Last updated

Sweetwater branch virus.jpg
Sweetwater Branch tibrovirus (530 nm to 690 nm and up to 900 nm long, 65 nm to 75 nm in diameter) [1]
Virus classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Kingdom: Orthornavirae
Phylum: Negarnaviricota
Class: Monjiviricetes
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Rhabdoviridae
Species [2]

Tibrovirus is a poorly characterized genus of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae , order Mononegavirales . There are 8 members of the genus. [3] Tibroviruses have been isolated from biting midges, cattle, and humans. None of the tibroviruses, except for Bas-Congo virus, have been associated with any diseases.


Genus members


BHV, BAV, SWBV and TIBV were isolated from biting midges, suggesting that midges are the major arthropod vector for these viruses. It is not known how BASV, EKV-1 and EKV-2 are transmitted.[ citation needed ]

Genetic divergence

Tibroviruses are highly divergent.  For example, overall amino acid homology among the human-associated tibroviruses (i.e. BASV, EKV-1 and EKV-2) ranges from 33% - 39%. [9]


Tibrovirus virions are enveloped, but only the morphology of Tibrogargan virus and Sweetwater branch virus have been observed by electron microscopy. [1]

GenusStructureSymmetryCapsidGenomic arrangementGenomic segmentation


Tibrovirus genomes are single-stranded, negative-sense RNA molecules approximately 13 kb in length. The genome encodes for the typical five proteins found in all rhabdoviruses: nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix (M), glycoprotein (G), and polymerase (L). However, there are three additional genes, U1-U3, that encode for proteins of unknown function. [13]

Life cycle

Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral G glycoproteins to host receptors, which mediate clathrin-mediated endocytosis. [14] [10] Replication follows the negative-stranded RNA virus replication model. Negative stranded RNA virus transcription, using polymerase stuttering is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by budding, and tubule-guided viral movement.[ citation needed ]

GenusHost detailsTissue tropismEntry detailsRelease detailsReplication siteAssembly siteTransmission
TibrovirusBovineNoneClathrin-mediated endocytosisBuddingCytoplasmCytoplasmZoonosis; arthropod bite: midges

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bluetongue disease</span> Viral disease in animals

Bluetongue disease is a noncontagious, insect-borne, viral disease of ruminants, mainly sheep and less frequently cattle, yaks, goats, buffalo, deer, dromedaries, and antelope. It is caused by Bluetongue virus (BTV). The virus is transmitted by the midges Culicoides imicola, Culicoides variipennis, and other culicoids.

<i>Rhabdoviridae</i> Family of viruses in the order Mononegavirales

Rhabdoviridae is a family of negative-strand RNA viruses in the order Mononegavirales. Vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, fungi and protozoans serve as natural hosts. Diseases associated with member viruses include rabies encephalitis caused by the rabies virus, and flu-like symptoms in humans caused by vesiculoviruses. The name is derived from Ancient Greek rhabdos, meaning rod, referring to the shape of the viral particles. The family has 40 genera, most assigned to three subfamilies.

<i>Lyssavirus</i> Genus of viruses

Lyssavirus is a genus of RNA viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Mammals, including humans, can serve as natural hosts. The genus Lyssavirus includes the rabies virus traditionally associated with the disease of the same name.

<i>Bunyavirales</i> Order of RNA viruses

Bunyavirales is an order of segmented negative-strand RNA viruses with mainly tripartite genomes. Member viruses infect arthropods, plants, protozoans, and vertebrates. It is the only order in the class Ellioviricetes. The name Bunyavirales derives from Bunyamwera, where the original type species Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus was first discovered. Ellioviricetes is named in honor of late virologist Richard M. Elliott for his early work on bunyaviruses.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Viral hemorrhagic fever</span> Type of illnesses

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a diverse group of animal and human illnesses. VHFs may be caused by five distinct families of RNA viruses: the families Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and several member families of the Bunyavirales order such as Arenaviridae, and Hantaviridae. All types of VHF are characterized by fever and bleeding disorders and all can progress to high fever, shock and death in many cases. Some of the VHF agents cause relatively mild illnesses, such as the Scandinavian nephropathia epidemica, while others, such as Ebola virus, can cause severe, life-threatening disease.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Oropouche fever</span> Medical condition

Oropouche fever is a tropical viral infection transmitted by biting midges and mosquitoes from the blood of sloths to humans. This disease is named after the region where it was first discovered and isolated at the Trinidad Regional Virus Laboratory in 1955 by the Oropouche River in Trinidad and Tobago. Oropouche fever is caused by a specific arbovirus, the Oropouche virus (OROV), of the Bunyaviridae family.

<i>Alphavirus</i> Genus of viruses

Alphavirus is a genus of RNA viruses, the sole genus in the Togaviridae family. Alphaviruses belong to group IV of the Baltimore classification of viruses, with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome. There are 32 alphaviruses, which infect various vertebrates such as humans, rodents, fish, birds, and larger mammals such as horses, as well as invertebrates. Alphaviruses that could infect both vertebrates and arthropods are referred dual-host alphaviruses, while insect-specific alphaviruses such as Eilat virus and Yada yada virus are restricted to their competent arthropod vector. Transmission between species and individuals occurs mainly via mosquitoes, making the alphaviruses a member of the collection of arboviruses – or arthropod-borne viruses. Alphavirus particles are enveloped, have a 70 nm diameter, tend to be spherical, and have a 40 nm isometric nucleocapsid.

<i>Orbivirus</i> Genus of viruses

Orbivirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses in the family Reoviridae and subfamily Sedoreovirinae. Unlike other reoviruses, orbiviruses are arboviruses. They can infect and replicate within a wide range of arthropod and vertebrate hosts. Orbiviruses are named after their characteristic doughnut-shaped capsomers.

Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) also known as Three Day Sickness is an arthropod vector-borne disease of cattle and is caused by bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), a member of the genus Ephemerovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae.

<i>Orthobunyavirus</i> Genus of viruses

Orthobunyavirus is a genus of the Peribunyaviridae family in the order Bunyavirales. There are currently ~170 viruses recognised in this genus. These have been assembled into 103 species and 20 serogroups.

Snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) is a novirhabdovirus that affects warm water wild and pond-cultured fish of various species in Southeast Asia, including snakehead for which it is named.

Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) is a retrovirus belonging to the genus Lentivirus. It is similar to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and infects cattle. The cells primarily infected are lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages.

<i>Schmallenberg orthobunyavirus</i> Species of virus

Schmallenberg orthobunyavirus, also called Schmallenberg virus, abbreviated SBV, is a virus that causes congenital malformations and stillbirths in cattle, sheep, goats, and possibly alpaca. It appears to be transmitted by midges, which are likely to have been most active in causing the infection in the Northern Hemisphere summer and autumn of 2011, with animals subsequently giving birth from late 2011. Schmallenberg virus falls in the Simbu serogroup of orthobunyaviruses. It is considered to be most closely related to the Sathuperi and Douglas viruses.

Bas-Congo tibrovirus (BASV) is a poorly characterized rhabdovirus discovered in the blood of a patient who survived a severe illness resembling hemorrhagic fever. The virus was named after the former Democratic Republic of Congo province of Bas-Congo. BASV was discovered using next-generation sequencing and attempts to isolate the virus were not successful. BASV RNA has only been detected in one individual and its role as a human pathogen has not been established.

Batai orthobunyavirus (BATV) is a RNA virus belonging to order Bunyavirales, genus Orthobunyavirus.

Cache Valley orthobunyavirus (CVV) is a member of the order Bunyavirales, genus Orthobunyavirus, and serogroup Bunyamwera, which was first isolated in 1956 from Culiseta inornata mosquitos collected in Utah's Cache Valley. CVV is an enveloped arbovirus, nominally 80–120 nm in diameter, whose genome is composed of three single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments. The large segment of related bunyaviruses is approximately 6800 bases in length and encodes a probable viral polymerase. The middle CVV segment has a 4463-nucleotide sequence and the smallest segment encodes for the nucleocapsid, and a second non-structural protein. CVV has been known to cause outbreaks of spontaneous abortion and congenital malformations in ruminants such as sheep and cattle. CVV rarely infects humans, but when they are infected it has caused encephalitis and multiorgan failure.

<i>Pneumoviridae</i> Family of viruses

Pneumoviridae is a family of negative-strand RNA viruses in the order Mononegavirales. Humans, cattle, and rodents serve as natural hosts. Respiratory tract infections are associated with member viruses such as human respiratory syncytial virus. There are five species in the family which are divided between the genera Metapneumovirus and Orthopneumovirus. The family used to be considered as a sub-family of Paramyxoviridae, but has been reclassified as of 2016.

<i>Middelburg virus</i> Species of virus

Middelburg virus (MIDV) is an alphavirus of the Old World Group that has likely endemic and zoonotic potential. It is of the viral family Togaviridae. It was isolated from mosquitos in 1957 in South Africa, MDIV antigens have now been found in livestock, horses, and humans.

Ekpoma viruses, including Ekpoma 1 tibrovirus (EKV-1) and Ekpoma 2 tibrovirus (EKV-2), are orphan viruses not associated with any disease. They are negative-sense RNA viruses and members of the rhabdovirus family. Both viruses were discovered in 2015 in blood samples collected from two healthy women living in Ekpoma, Nigeria. EKV-2 appears to be widespread and ~45% of people living in and around Ekpoma have been previously exposed. Both viruses have very broad cellular tropism and the ability to infect a wide range of human cancer cell lines. Neither virus has been isolated, hindering research.

<i>Orthornavirae</i> Kingdom of viruses

Orthornavirae is a kingdom of viruses that have genomes made of ribonucleic acid (RNA), those genomes encoding an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The RdRp is used to transcribe the viral RNA genome into messenger RNA (mRNA) and to replicate the genome. Viruses in this kingdom also share a number of characteristics involving evolution, including high rates of genetic mutations, recombinations, and reassortments.


  1. 1 2 Popov VL, Tesh RB, Weaver SC, Vasilakis N. Electron Microscopy in Discovery of Novel and Emerging Viruses from the Collection of the World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses (WRCEVA). Viruses. 2019;11(5):477. Published 2019 May 25. doi:10.3390/v11050477
  2. "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  3. "International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses - Tibrovirus genus". Archived from the original on 8 August 2019.
  4. Grard G, Fair JN, Lee D, et al. A novel rhabdovirus associated with acute hemorrhagic fever in central Africa [published correction appears in PLoS Pathog. 2016 Mar;12(3):e1005503] [published correction appears in PLoS Pathog. 2017 Sep 7;13(9):e1006583]. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8(9):e1002924. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002924
  5. Branco, Luis M.; Garry, Robert F. (3 December 2018). "Bas-Congo virus - not an established pathogen" . Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  6. Standfast, H. A.; Dyce, A. L.; St George, T. D.; Muller, M. J.; Doherty, R. L.; Carley, J. G.; Filippich, C., Isolation of arboviruses from insects collected at Beatrice Hill, Northern Territory of Australia, 1974-1976. Aust J Biol Sci1984, 37, (5-6), 351-66   
  7. 1 2 Gibbs, E. P.; Calisher, C. H.; Tesh, R. B.; Lazuick, J. S.; Bowen, R.; Greiner, E. C., Bivens Arm virus: a new rhabdovirus isolated from Culicoides insignis in Florida and related to Tibrogargan virus of Australia. Vet Microbiol1989, 19, (2), 141-50   
  8. Cybinski DH, Gard GP. Isolation of a new rhabdovirus in Australia related to Tibrogargan virus. Aust J Biol Sci. 1986;39(3):225–232. doi:10.1071/bi9860225
  9. 1 2 3 Stremlau MH, Andersen KG, Folarin OA, et al. Discovery of novel rhabdoviruses in the blood of healthy individuals from West Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9(3):e0003631. Published 2015 Mar 17. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003631
  10. 1 2 3 Caì Y, Yú S, Jangra RK, et al. Human, Nonhuman Primate, and Bat Cells Are Broadly Susceptible to Tibrovirus Particle Cell Entry. Front Microbiol. 2019;10:856. Published 2019 Apr 26. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.00856
  11. Cybinski, D. H.; St. George, T. D.; Standfast, H. A.; McGregor, A., Isolation of Tibrogargan virus, a new Australian rhabdovirus, from Culicoides brevitaris. Vet Microbiol1980, 5, 301-308   
  12. Cybinski, D. H.; Gard, G. P., Isolation of a new rhabdovirus in Australia related to Tibrogargan virus. Aust J Biol Sci1986, 39, (3), 225-32   
  13. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  14. Steffen I, Liss NM, Schneider BS, Fair JN, Chiu CY, Simmons G. Characterization of the Bas-Congo virus glycoprotein and its function in pseudotyped viruses. J Virol. 2013;87(17):9558–9568. doi:10.1128/JVI.01183-13