February 1961

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February 1, 1961: U.S. launches first Minuteman ICBM Minuteman3launch.jpg
February 1, 1961: U.S. launches first Minuteman ICBM
February 1, 1961: Touch-tone phone tested by Bell ATTtelephone-large.jpg
February 1, 1961: Touch-tone phone tested by Bell
February 14, 1961: New element created Electron shell 103 Lawrencium.svg
February 14, 1961: New element created

The following events occurred in February 1961:

Contents

February 1, 1961 (Wednesday)

February 2, 1961 (Thursday)

February 3, 1961 (Friday)

February 4, 1961 (Saturday)

February 5, 1961 (Sunday)

February 6, 1961 (Monday)

February 7, 1961 (Tuesday)

February 8, 1961 (Wednesday)

February 9, 1961 (Thursday)

February 10, 1961 (Friday)

February 11, 1961 (Saturday)

February 12, 1961 (Sunday)

February 13, 1961 (Monday)

February 14, 1961 (Tuesday)

February 15, 1961 (Wednesday)

February 16, 1961 (Thursday)

February 17, 1961 (Friday)

February 18, 1961 (Saturday)

February 19, 1961 (Sunday)

February 20, 1961 (Monday)

February 21, 1961 (Tuesday)

February 22, 1961 (Wednesday)

February 23, 1961 (Thursday)

February 24, 1961 (Friday)

February 25, 1961 (Saturday)

February 26, 1961 (Sunday)

February 27, 1961 (Monday)

February 28, 1961 (Tuesday)

Related Research Articles

Patrice Lumumba 20th-century Congolese Prime Minister and leader

Patrice Émery Lumumba was a Congolese politician and independence leader who served as the first Prime Minister of the independent Democratic Republic of the Congo from June until September 1960. He played a significant role in the transformation of the Congo from a colony of Belgium into an independent republic. Ideologically an African nationalist and pan-Africanist, he led the Congolese National Movement (MNC) party from 1958 until his assassination.

Moïse Tshombe Congolese politician and secessionist leader (1919–1969)

Moïse Kapend Tshombe was a Congolese businessman and politician. He served as the president of the secessionist State of Katanga from 1960 to 1963 and as prime minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1964 to 1965.

Cold War (1953–1962) Phase of the Cold War

The Cold War (1953–1962) discusses the period within the Cold War from the death of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in 1953 to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. Following the death of Stalin, new leaders attempted to "de-Stalinize" the Soviet Union causing unrest in the Eastern Bloc and members of the Warsaw Pact. In spite of this there was a calming of international tensions, the evidence of which can be seen in the signing of the Austrian State Treaty reuniting Austria, and the Geneva Accords ending fighting in Indochina. However, this period of good happenings was only partial with an expensive arms race continuing during the period and a less alarming, but very expensive space race occurring between the two superpowers as well. The addition of African countries to the stage of cold war, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo joining the Soviets, caused even more unrest in the West.

Congo Crisis 1960–1965 war fought in the Congo

The Congo Crisis was a period of political upheaval and conflict in the Republic of the Congo between 1960 and 1965. The crisis began almost immediately after the Congo became independent from Belgium and ended, unofficially, with the entire country under the rule of Joseph-Désiré Mobutu. Constituting a series of civil wars, the Congo Crisis was also a proxy conflict in the Cold War, in which the Soviet Union and the United States supported opposing factions. Around 100,000 people are believed to have been killed during the crisis.

United Nations Operation in the Congo 1960s United Nations military operation

The United Nations Operation in the Congo was a United Nations peacekeeping force deployed in the Republic of the Congo in 1960 in response to Congo Crisis. ONUC was the UN's first peacekeeping mission with significant military capabilities, and remains one of the largest UN operations in both scale and operational scope.

State of Katanga 1960–1963 unrecognised state in Africa

The State of Katanga, also sometimes denoted as the Republic of Katanga, was a breakaway state that proclaimed its independence from Congo-Léopoldville on 11 July 1960 under Moise Tshombe, leader of the local Confédération des associations tribales du Katanga (CONAKAT) political party. The new Katangese state did not enjoy full support throughout the province and was constantly plagued by ethnic strife in its northernmost region. It was dissolved in 1963 following an invasion by United Nations Operation in the Congo (ONUC) forces, and reintegrated with the rest of the country as Katanga Province.

The Congo, short for the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is an equatorial country located in central Africa. As of July 2018, the CIA World Factbook lists the Congo containing over 85 million inhabitants representing over 200 African ethnic groups. French is the country's official language, and Catholics comprise the largest religious group at fifty percent. The Congo was colonized by King Leopold II of Belgium in 1885, and known as Belgian Congo until independence in 1960. In recent decades, the CIA has been involved in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, especially in relation to the CIA's considerations and plans to assassinate former Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba. Patrice Lumumba was the legally elected first prime minister of the independent country. Lumumba was killed on January 17, 1961, at the age of thirty-five near Élisabethville, Katanga. Even before the independence of the Congo, the U.S. government attempted to facilitate the election of a pro-western government by identifying and supporting individual pro-U.S. leaders. The CIA was also notably involved in a campaign against Lumumba's successor, which led to his eventual imprisonment and long exile from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The CIA was also a vital part of the United States' efforts to aid Joseph Mobutu, who took control of the Congo in 1965 and renamed the country Zaire and himself Mobutu Sese Seko. The CIA would work heavily with Mobutu, particularly in relation to American support for the National Liberation Front of Angola and Jonas Savimbi's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola.

Simba rebellion

The Simba rebellion of 1963–65, also known as the Orientale Revolt, was a rebellion in the Democratic Republic of the Congo which took place within the wider context of the Congo Crisis and the Cold War. The rebellion, located in the east of the country, was led by the followers of Patrice Lumumba, who had been ousted from power in 1960 by Joseph Kasa-Vubu and Joseph-Désiré Mobutu and subsequently killed in January 1961 in Katanga. The rebellion was contemporaneous with the Kwilu Rebellion led by fellow Lumumbist Pierre Mulele in central Congo.

July 1960 Month of 1960

The following events occurred in July 1960:

The following events occurred in August 1960:

September 1960 Month of 1960

The following events occurred in September 1960:

November 1960 Month of 1960

The following events occurred in November 1960:

December 1960 Month of 1960

The following events occurred in December 1960:

January 1961 Month of 1961

The following events occurred in January 1961:

September 1961 Month of 1961

The following events occurred in September 1961:

The United States foreign policy during the presidency of John F. Kennedy from 1961 to 1963 included John F. Kennedy's diplomatic and military initiatives in Western Europe, Southeast Asia, and Latin America, all conducted amid considerable Cold War tensions with the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Kennedy deployed a new generation of foreign policy experts, dubbed "the best and the brightest". In his inaugural address Kennedy encapsulated his Cold War stance: "Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate".

The following lists events that happened during 1960 in the Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville).

Thomas Kanza

Thomas Rudolphe Kanza or Nsenga Kanza was a Congolese diplomat. He was one of the first Congolese nationals to graduate from a university. From 1960–1962 he served as the Democratic Republic of the Congo 's first ambassador to the United Nations and from 1962–1964 was a delegate to the United Kingdom. His opposition to the governments of Moïse Tshombe and Joseph-Désiré Mobutu led him to first rebel and ultimately flee the Congo. He returned in 1983 and resumed politics. From Mobutu's ousting in 1997 until his own death, Kanza served in diplomatic roles for the Congo.

Free Republic of the Congo Former rival government in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Free Republic of the Congo, often referred to as Congo-Stanleyville, was a short-lived rival government to the Republic of the Congo (Congo-Léopoldville) based in the eastern Congo and led by Antoine Gizenga.

Charles Daniel Kisolokele Lukelo was a Congolese politician and a key member of the Kimbanguist Church. He was appointed a minister of state in the first Congolese government and later served as Minister of Parastatals and Minister of Work and Social Welfare.

References

  1. "Touch-Tone Telephone Tested In Greensburg", Associated Press report in Warren (PA) Times Mirror, February 2, 1961, p10
  2. "The MINUTEMAN Ballistic Missile Test Program", Federation of American Scientists; "US Minuteman Missile Lands on Ocean Target", Milwaukee Journal, February 1, 1961, p1
  3. Neil A. Hamilton and Ian C. Friedman, Presidents: A Biographical Dictionary (Infobase Publishing, 2009) p406
  4. "Santa Maria Passengers Go Ashore", Milwaukee Journal, February 2, 1961, p1
  5. "America's Top Secret Doomsday Plane", by Kenneth J. Stein, Popular Mechanics (May 1994) pp 38-41
  6. James A. Abbott, Elaine M. Rice, Designing Camelot: The Kennedy White House Restoration (John Wiley and Sons, 1997) p68
  7. Aviation Safety Network
  8. "Angola: Revolts, 1961", in Encyclopedia of African History, Volume 1 (Kevin Shillington, ed.) (CRC Press, 2005) p143; "Angola Crushes Armed Uprising", New York Times, February 5, 1961, p1
  9. "U.S. Reports Five Russian Space Failures", St. Petersburg (FL) Times, September 6, 1962, p1
  10. Bertil Lintner, Great Game East: India, China, and the Struggle for Asia's Most Volatile Frontier (Yale University Press, 2015) p260
  11. Thant Myint-U, The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007) p288
  12. Arnold H. Leibowitz, Defining Status: A Comprehensive Analysis of United States Territorial Relations (Martinus Nijhoff, 1989) p527
  13. Richard Ben Cramer, Joe DiMaggio: The Hero's Life (Simon and Schuster, 2001) pp390-391
  14. "Jail for 7 in Anti-Trust Suit", Chicago Daily Tribune, February 7, 1961, p1
  15. "The Heavy Electrical Equipment Antitrust Cases of 1961", by Gilbert Geis, in White-Collar Criminal: The Offender in Business And the Professions (Transaction Publishers, 1968) p103
  16. Mary P. Callahan, Making Enemies: War and State Building in Burma (Cornell University Press, 2003) pp198-200
  17. "Ileo, Joseph", in Historical Dictionary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, by Emizet Francois Kisangani and Scott F. Bobb (Scarecrow Press, 2009) p228
  18. Morgan Tsvangirai: At the Deep End, by Morgan Tsvangirai, with T. William Bango (Eye Books, 2011)
  19. J.R.T. Wood, So Far and No Further!: Rhodesia's Bid for Independence During the Retreat from Empire 1959-1965 (Trafford Publishing, 2012) pp74-75
  20. Richard W. Orloff and David M. Harland, Apollo: The Definitive Sourcebook (Springer, 2006) p10
  21. Nat Fleischer and Sam Andre, An Illustrated History of Boxing (Citadel Press, 2001) p205
  22. Sean M. Maloney, Learning to Love the Bomb: Canada's Nuclear Weapons During the Cold War (Potomac Books, 2007) p232
  23. Arthur Slade, John Diefenbaker (Dundurn Press, 2001) p103
  24. R.A. Medvedev, Personality and Epoch: Political Portrait of L.I. Brezhnev (1991); "Plane Attack Shocks Moscow", Miami News, February 10, 1961, p1
  25. "Red Chief's Plane Fired On — French Jets 'Attack' off Africa Coast", Chicago Daily Tribune, February 10, 1961, p1
  26. "French Try To Soothe Red Anger", Miami News, February 11, 1961, p1
  27. Daniel M. Dumych, Images of America, Volume 2: Niagara Falls, Volume 2 (Arcadia Publishing, 1998) p128
  28. Rose Ngomba-Roth, The Challenges of Conflict Resolution in Africa: The Case of Cameroon-Nigerian Border Conflict (LIT Verlag Münster, 2008) p86
  29. "Black Firsts: Politics, Entertainment, Sports and Other Fields", by Lerone Bennett Jr., Ebony Magazine (March 1982) p128
  30. Robert Silverberg, First American Into Space (Monarch Books, 1961) pp36-37; "7-Ton Sputnik Is Fired", Miami News, February 4, 1961, p1; "RUSS FIRE VENUS SHOT-- Piggyback Space Station Rides Sputnik", Milwaukee Sentinel, February 13, 1961, p1
  31. R. K. Renfield and Richard K. Stinson, Venus (Rosen Publishing Group, 2004 ) pp 14-15
  32. "Lumumba Dead; Reported Massacred By Villagers", Toledo Blade, February 13, 1961, p1; Robert Hopkins Miller, Vietnam and Beyond: A Diplomat's Cold War Education (Texas Tech University Press, 2002) p43
  33. Greg Bishop, et al., Weird California (Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 2006) p32
  34. "Isotope Found Of 'Dead' Element-- 4 Nuclear Scientists Make 'Lawrencium'", Toledo Blade, April 13, 1961, p2
  35. "Students Riot in Moscow", Pittsburgh Press, February 14, 1961, p1; "Mob Battles Guards Over Congo Debate", February 15, 1961, p1
  36. "Rigged Riots Blast West In Moscow", Milwaukee Sentinel, February 15, 1961, p1
  37. John Allen, Apartheid South Africa: An Insider's Overview of the Origin and Effects of Separate Development (iUniverse, 2005) p350
  38. Craig Nelson, Rocket Men: The Epic Story of the First Men on the Moon (Penguin, 2010)
  39. "U.S. ICE TEAM KILLED IN CRASH", Pittsburgh Press, February 15, 1961, p1
  40. http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/Reference+Desk/Selected+Milestones+in+the+Presidency+of+John+F.+Kennedy.htm [ bare URL ]
  41. USS South Dakota/USS Huron
  42. Lawrence S. Wittner, Resisting the Bomb: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement, 1954-1970 (Stanford University Press, 1997) p188
  43. "Injured Boy In Well Minds Dad And Lives", Miami News, February 20, 1961, p1
  44. "Parliament Dissolved By Belgian King", Toledo Blade, February 20, 1961, p2
  45. Blair Jackson, Garcia: An American Life (Penguin, 2000) p32
  46. Jane Boulden, Peace Enforcement: The United Nations Experience in Congo, Somalia, and Bosnia (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001) p29
  47. Biteghe 1990 , p. 59
  48. James Fisher, Historical Dictionary of Contemporary American Theater, 1930-2010 (Scarecrow Press, 2011) p170
  49. "Actress Wants To Leave So TV Show Arranges "Death", Ocala (FL) Star-Banner, February 28, 1961, p6; Hal Erickson, Encyclopedia of Television Law Shows: Factual and Fictional Series About Judges, Lawyers and the Courtroom, 1948-2008 (McFarland, 2009) p95
  50. Robert K. Headland, The Island of South Georgia (Cambridge University Press Archive, 1992) p103
  51. [ bare URL ]
  52. Paul Lendvai, One Day That Shook the Communist World: The 1956 Hungarian Uprising and Its Legacy (Princeton University Press, 2008) p224
  53. "Hungarian Who Led '56 Revolt Is Buried as a Hero", New York Times, June 17, 1989
  54. ""About IranAir"". Archived from the original on 2012-04-07. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
  55. "Attempt on Gliding Altitude Record", Flying Magazine (October 1983); Al Blackburn, Aces Wild: The Race for Mach 1 (Rowman & Littlefield, 1999) p201
  56. Aéronautique Internationale verified records (accessed April 6, 2012)
  57. "Davey and Pal Make TV Bow", Hartford Courant, February 18, 1961, p11
  58. "The News of Television- Saturday Morning", Philadelphia Daily News, February 24, 1961, p32
  59. Peter Spearritt, Sydney's Century: A History (UNSW Press, 1999) p141
  60. Meera Srivastava, Constitutional Crisis in the States in India (Concept Publishing Company, 1980) p50
  61. "Sputnik 7". NSSDC (NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center). Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  62. Wesley T. Huntress, Jr. and Mikhail Ya. Marov, Soviet Robots in the Solar System: Mission Technologies and Discoveries (Springer, 2011) p98
  63. "Morocco's King Dies; Led Freedom Fight; Country in Mourning", Schenectady (N.Y.) Gazette, February 27, 1961, p1
  64. "Harvard Prof. Kissinger New Kennedy Consultant", Boston Globe, February 28, 1961, p8; "'Limited War' Expert Named Kennedy Aide", Oxnard (CA) Press-Courier, February 28, 1961, p2
  65. Cornell University Law School
  66. Dolores L. Augustine, Red Prometheus: Engineering and Dictatorship in East Germany, 1945-1990 (MIT Press, 2007) p119