|1918 college football season|
|Number of bowls||1|
|Champion(s)|| Michigan |
The 1918 college football season was a season of college football in the United States. There was no consensus champion, with the Official NCAA Division I Football Records Book listing Michigan and Pittsburgh as national champions.
World War I's impact on colleges in the country, and the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918 eliminated most of that year's scheduled college football games.However, to boost morale of the troops, many military organizations fielded teams to play against collegiate programs. This is exemplified no more strongly than in a letter published in the Spalding Guide from US president Woodrow Wilson:
"It would be difficult to over-estimate the value of football experience as a part of a soldier's training. The army athletic directors and the officers in charge of special training schools in the cantoments have derived excellent results from the use of elementary football and other personal contact games as an aid in developing the aggressiveness, initiative and determination of recruits, and the ability to carry on in spite of bodily hurts or physical discomforts. These qualities, as you well know, were the outstanding characteristics of the American soldier." -Woodrow Wilson (1919 letter)
A huge military offensive was planned by the Allied countries in the spring of 1919, so all able-bodied men of ages 18 to 20 were scheduled to be drafted in the fall of 1918. As an alternative, the men were offered the option of enlisting in the Student Army Training Corps, known as SATC, which would give them a chance to pursue (or continue pursuing) their educations at the same time as they participated in a 12-week war-training session. This was essentially an alternative to boot camp. The colleges were paid by the government to train the future soldiers, which enabled many of them to avoid closure. The program began on October 1, 1918.Most of the students who were potential football players were under the auspices of the War Department's SATC program.
In an early September meeting between college and War Department officials in Plattsburg, Missouri it became clear that the training regimen envisioned for the soldiers could be incompatible with participation in intercollegiate athletics.On September 13, 1918 newspapers around the country reported that the War Department had asked colleges to reexamine their football schedules. In August and September, athletics backers successfully argued that athletics training was an important part of military training, and the season was back on.
The influenza outbreak was colloquially called Spanish flu. Most flu outbreaks disproportionately kill juvenile, elderly, or already weakened patients, but the 1918 pandemic predominantly killed previously healthy young adults.To maintain morale, wartime censors minimized early reports of illness and mortality in Germany, the United Kingdom, France, and the United States. Papers were free to report the epidemic's effects in neutral Spain (such as the grave illness of King Alfonso XIII). This created a false impression of Spain as especially hard hit, thereby giving rise to the pandemic's nickname, "Spanish Flu". By the end of the pandemic, between three and five percent of the world population had died as a result, making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history.
|School||1917 Conference||1918 Conference|
|Carlisle Indians||Independent||School closed|
|Southern Methodist Mustangs||Independent||Southwest|
Perhaps the highest profile game was a highly publicized War Charities benefit staged at Forbes Field in Pittsburgh in front of many of the nation's top sports writers, including Walter Camp. The game pitted John Heisman's undefeated, unscored upon, and defending national champion Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets against "Pop" Warner's Pittsburgh Panthers who were sitting on a 30-game win streak. Pitt defeated Georgia Tech 32–0.
The Rose Bowl, then the only bowl game, pitted the Mare Island Marines of California and the Great Lakes Navy from Illinois. It was a celebration of victory following the end of fighting in World War I on November 11, 1918. Great Lakes Navy defeat Mare Island, 17–7.
|Central Intercollegiate Athletics Association||No champion||—|
|Inter-Normal Athletic Conference of Wisconsin||No champion||—|
|Kansas Collegiate Athletic Conference||College of Emporia||—|
|Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association||No champion||—|
|Nebraska Intercollegiate Conference||Unknown||—|
|Ohio Athletic Conference||Wittenberg||3–0|
|Oklahoma Intercollegiate Conference||No champion||—|
|Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference||No champion||—|
|Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference||Talladega||—|
The consensus All-America team included:
|HB||Tom Davies||5'8"||158||Fr.||Gas City, Indiana||Pittsburgh|
|HB||Wolcott Roberts||5'7"||160||So.||Elmwood, Illinois||Navy|
|FB||Tank McLaren||185||Sr.||Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania||Pittsburgh|
|E||Paul Robeson||6'3"||219||Sr.||Princeton, New Jersey||Rutgers|
|T||Pete Henry||5'10"||230||Jr.||Mansfield, Ohio||Washington & Jefferson|
|T||Lou Usher||Jr.||Chicago, Illinois||Syracuse|
|G||Doc Alexander||5'11"||210||So.||Silver Creek, New York||Syracuse|
|C||Bum Day||5'10"||190||Fr.||Nashville, Georgia||Georgia Tech|
|C||Jack Depler||5'10"||220||So.||Lewistown, Illinois||Illinois|
|G||Lyman Perry||Sr.||Andover, Ohio||Navy|
|T||Leonard Hilty||Sr.||Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania||Pittsburgh|
|T||Joe Guyon||5'11"||184||Sr.||Magdalena, New Mexico||Georgia Tech|
|E||Bill Fincher||6'0"||182||So.||Atlanta, Georgia||Georgia Tech|
A pandemic is an epidemic of an infectious disease that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple continents or worldwide, affecting a substantial number of people. A widespread endemic disease with a stable number of infected people is not a pandemic. Widespread endemic diseases with a stable number of infected people such as recurrences of seasonal influenza are generally excluded as they occur simultaneously in large regions of the globe rather than being spread worldwide.
The Spanish flu was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 influenza A virus. Lasting from February 1918 to April 1920, it infected 500 million people – about a third of the world's population at the time – in four successive waves. The death toll is typically estimated to have been somewhere between 20 million and 50 million, although estimates range from a conservative 17 million to a possible high of 100 million, making it one of the deadliest pandemics in human history.
The post–World War I recession was an economic recession that hit much of the world in the aftermath of World War I. In many nations, especially in North America, economic growth continued and even accelerated during World War I as nations mobilized their economies to fight the war in Europe. After the war ended, the global economy began to decline. In the United States, 1918–1919 saw a modest economic retreat, but the second part of 1919 saw a mild recovery. A more severe recession hit the United States in 1920 and 1921, when the global economy fell very sharply.
An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads across a large region and infects a large proportion of the population. There have been five in the last 140 years, with the 1918 flu pandemic being the most severe; this pandemic is estimated to have been responsible for the deaths of 50–100 million people. The most recent, the 2009 swine flu pandemic, resulted in under a million deaths and is considered relatively mild. These pandemics occur irregularly.
The 13th Division was an infantry division of the United States Army. It was established at Camp Lewis, Washington, in 1918, during World War I. The war ended before the division saw combat, and it was inactivated in 1919.
Camp Merritt was a military base in Dumont and Cresskill, in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States, that was activated for use in World War I. It had a capacity for 38,000 transient troops and was one of three camps directly under the control of the New York Port of Embarkation. Two routes were used to transport troops, the first being local railroads which would carry the men South. The alternate route involved marching in contingents of two to three thousand men to the North-East and descending the Palisades. These men marched for an hour to board ferryboats at Old Closter Dock, Alpine Landing that took them to the piers at Hoboken, New Jersey to board troop transports for Europe. Contingents would leave the camp for the landing at half hour intervals to board the ferries for the two hour trip to the embarkation piers where several transports might be loading simultaneously. There they would be joined by troops from Camp Mills and Camp Upton arriving by train at a terminal on Long Island for final transport by ferry to the embarkation piers. Approximately four million troops were sent to the Western Front during World War I, about one million of them passed through Camp Merritt. Camp Merritt was decommissioned in 1919.
Spanish flu research concerns studies regarding the causes and characteristics of the "Spanish flu," a variety of influenza that in 1918 was responsible for the worst influenza pandemic in modern history. Many theories about the origins and progress of the Spanish flu persisted in the literature, but it was not until 2005, when various samples of lung tissue were recovered from American World War I soldiers and from an Inupiat woman buried in permafrost in a mass grave in Brevig Mission, Alaska, that significant genetic research was made possible.
The 2009 pandemic of Swine influenza lasted about 19 months, from January 2009 to August 2010, and was the most recent flu pandemic involving H1N1 influenza virus. The first two discoveries were independently made in the United States in April 2009. The virus appeared to be a new strain of H1N1 that resulted from a previous triple reassortment of bird, swine, and human flu viruses and that further combined with a Eurasian pig flu virus, leading to the term "swine flu".
In 1976, an outbreak of the swine flu, influenza A virus subtype H1N1 at Fort Dix, New Jersey caused one death, hospitalized 13, and led to a mass immunization program. After the program began, the vaccine was associated with an increase in reports of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, which can cause paralysis, respiratory arrest, and death. The immunization program was ended after approximately 25% of the population of the United States had been administered the vaccine.
The 1918 Nebraska Cornhuskers football team was the representative of the University of Nebraska in the 1918 college football season. The team was coached by William G. Kline and played their home games at Nebraska Field in Lincoln, Nebraska.
The 1918 Pittsburgh Panthers football team represented the University of Pittsburgh in the 1918 college football season. In a season cut short by the Spanish flu pandemic, coach Pop Warner led the Panthers in a schedule played all in one month, including a convincing victory in a highly publicized game over defending national champion and unscored-upon Georgia Tech. A highly controversial loss ended the season and snapped a 32-game Pitt winning streak, but the Panthers outscored opponents 140–16 in that short season and were retroactively selected as the national champion by the Helms Athletic Foundation and Houlgate System and as a co-national champion with Michigan by the National Championship Foundation.
The 1918 VPI Gobblers football team represented Virginia Polytechnic Institute, now known as Virginia Tech, in the 1918 college football season. The 1918 team went 7–0 and claims a South Atlantic Intercollegiate Athletic Association (SAIAA) championship. It is the only team in Virginia Tech history that finished the season with a perfect record.
The 1918 Detroit Tigers football team was an American football team that represented the University of Detroit in the 1918 college football season. The team compiled a 0–2 record and was outscored by its opponents by a combined total of 19 to 2.
The 1918 Big Ten Conference football season was the 23rd season of college football played by the member schools of the Big Ten Conference and was a part of the 1918 college football season.
Max Carl Starkloff was an American physician and the Health Commissioner for St. Louis, Missouri, from 1895 to 1903 and from 1911 to 1933. He is noted for closing all public venues and prohibiting public gatherings of more than 20 people in October 1918 during the 1918 influenza pandemic. His actions are credited as being an early instance in modern medicine of social distancing.
The Philadelphia Liberty Loans Parade was a parade in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on September 28, 1918, organized to promote government bonds that helped pay for the needs of Allied troops in World War I. More than 200,000 Philadelphians attended the parade, which led to one of the largest outbreaks of the Spanish flu in the United States. It has since been declared the deadliest parade in American history.
The 1957–1958 Asian flu pandemic was a global pandemic of influenza A virus subtype H2N2 that originated in Guizhou in southern China. The number of deaths caused by the 1957–1958 pandemic is estimated between one and four million worldwide, making it one of the deadliest pandemics in history. A decade later, a reassorted viral strain H3N2 further caused the Hong Kong flu pandemic (1968–1969).
1918 flu pandemic in India was the outbreak of an unusually deadly influenza pandemic in India between 1918 and 1920 as a part of the worldwide Spanish flu pandemic. Also referred to as the Bombay Influenza or the Bombay Fever in India, the pandemic is believed to have killed up to 17 – 18 million people in the country, the most among all countries. David Arnold (2019) estimates at least 12 million dead, about 5% of the population. The decade between 1911 and 1921 was the only census period in which India’s population fell, mostly due to devastation of the Spanish flu pandemic. The death toll in India's British-ruled districts was 13.88 million.
John Dill Robertson was a medical professional and politician. He served as Health Commissioner and President of the Board of Education in Chicago. In 1927, Robertson ran a third-party campaign for Chicago mayor.