics 

### Einstein's view

Reflection on this apparent dichotomy was one of the principal paths that led Einstein to develop special relativity:

It is known that Maxwell's electrodynamics—as usually understood at the present time—when applied to moving bodies, leads to asymmetries which do not appear to be inherent in the phenomena. Take, for example, the reciprocal electrodynamic action of a magnet and a conductor.

The observable phenomenon here depends only on the relative motion of the conductor and the magnet, whereas the customary view draws a sharp distinction between the two cases in which either the one or the other of these bodies is in motion. For if the magnet is in motion and the conductor at rest, there arises in the neighbourhood of the magnet an electric field with a certain definite energy, producing a current at the places where parts of the conductor are situated.

But if the magnet is stationary and the conductor in motion, no electric field arises in the neighbourhood of the magnet. In the conductor, however, we find an electromotive force, to which in itself there is no corresponding energy, but which gives rise—assuming equality of relative motion in the two cases discussed—to electric currents of the same path and intensity as those produced by the electric forces in the former case.

Examples of this sort, together with unsuccessful attempts to discover any motion of the earth relative to the "light medium," suggest that the phenomena of electrodynamics as well as of mechanics possess no properties corresponding to the idea of absolute rest.

## Related Research Articles An electromagnetic field is a physical field produced by moving electrically charged objects. It affects the behavior of non-comoving charged objects at any distance of the field. The electromagnetic field extends indefinitely throughout space and describes the electromagnetic interaction. It is one of the four fundamental forces of nature.

An electric potential is the amount of work needed to move a unit of charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing an acceleration. Typically, the reference point is the Earth or a point at infinity, although any point can be used. Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field. In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the magnetic flux through a surface is the surface integral of the normal component of the magnetic field B passing through that surface. The SI unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb), and the CGS unit is the maxwell. Magnetic flux is usually measured with a fluxmeter, which contains measuring coils and electronics, that evaluates the change of voltage in the measuring coils to calculate the measurement of magnetic flux. In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance is the tendency of an electrical conductor to oppose a change in the electric current flowing through it. In classical electromagnetism, Ampère's circuital law relates the integrated magnetic field around a closed loop to the electric current passing through the loop. James Clerk Maxwell derived it using hydrodynamics in his 1861 paper "On Physical Lines of Force" and it is now one of the Maxwell equations, which form the basis of classical electromagnetism.

"A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" is a paper by James Clerk Maxwell on electromagnetism, published in 1865. In the paper, Maxwell derives an electromagnetic wave equation with a velocity for light in close agreement with measurements made by experiment, and deduces that light is an electromagnetic wave.

A magnetic circuit is made up of one or more closed loop paths containing a magnetic flux. The flux is usually generated by permanent magnets or electromagnets and confined to the path by magnetic cores consisting of ferromagnetic materials like iron, although there may be air gaps or other materials in the path. Magnetic circuits are employed to efficiently channel magnetic fields in many devices such as electric motors, generators, transformers, relays, lifting electromagnets, SQUIDs, galvanometers, and magnetic recording heads. The term magnetic potential can be used for either of two quantities in classical electromagnetism: the magnetic vector potential, or simply vector potential, A; and the magnetic scalar potentialψ. Both quantities can be used in certain circumstances to calculate the magnetic field B. The Faraday paradox or Faraday's paradox is any experiment in which Michael Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction appears to predict an incorrect result. The paradoxes fall into two classes:

The electromagnetic wave equation is a second-order partial differential equation that describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a medium or in a vacuum. It is a three-dimensional form of the wave equation. The homogeneous form of the equation, written in terms of either the electric field E or the magnetic field B, takes the form: The Maxwell stress tensor is a symmetric second-order tensor used in classical electromagnetism to represent the interaction between electromagnetic forces and mechanical momentum. In simple situations, such as a point charge moving freely in a homogeneous magnetic field, it is easy to calculate the forces on the charge from the Lorentz force law. When the situation becomes more complicated, this ordinary procedure can become impossibly difficult, with equations spanning multiple lines. It is therefore convenient to collect many of these terms in the Maxwell stress tensor, and to use tensor arithmetic to find the answer to the problem at hand. The covariant formulation of classical electromagnetism refers to ways of writing the laws of classical electromagnetism in a form that is manifestly invariant under Lorentz transformations, in the formalism of special relativity using rectilinear inertial coordinate systems. These expressions both make it simple to prove that the laws of classical electromagnetism take the same form in any inertial coordinate system, and also provide a way to translate the fields and forces from one frame to another. However, this is not as general as Maxwell's equations in curved spacetime or non-rectilinear coordinate systems. There are various mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field that are used in the study of electromagnetism, one of the four fundamental interactions of nature. In this article, several approaches are discussed, although the equations are in terms of electric and magnetic fields, potentials, and charges with currents, generally speaking.

In physics, defining equations are equations that define new quantities in terms of base quantities. This article uses the current SI system of units, not natural or characteristic units. In electromagnetism, Ørsted's law, also spelled Oersted's law, is the physical law stating that an electric current creates a magnetic field.

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13. Hayt, William (1989). Engineering Electromagnetics (5th ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 312. ISBN   0-07-027406-1. The magnetic flux is that flux which passes through any and every surface whose perimeter is the closed path.
14. Feynman, R. P. (2006). Leighton, R. B.; Sands, M. L. (eds.). The Feynman Lectures on Physics. San Francisco: Pearson/Addison-Wesley. Vol. II, p. 17-2. ISBN   0-8053-9049-9.
"The flux rule" is the terminology that Feynman uses to refer to the law relating magnetic flux to EMF.
15. Griffiths, David J. (1999). Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. pp. 301–303. ISBN   0-13-805326-X.
16. Tipler; Mosca. Physics for Scientists and Engineers. p. 795.
17. Neumann, Franz Ernst (1846). "Allgemeine Gesetze der inducirten elektrischen Ströme" (PDF). Annalen der Physik. 143 (1): 31–44. Bibcode:1846AnP...143...31N. doi:10.1002/andp.18461430103.
18. Yehuda Salu (2014). "A Left Hand Rule for Faraday's Law". The Physics Teacher . 52: 48. Bibcode:2014PhTea..52...48S. doi:10.1119/1.4849156.
19. Salu, Yehuda. "A Left Hand Rule for Faraday's Law". www.PhysicsForArchitects.com/bypassing-lenzs-rule. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
20. Whelan, P. M.; Hodgeson, M. J. (1978). Essential Principles of Physics (2nd ed.). John Murray. ISBN   0-7195-3382-1.
21. Nave, Carl R. "Faraday's Law". HyperPhysics. Georgia State University. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
22. Harrington, Roger F. (2003). Introduction to electromagnetic engineering. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications. p. 56. ISBN   0-486-43241-6.
23. Note, Griffiths uses τ for volume elements.Griffiths, David J. (2015). Introduction to Electrodynamics (4th ed.). Pearson India Education Services. p. 321. ISBN   978-93-325-5044-5.
24. Davison, M. E. (1973). "A Simple Proof that the Lorentz Force, Law Implied Faraday's Law of Induction, when B is Time Independent". American Journal of Physics. 41 (5): 713. Bibcode:1973AmJPh..41..713D. doi:10.1119/1.1987339.
25. Krey; Owen. Basic Theoretical Physics: A Concise Overview. p. 155.
26. Simonyi, K. (1973). Theoretische Elektrotechnik (5th ed.). Berlin: VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften. eq. 20, p. 47.
27. Stewart, Joseph V. Intermediate Electromagnetic Theory. p. 396. This example of Faraday's Law [the homopolar generator] makes it very clear that in the case of extended bodies care must be taken that the boundary used to determine the flux must not be stationary but must be moving with respect to the body.
28. Hughes, W. F.; Young, F. J. (1965). The Electromagnetodynamics of Fluid. John Wiley. Eq. (2.6–13) p. 53.
29. Clerk Maxwell, James (1861). "On physical lines of force". Philosophical Magazine . Taylor & Francis. 90: 11–23. doi:10.1080/1478643100365918.
30. Griffiths, David J. (1999). Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. pp. 301–3. ISBN   0-13-805326-X.
Note that the law relating flux to EMF, which this article calls "Faraday's law", is referred to in Griffiths' terminology as the "universal flux rule". Griffiths uses the term "Faraday's law" to refer to what this article calls the "Maxwell–Faraday equation". So in fact, in the textbook, Griffiths' statement is about the "universal flux rule".