Tibrovirus

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Tibrovirus
Sweetwater branch virus.jpg
Sweetwater Branch tibrovirus (530 nm to 690 nm and up to 900 nm long, 65 nm to 75 nm in diameter) [1]
Virus classification Red Pencil Icon.png
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Kingdom: Orthornavirae
Phylum: Negarnaviricota
Class: Monjiviricetes
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Rhabdoviridae
Genus:Tibrovirus
Type species
Tibrogargan tibrovirus
Species [2]

Tibrovirus is a poorly characterized genus of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae , order Mononegavirales . As of 2019, there are 8 members of the tibrovirus genus. [3] Tibroviruses have been isolated from biting midges, cattle, and humans. None of the tibroviruses, except for Bas-Congo virus, have been associated with any diseases.

Contents

Genus members

Transmission

BHV, BAV, SWBV and TIBV were isolated from biting midges, suggesting that midges are the major arthropod vector for these viruses. It is not known how BASV, EKV-1 and EKV-2 are transmitted.

Genetic divergence

Tibroviruses are highly divergent.  For example, overall amino acid homology among the human-associated tibroviruses (i.e. BASV, EKV-1 and EKV-2) ranges from 33% - 39%. [9]

Morphology

Tibrovirus virions are enveloped, but only the morphology of Tibrogargan virus and Sweetwater branch virus have been observed by electron microscopy. [1]

GenusStructureSymmetryCapsidGenomic arrangementGenomic segmentation
TibrovirusBullet-shapedHelicalEnvelopedLinearNon-segmented

Genome

Tibrovirus genomes are single-stranded, negative-sense RNA molecules approximately 13 kb in length. The genome encodes for the typical five proteins found in all rhabdoviruses: nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix (M), glycoprotein (G), and polymerase (L). However, there are three additional genes, U1-U3, that encode for proteins of unknown function. [13]

Life cycle

Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral G glycoproteins to host receptors, which mediate clathrin-mediated endocytosis. [14] [10] Replication follows the negative-stranded RNA virus replication model. Negative stranded RNA virus transcription, using polymerase stuttering is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by budding, and tubule-guided viral movement.

GenusHost detailsTissue tropismEntry detailsRelease detailsReplication siteAssembly siteTransmission
TibrovirusBovineNoneClathrin-mediated endocytosisBuddingCytoplasmCytoplasmZoonosis; arthropod bite: midges

Related Research Articles

Bluetongue disease

Bluetongue disease is a noncontagious, insect-borne, viral disease of ruminants, mainly sheep and less frequently cattle, yaks, goats, buffalo, deer, dromedaries, and antelope. It is caused by Bluetongue virus (BTV). The virus is transmitted by the midges Culicoides imicola, Culicoides variipennis, and other culicoids.

<i>Indiana vesiculovirus</i>

Indiana vesiculovirus, formerly Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae; the well-known Rabies lyssavirus belongs to the same family. VSIV can infect insects, cattle, horses and pigs. It has particular importance to farmers in certain regions of the world where it infects cattle. This is because its clinical presentation is identical to the very important foot and mouth disease virus.

<i>Rhabdoviridae</i>

Rhabdoviridae is a family of negative-strand RNA viruses in the order Mononegavirales. Vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants serve as natural hosts. Diseases associated with member viruses include rabies encephalitis caused by the rabies virus, and flu-like symptoms in humans caused by vesiculoviruses. The name is derived from Ancient Greek rhabdos, meaning rod, referring to the shape of the viral particles. The family has thirty genera.

<i>Bunyavirales</i> Order of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses

Bunyavirales is an order of segmented negative-strand RNA viruses with mainly tripartite genomes. Member viruses infect arthropods, plants, protozoans, and vertebrates. It is the only order in the class Ellioviricetes. The name Bunyavirales derives from Bunyamwera, where the original type species Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus was first discovered. Ellioviricetes is named in honor of late virologist Richard M. Elliott for his early work on bunyaviruses.

Arenavirus Family of RNA viruses

An arenavirus is a bisegmented ambisense RNA virus that is a member of the family Arenaviridae. These viruses infect rodents and occasionally humans. A class of novel, highly divergent arenaviruses, properly known as reptarenaviruses, have also been discovered which infect snakes to produce inclusion body disease. At least eight arenaviruses are known to cause human disease. The diseases derived from arenaviruses range in severity. Aseptic meningitis, a severe human disease that causes inflammation covering the brain and spinal cord, can arise from the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Hemorrhagic fever syndromes, including Lassa fever, are derived from infections such as Guanarito virus, Junin virus, Lassa virus, Lujo virus, Machupo virus, Sabia virus, or Whitewater Arroyo virus. Because of the epidemiological association with rodents, some arenaviruses and bunyaviruses are designated as roboviruses.

Viral hemorrhagic fever Type of illnesses

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a diverse group of animal and human illnesses in which fever and hemorrhage are caused by a viral infection. VHFs may be caused by five distinct families of RNA viruses: the families Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and several member families of the Bunyavirales order such as Arenaviridae, and Hantaviridae. All types of VHF are characterized by fever and bleeding disorders and all can progress to high fever, shock and death in many cases. Some of the VHF agents cause relatively mild illnesses, such as the Scandinavian nephropathia epidemica, while others, such as Ebola virus, can cause severe, life-threatening disease.

Oropouche fever

Oropouche fever is a tropical viral infection transmitted by biting midges and mosquitoes from the blood of sloths to humans. This disease is named after the region where it was first discovered and isolated at the Trinidad Regional Virus Laboratory in 1955 by the Oropouche River in Trinidad and Tobago. Oropouche fever is caused by a specific arbovirus, the Oropouche virus (OROV), of the Bunyaviridae family.

<i>Thogotovirus</i>

Thogotovirus is a genus of enveloped RNA viruses, one of seven genera in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. Their single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome has six or seven segments. Thogotoviruses are distinguished from most other orthomyxoviruses by being arboviruses – viruses that are transmitted by arthropods, in this case usually ticks. Thogotoviruses can replicate in both tick cells and vertebrate cells; one subtype has also been isolated from mosquitoes. A consequence of being transmitted by blood-sucking vectors is that the virus must spread systemically in the vertebrate host – unlike influenza viruses, which are transmitted by respiratory droplets and are usually confined to the respiratory system.

Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) also known as Three Day Sickness is an arthropod vector-borne disease of cattle and is caused by bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), a member of the genus Ephemerovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae.

Snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) is a novirhabdovirus that affects warm water wild and pond-cultured fish of various species in Southeast Asia, including snakehead for which it is named.

Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) is a retrovirus belonging to the genus Lentivirus. It is similar to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and infects cattle. The cells primarily infected are lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages.

<i>Schmallenberg orthobunyavirus</i>

Schmallenberg orthobunyavirus, also called Schmallenberg virus, abbreviated SBV, is a virus that causes congenital malformations and stillbirths in cattle, sheep, goats, and possibly alpaca. It appears to be transmitted by midges, which are likely to have been most active in causing the infection in the northern hemisphere summer and autumn of 2011, with animals subsequently giving birth from late 2011. Schmallenberg virus falls in the Simbu serogroup of orthobunyaviruses. It is considered to be most closely related to the Sathuperi and Douglas viruses.

Bas-Congo tibrovirus (BASV) is a poorly characterized rhabdovirus discovered in the blood of a patient who survived a severe illness resembling hemorrhagic fever. The virus was named after the former Democratic Republic of Congo province of Bas-Congo. BASV was discovered using next-generation sequencing and attempts to isolate the virus were not successful. BASV RNA has only been detected in one individual and its role as a human pathogen has not been established.

Batai orthobunyavirus (BATV) is a RNA virus belonging to order Bunyavirales, genus Orthobunyavirus.

Cache Valley orthobunyavirus (CVV) is a member of the order Bunyavirales, genus Orthobunyavirus, and serogroup Bunyamwera, which was first isolated in 1956 from Culiseta inornata mosquitos collected in Utah's Cache Valley. CVV is an enveloped arbovirus, nominally 80–120 nm in diameter, whose genome is composed of three single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments. The large segment of related bunyaviruses is approximately 6800 bases in length and encodes a probable viral polymerase. The middle CVV segment has a 4463-nucleotide sequence and the smallest segment encodes for the nucleocapsid, and a second non-structural protein. CVV has been known to cause outbreaks of spontaneous abortion and congenital malformations in ruminants such as sheep and cattle. CVV rarely infects humans, but when they are infected it has caused encephalitis and multiorgan failure.

Sigmavirus is a genus of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Sigmaviruses naturally infect dipterans.

Entebbe bat virus is an infectious disease caused by a Flavivirus that is closely related to yellow fever.

<i>Pneumoviridae</i> Family of viruses

Pneumoviridae is a family of negative-strand RNA viruses in the order Mononegavirales. Humans, cattle, and rodents serve as natural hosts. Respiratory tract infections are associated with member viruses such as human respiratory syncytial virus. There are five species in the family which are divided between the genera Metapneumovirus and Orthopneumovirus.

<i>Middelburg virus</i>

Middelburg virus (MIDV) is an alphavirus of the Old World Group that has likely endemic and zoonotic potential. It is of the viral family Togaviridae. It was isolated from mosquitos in 1957 in South Africa, MDIV antigens have now been found in livestock, horses, and humans.

Ekpoma viruses, including Ekpoma 1 tibrovirus (EKV-1) and Ekpoma 2 tibrovirus (EKV-2), are orphan viruses not associated with any disease. They are negative-sense RNA viruses and members of the rhabdovirus family. Both viruses were discovered in 2015 in blood samples collected from two healthy women living in Ekpoma, Nigeria. EKV-2 appears to be widespread and ~45% of people living in and around Ekpoma have been previously exposed. Both viruses have very broad cellular tropism and the ability to infect a wide range of human cancer cell lines. Neither virus has been isolated, hindering research.

References

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