|1870 college football season|
|Total # of teams||3|
|Regular season||November 5 – November 12, 1870|
The 1870 college football season is regarded as the second United States intercollegiate football season. The season involved only three teams and two known games which took place in November 1870. As in 1869, the season's two games occurred about fifteen miles apart in New Brunswick and in Princeton, New Jersey.
A year after the first intercollegiate football games occurred between Rutgers College (now Rutgers University) and College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), a third team – Columbia College (now Columbia University) – joined them.
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The rules at this time were based on the football rules published by the London Football Association in 1863. These rules were the precursor to the modern rules of football (soccer), but they included elements similar to rugby football that would be important in the evolution of American football.
Teams scored “goals” by kicking a round ball between two goal posts on a goal line. The ball was advanced by kicking it, although passes to players in front of the ball were not permitted.
Under the 1863 Association rules, any player could catch a ball that had been kicked or had bounced only one time but could not run with the ball. Following such a catch, that player could pass the ball to another player or have a free kick from that spot. If a ball passed the goal line without going between the posts, the team whose player touched it first was awarded a free kick. If that team was the defending team, the free kick was taken from the point on the goal line closest to where the defending team touched the ball. If that team was the attacking team, it took the free kick from the spot that was 15 yards from the point on the goal line closest to where the attacking team touched the ball.
The Association rules left certain fundamental rules of the game unspecified. The rules did not specify the size of each team, the duration of a game or whether play would be subject to breaks. These and other matters were agreed by teams (or stipulated by the home team) prior to each game. As such, the Association rules introduced a certain uniformity to the rules of football, but much like football played in English public schools at the time, the actual rules applied varied somewhat game-to-game.
On Saturday November 5, Rutgers beat Columbia 6–3 on the Rutgers’ campus in New Brunswick, New Jersey. A week later, on November 12, Princeton defeated Rutgers 6–2 on the Princeton campus in Princeton, New Jersey, in a rematch of 1869’s two-game series.
Princeton was the only one of the three teams that did not suffer a defeat in 1870 and is thus able to claim to have had the first undefeated season, albeit having played only one game. Although it would be several decades before the idea of a “national champion” would take hold, the NCAA has recognized three poll selectors – the Billingsley Report, the National Championship Foundation, and Parke H. Davis – that retroactively awarded Princeton the 1870 college football national championship.
Although only three teams participated in intercollegiate football in 1870, football was played, as it had been for many years and with varying degrees of acceptance, at other schools in the north-eastern United States. At Vermont, the annual football game between the freshman and sophomore classes was held on 5 October.At Dartmouth, the faculty initially banned the sport in autumn 1870, but reversed course in late October. On October 29, the faculty permitted a football match to be held, for which the school furnished the balls, made the regulations and appointed an umpire.
Other schools, such as Yaleand Harvard, banned the game outright. On 31 October, a Yale student was arrested after a group of sophomores were caught playing football on New Haven Green. Following the arrest, a group of 200 students gathered outside the police station and one student, Arthur Wilson, was seriously injured after being clubbed over the head by a policeman (Officer Kelly). A committee of students complained to the Police Commissioners who split 2–2 (the Mayor abstained) on bringing charges against the officers.
|1870 college football records|
College football is gridiron football consisting of American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States.
The history of American football can be traced to early versions of rugby football and association football. Both games have their origin in multiple varieties of football played in the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century, in which a football is kicked at a goal or kicked over a line, which in turn were based on the varieties of English public school football games descending from medieval ball games.
The Rutgers Scarlet Knights are the athletic teams that represent Rutgers University's New Brunswick campus. In sports, Rutgers is chiefly known for being the "Birthplace of College Football", hosting the first ever intercollegiate football game on November 6, 1869 in which Rutgers defeated a team from the College of New Jersey with a score of 6 runs to 4.
The Columbia Lions football program is the intercollegiate American football team for Columbia University. The team competes in the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) and are members of the Ivy League. The Columbia football team is the third oldest college football program in the United States: Columbia played Rutgers University in the fourth college football game, on November 12, 1870, in New Jersey. It was the first interstate football game. The first three college football games were played between Princeton and Rutgers in 1869 and 1870. Columbia plays its home games at the 17,000-seat Wien Stadium in Inwood, Manhattan, the northernmost neighborhood on Manhattan island.
American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team with possession of the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with the ball or passing it, while the defense, the team without possession of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and to take control of the ball for themselves. The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs or plays; if they fail, they turn over the football to the defense, but if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs to continue the drive. Points are scored primarily by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins.
The 1908 college football season ran from Saturday, September 19, to November 28. The Penn Quakers and the Harvard Crimson both finished the season unbeaten, though each had been tied once during the season. The LSU Tigers went unbeaten and untied against a weaker opposition. All three teams were named national champions retroactively by various organizations. Only Pennsylvania officially claims a national championship for the 1908 season.
The Princeton Tigers football program represents Princeton University and competes at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) level as a member of the Ivy League. Princeton's football program—along with the football program at nearby Rutgers University—began in 1869 with a contest that is often regarded as the beginnings of American Football.
The 1869 college football season was the first season of intercollegiate football in the United States. While played using improvised rules more closely resembling soccer and rugby than modern gridiron football, it is traditionally considered the inaugural college football season. The 1869 season consisted of only two games, both between Rutgers and Princeton. The first was played on November 6 at Rutgers' campus, and the second was played on November 13 at Princeton's campus. Both games were won by the home team.
The 1881 Michigan Wolverines football team represented the University of Michigan in the 1881 college football season. While the University of Michigan had fielded "football" teams in 1879 and 1880, those teams played a game that was more in line with traditional rugby, and many consider the 1881 team to be the first at Michigan to play American football. The team finished with a record of 0–3 after playing the top teams in the country – Harvard, Yale and Princeton.
Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball to score a goal. Unqualified, the word football normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called football include association football ; gridiron football ; Australian rules football; rugby football ; and Gaelic football. These various forms of football share to varying extent common origins and are known as football codes.
The 1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game occurred between the College of New Jersey and Rutgers College played on November 6, 1869. The rules governing play were based on the London Football Association's 1863 rules that disallowed carrying or throwing the ball. For spectators, therefore, the game more closely resembled soccer than gridiron football. Moreover, the match was played with a soccer ball. As a result, it is considered the first collegiate soccer match and the birth of soccer in the United States.
The 1879 Navy Midshipmen football team represented the United States Naval Academy in the 1879 college football season. The team was the first intercollegiate football squad to represent the United States Naval Academy. The team had no coach, as it was entirely student-operated; however, it was captained by squad member Bill Maxwell. The team played just a single game, which was a scoreless tie with the Baltimore Athletic Club. The team was entirely student operated, and was not supported by the Naval Academy's faculty. The school would not have another football squad until 1882.
The 1882 Navy Midshipmen football team represented the United States Naval Academy in the 1882 college football season. The team was the second intercollegiate football squad to represent the United States Naval Academy, and the first since 1879. The team was coached by player-coach Vaulx Carter, and was entirely student-operated. It was captained by squad member Alex Jackson. The team played just a single game, an 8 to 0 (8–0) shutout of Johns Hopkins, which was the school's first ever win. The squad was entirely student operated, and was not supported by the Naval Academy's faculty. The season would mark the beginning of eight season rivalry between the Midshipmen and Johns Hopkins.
The 1881 Princeton Tigers football team represented the College of New Jersey, then more commonly known as Princeton College, in the 1881 college football season. The team finished with a 7–0–2 record and was retroactively named national champion by the Billingsley Report and as co-national champion by Parke H. Davis. This season marked Princeton's 11th national championship in a 13-year period between 1869 and 1881. P. T. Bryan was the captain of the team.
The 1883 Navy Midshipmen football team represented the United States Naval Academy in the 1883 college football season. The team was the third intercollegiate football squad to represent the United States Naval Academy, and the first time the school participated in consecutive seasons. The squad was captained by member Frank Hill. The team played just a single game, a 2 to 0 (2–0) shutout loss to Johns Hopkins, which was the school's first ever loss. The squad was the first to have the approval of the academy's staff, and is regarded as the first official game played by the Midshipmen. The season continued a seven-season, eight game rivalry between the Naval Academy and Johns Hopkins.
The 1884 Navy Midshipmen football team represented the United States Naval Academy in the 1884 college football season. The team was the fourth intercollegiate football squad to represent the United States Naval Academy, and was the final time the school played a single-game season. The squad was captained by rusher Jim Kittrell. The team's single game was a 9 to 6 (9–6) defeat of rival-school Johns Hopkins. The season continued a seven-season, eight game rivalry between the Naval Academy and Johns Hopkins. It was the final season that a Naval Academy team would go unbeaten and untied.
The 1883 Princeton Tigers football team represented the College of New Jersey, then more commonly known as Princeton College, in the 1883 college football season. The team finished with a 7–1 record and outscored opponents 238 to 26, using the new scoring rules introduced by Walter Camp. The Tigers won their first seven games before losing the final game of the season to Yale in New York.
The early history of American football can be traced to early versions of rugby football and association football. Both games have their origin in varieties of football played in Britain in the mid–19th century, in which a football is kicked at a goal or run over a line, which in turn were based on the varieties of English public school football games.
The Intercollegiate Football Association (IFA), also known as the American Intercollegiate Football Association, was one of the earliest college football rules-making and scheduling organizations in existence; it was active from the 1873 to 1893 seasons. The IFA teams, Columbia, Harvard, Princeton, and Yale, are now members of the Ivy League.
A free kick is a method of restarting play in association football. It is awarded after an infringement of the laws by the opposing team.