October 1961

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October 27-28, 1961: U.S. tanks and Soviet tanks face off for 16 hours at the border between East and West Berlin Tensions ran high at Checkpoint Charlie in 1961 as Easterners fled to West, Berlin Wall went up.jpg
October 27–28, 1961: U.S. tanks and Soviet tanks face off for 16 hours at the border between East and West Berlin
October 1, 1961: Maris gets 61st home run and an asterisk in last game of the season Roger Maris 1960.png
October 1, 1961: Maris gets 61st home run and an asterisk in last game of the season
October 30, 1961: 50-megaton Tsar Bomba, largest ever, tested Tsar Bomba Revised.jpg
October 30, 1961: 50-megaton Tsar Bomba, largest ever, tested
October 3, 1961: The Dick Van Dyke Show premieres Dick Van Dyke Petrie family 1963.JPG
October 3, 1961: The Dick Van Dyke Show premieres

The following events occurred in October 1961:


October 1, 1961 (Sunday)

DIA seal Seal of the US Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA).png
DIA seal

October 2, 1961 (Monday)

October 3, 1961 (Tuesday)

October 4, 1961 (Wednesday)

October 5, 1961 (Thursday)

October 6, 1961 (Friday)

October 7, 1961 (Saturday)

October 8, 1961 (Sunday)

October 9, 1961 (Monday)

October 10, 1961 (Tuesday)

October 11, 1961 (Wednesday)

October 12, 1961 (Thursday)

October 13, 1961 (Friday)

October 14, 1961 (Saturday)

October 15, 1961 (Sunday)

October 16, 1961 (Monday)

October 17, 1961 (Tuesday)

October 18, 1961 (Wednesday)

October 19, 1961 (Thursday)

October 20, 1961 (Friday)

October 21, 1961 (Saturday)

October 22, 1961 (Sunday)

October 23, 1961 (Monday)

October 24, 1961 (Tuesday)

October 25, 1961 (Wednesday)

October 26, 1961 (Thursday)

October 27, 1961 (Friday)

October 28, 1961 (Saturday)

October 29, 1961 (Sunday)

October 30, 1961 (Monday)

October 31, 1961 (Tuesday)


Related Research Articles

Cuban Missile Crisis Confrontation between the U.S. and Soviet Union over ballistic missiles in Cuba

The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962, the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 1 month, 4 day confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union which escalated into an international crisis when American deployments of missiles in Italy and Turkey were matched by Soviet deployments of similar ballistic missiles in Cuba. Despite the short time frame, the Cuban Missile Crisis remains a defining moment in U.S. national security and nuclear war preparation. The confrontation is often considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war.

Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1963 international agreement prohibiting all non-underground nuclear testing

The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground. It is also abbreviated as the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT) and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), though the latter may also refer to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which succeeded the PTBT for ratifying parties.

Nikita Khrushchev 1950–1964 First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev was a Soviet politician who served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 and as chairman of the country's Council of Ministers from 1958 to 1964. During his rule, Khrushchev stunned the communist world with his denunciation of Stalin's crimes and began de-Stalinization. He sponsored the early Soviet space program, and enactment of relatively liberal reforms in domestic policy. After some false starts, and a narrowly avoided nuclear war over Cuba, he conducted successful negotiations with the United States to reduce Cold War tensions. His proclivity toward recklessness led the Kremlin leadership to strip him of power, replacing him with Leonid Brezhnev as First Secretary and Alexei Kosygin as Premier.


Brinksmanship, or Brinkmanship, is the practice of trying to achieve an advantageous outcome by pushing dangerous events to the brink of active conflict. The tactic occurs in international politics, foreign policy, labor relations, and in contemporary military strategy by involving the threat of nuclear weapons, and high-stakes litigation. The maneuver of pushing a situation with the opponent to the brink succeeds by forcing the opponent to back down and make concessions. That might be achieved through diplomatic maneuvers by creating the impression that one is willing to use extreme methods rather than concede.

Cold War 1947–1991 tension between the Soviet Union and the United States and their respective allies

The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc, which began following World War II. Historians do not fully agree on its starting and ending points, but the period is generally considered to span the 1947 Truman Doctrine to the 1991 Dissolution of the Soviet Union. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two superpowers, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict was based around the ideological and geopolitical struggle for global influence by these two superpowers, following their temporary alliance and victory against Nazi Germany in 1945. Aside from the nuclear arsenal development and conventional military deployment, the struggle for dominance was expressed via indirect means such as psychological warfare, propaganda campaigns, espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events and technological competitions such as the Space Race.

Cold War (1953–1962)

The Cold War (1953–1962) discusses the period within the Cold War from the death of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in 1953 to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. Following the death of Stalin, new leaders attempted to "de-Stalinize" the Soviet Union causing unrest in the Eastern Bloc and members of the Warsaw Pact. In spite of this there was a calming of international tensions, the evidence of which can be seen in the signing of the Austrian State Treaty reuniting Austria, and the Geneva Accords ending fighting in Indochina. However, this period of good happenings was only partial with an expensive arms race continuing during the period and a less alarming, but very expensive space race occurring between the two superpowers as well. The addition of African countries to the stage of cold war, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo joining the Soviets, caused even more unrest in the west.

Presidency of John F. Kennedy U.S. presidential administration from 1961 to 1963

John F. Kennedy's tenure as the 35th president of the United States, began with his inauguration on January 20, 1961, and ended with his assassination on November 22, 1963. A Democrat from Massachusetts, he took office following the 1960 presidential election, in which he narrowly defeated Richard Nixon, the then-incumbent vice president. He was succeeded by Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson.

Berlin Crisis of 1961 Cold War incident in divided Berlin

The Berlin Crisis of 1961 occurred between 4 June – 9 November 1961, and was the last major politic-military European incident of the Cold War about the occupational status of the German capital city, Berlin, and of post–World War II Germany. The Berlin Crisis started when the USSR launched an ultimatum demanding the withdrawal of all armed forces from Berlin, including the Western armed forces in West Berlin. The crisis culminated in the city's de facto partition with the East German erection of the Berlin Wall.

January 1961 Month of 1961

The following events occurred in January 1961:

June 1961 Month of 1961

The following events occurred in June 1961:

July 1961 Month of 1961

The following events occurred in July 1961:

August 1961 Month of 1961

The following events happened in August 1961:

September 1961 Month of 1961

The following events occurred in September 1961:

December 1961 Month of 1961

The following events occurred in December 1961:

February 1962 Month of 1962

The following events occurred in February 1962:

The foreign policy of the John F. Kennedy administration was the foreign policy of the United States from 1961 to 1963 while John F. Kennedy was president. Interactions with foreign nations during this period included diplomatic and military initiatives in Western Europe, Southeast Asia, and Latin America, all conducted amid considerable Cold War tensions with the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Kennedy deployed a new generation of foreign policy experts, dubbed "the best and the brightest". In his inaugural address Kennedy encapsulated his Cold War stance: "Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate".

October 1962 Month of 1962

The following events occurred in October 1962:

November 1962 Month of 1962

The following events occurred in November 1962:

July 1963 Month of 1963

The following events occurred in July 1963:

June 1963 Month of 1963

The following events occurred in June 1963:


  1. "TV Weekly", p4, Ottawa Citizen, September 30, 1961; Michael Nolan, CTV, the Network that Means Business (University of Alberta, 2001) p5
  2. "'I'm The Only Man To Hit 61 Homers!'", Miami News, October 2, 1961, p1C
  3. "Kid Who Caught It To Pay Folks' Debt", Miami News, October 2, 1961, p1C
  4. Stephen L. Bishop, Legal Oppositional Narrative: A Case Study in Cameroon (Lexington Books, 2008) p xvi
  5. Defense Intelligence Agency 35 Years: A Brief History (DIA History Office, 1996) p5
  6. "Inventory of the Lester Wunderman Papers, 1946-2010 and undated", Rubenstein Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Duke University
  7. David John Marley, Pat Robertson: An American Life (Rowman & Littlefield, 2007) p23
  8. "Verwoerd's Assailant A Suicide", Miami News, October 2, 1961, p6A
  9. Barun Kumar De, Public System Management (New Age International, 2007) p125
  10. Betty White, Here We Go Again: My Life in Television (Simon and Schuster, 2010) p132
  11. "De Gaulle Plans Plea For Unity", Toledo Blade, October 2, 1961, p1
  12. James W. Roman, From Daytime to Primetime: the History of American Television Programs (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005)
  13. James D. Woods, The Columbia Reader on Lesbians and Gay Men in Media, Society, and Politics (Columbia University Press, 1999) p292
  14. "Election Ends Fianna Fail's Dail Majority", Chicago Tribune, October 7, 1961, pB9
  15. Townsend Davis, Weary Feet, Rested Souls: A Guided History of the Civil Rights Movement (W. W. Norton & Company, 1999); "Police Arrest 116 Students", Eugene (OR) Register-Guard, October 5, 1961, p1
  16. Kristin Ross, May 1968 and Its Afterlives (University of Chicago Press, 2002) pp52-54
  17. Chia-Jui Cheng, Basic Documents on International Trade Law (BRILL, 1990) p15
  18. USCode.House.gov
  19. M. Taylor Fravel, Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China's Territorial Disputes (Princeton University Press, 2008) p91; "Curfew Is Imposed on Paris Algerians", New York Times, October 6, 1961, p11
  20. "The Two Germanies", by C.G. Schweitzer, in Politics and Government in Germany, 1944-1994: Basic Documents (Berghahn Books, 1995) p74
  21. "No Sign Of Survivors In French Air Crash", Miami News, October 8, 1961, p1
  22. James S. Olson, Historical Dictionary of the 1960s (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999) pp48, 135
  23. Frederick Taylor, The Berlin Wall: A World Divided, 1961-1989 (HarperCollins, 2008) p303
  24. Theodore H. White, The Making of the President 1964 (Atheneum Publishers, 1965) p96
  25. "Ireland Wins US Grand Prix", Montreal Gazette, October 9, 1961, p20
  26. "Sidelines for Phil Hill; Champion Driver to Be Official Sunday", New York Times, October 4, 1961, p57
  27. "YANKEES WIN THE SERIES BY SMASHING REDS, 13-5", Miami News, October 9, 1961, p1
  28. "Reds Will Refuse Order To Register", Miami News, October 10, 1961, p3A
  29. Samuels, Norman (1963). "Experiences Of A Medical Officer On Tristan Da Cunha, June-October, 1961". The British Medical Journal . 2 (5364): 1013–1017. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5364.1013. JSTOR   25396038. PMC   1873161 . PMID   14059407.
  30. "Volcano Rips Island", Miami News, October 11, 1961, p1
  31. "Martin, Marietta Approve Merger", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 9, 1961, p2-8; Kenneth W. Thompson, The Structure and Functions of Governance: Its National and International Setting (University Press of America, 1992) p76
  32. Robert A. Saunders, Vlad Strukov, Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation (Scarecrow Press, 2010) p584
  33. N. Piers Ludlow, Dealing with Britain: The Six and the First UK Application to the EEC (Cambridge University Press, 1997) p7
  34. Harold C. Relyea and L. Elaine Halchin, Informing Congress: The Role of the Executive Branch in Times of War (Nova Publishers, 2003) p28
  35. Oleg Bukharin, et al., Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces (MIT Press, 2004) p463
  36. "X-15 Cracks Its Windshield 40 Miles Up", St. Petersburg (FL) Times, October 12, 1961, p1
  37. Gary L. Albrecht, et al., Handbook of Disability Studies (SAGE, 2001) p46
  38. Maxine N. Lurie and Marc Mappen, Encyclopedia of New Jersey (Rutgers University Press, 2004) p741
  39. "You May Travel To Moon By '75", Miami News, October 11, 1961, p3A
  40. "Bob Newhart Offers Sharp Wit", Gadsden (AL) Times, October 12, 1961, p12
  41. "Bowling Pros Start 1st Season", St. Joseph (MO) News-Press, October 13, 1961, p15
  42. "Detroit Bowlers Take National League Title", New York Times, May 7, 1962
  43. "Death Penalty Abolished in New Zealand", Glasgow Herald, October 13, 1961, p13
  44. "The Premier Of Urundi Is Killed From Ambush", Miami News, October 14, 1961, p1
  45. René Lemarchand, Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide (Cambridge University Press, 1996) p54
  46. "Syria Gets UN Seat", Ottawa Citizen, October 14, 1961, p18
  47. "Peace Corps Incident in Nigeria", Glasgow Herald, October 17, 1961, p9
  48. "The infamous Peace Corps postcard", PeaceCorpsWriters.org
  49. Tristan da Cunha Recent History
  50. Civil Planes Grounded in Defense Alert, 1961/10/16 (1961). Universal Newsreel. 1961. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
  51. "Air Line Flights Halt Today For Sky Shield Test", Chicago Tribune, October 14, 1961, p1; "Mock Bomber Attack Over U.S., Canada Set for Weekend", Saskatoon (Sask.) Star-Phoenix, October 10, 1961, p7; "'This Is Only a Test'", by Roger A. Mola, Air & Space Magazine (March 2002)
  52. Robert Emmet Long, Broadway, the Golden Years: Jerome Robbins and the Great Choreographer-Directors, 1940 to the Present (Continuum International, 2003) p158
  53. "Democracy in Turkey", by Bernard Lewis, in The Making and Unmaking of Democracy: Lessons from History and World Politics (Routledge, 2003) p233
  54. "Search Ends For Missing Air Force Jet", The News and Courier (Charleston SC), October 20, 1961, p10-B
  55. Gian J. Quasar, Into the Bermuda Triangle: Pursuing the Truth behind the World's Greatest Mystery (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2005) p26, Bermuda-Triangle.org
  56. John Clearwater, U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Canada (Dundurn Press Ltd., 1999) p119
  57. Chen, Wai-Fah; Duan, Lian (2013-10-11). Handbook of International Bridge Engineering. CRC Press. ISBN   9781439810293.
  58. Julia Child and Alex Prud'Homme, My Life in France (Random House Digital, Inc., 2006) p308
  59. "Cork Airport History". Archived from the original on 2012-05-22. Retrieved 2011-09-26.
  60. Robert Gildea, France since 1945 (Oxford University Press, 1996) p
  61. Susan Peterson, Crisis Bargaining and the State: The Domestic Politics of International Conflict (University of Michigan Press, 1996) p182; "Russia Offers To Drop German Treaty Deadline If West Will Negotiate", Toledo Blade , October 17, 1961, p1
  62. Matthew Evangelista, Unarmed Forces: The Transnational Movement to End the Cold War (Cornell University Press, 2002) p72 "Khrushchev's Bomb Boast Spreads Dismay In West", Tuscaloosa News, October 18, 1961, p1
  63. "Albania gets spanking from Khrushchev", Long Beach (CA) Press-Courier, October 18, 1961, p26
  64. "NIKITA BOASTS OF 1980 UTOPIA", Pittsburgh Press , October 18, 1961, p1
  65. "K. Assails Former Soviet Leaders As Rebels", Tuscaloosa News , October 17, 1961, p1
  66. Walter Mirisch, I Thought We Were Making Movies, Not History (University of Wisconsin Press, 2008) p128
  67. Zehra F. Kabasakal Arat, Human Rights Worldwide: A Reference Handbook (ABC-CLIO, 2006) p194
  68. "White Vote Strengthens Verwoerd", Ottawa Citizen, October 20, 1961, p17
  69. Arthur Lall, Modern International Negotiation: Principles and Practice (Columbia University Press, 1966) p167
  70. Norman Polmar and Michael White, Project Azorian: The CIA and the Raising of the K-129 (Naval Institute Press, 2010) p21
  71. "U.S. Can Destroy Soviet Even If Attacked First, Top Pentagon Aid Says", Toledo Blade, October 22, 1961, p1; Jonathan Haslam, Russia's Cold War: From the October Revolution to the Fall of the Wall (Yale University Press, 2011) p197
  72. Shane J. Maddock, Nuclear Apartheid: the Quest for American Atomic Supremacy from World War II to the Present (UNC Press Books, 2010)
  73. Heiner Klinkrad, Space Debris: Models and Risk Analysis (Birkhäuser, 2006) pp86-87; "Band Of Needles Put In Orbit In U.S. Radio Test", Toledo Blade, October 22, 1961
  74. "U-Boat Launched by West Germans", New York Times, October 22, 1961, p1
  75. Thomas C. Blackburn, December's Child: A Book of Chumash Oral Narratives (University of California Press, 1980) p5
  76. "GIs Crack Berlin Barrier", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 23, 1961, p1; Michael Burgan, The Berlin Wall: Barrier to Freedom (Compass Point Books, 2008) pp65-66
  77. Martin Munro, Exile and Post-1946 Haitian Literature (Liverpool University Press, 2007) p141
  78. Fred Bronson, The Billboard Book of Number 1 Hits (Random House, 2003) p74
  79. Arnold P. Kaminsky and Roger D. Long, eds., India Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic (ABC-CLIO, 2011) p473
  80. "Chou Russia Exit Hints Wider Rift", Pittsburgh Press, October 24, 1961, p1; Lawrence C. Reardon, The Reluctant Dragon: Crisis Cycles in Chinese Foreign Economic Policy (University of Washington Press, 2002) p109
  81. Juan Williams, Thurgood Marshall: American Revolutionary (Random House, 2000)
  82. "Nehru Warns Lisbon", New York Times, October 24, 1961, p3
  83. Supplement of the Government Gazette 31 October 1961 No. 11,346
  84. Richard F. Hirsh, Glimpsing an Invisible Universe: The Emergence of X-ray Astronomy (Cambridge University Press, 1983) p42-43
  85. Frank Brenchley, Britain and the Middle East: Economic History, 1945-87 (I. B. Tauris, 1989) p155
  86. Resolutions and Statements of the United Nations Security Council: (1946 - 1989), Karel C. Wellens, ed. (Martinus Nijhoff, 1990) p596
  87. "Turkey's New President", Ottawa Citizen, October 26, 1961, p59
  88. Mohamed C. Othman, Accountability for International Humanitarian Law Violations: The Case of Rwanda and East Timor (Birkhäuser, 2005) p8
  89. Amnon Kabatchnik, Blood on the Stage, 1950-1975: Milestone Plays of Crime, Mystery and Detection(Scarecrow Press, 2011) p98
  90. "Soviet Tanks in E. Berlin! U.S. Armor Faces Reds at Border", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 27, 1961, p1; "Muscle at Checkpoint Charlie", TIME Magazine, November 3, 1961
  91. "OK Outer Mongolia, Mauritania", Milwaukee Sentinel, October 28, 1961, p3
  92. "U.S. Strides Toward Moon", , Milwaukee Sentinel, October 28, 1961, p1; Ben Evans, Foothold in the Heavens: The Seventies (Springer, 2010) p70
  93. John Grasso, Historical Dictionary of Basketball (Scarecrow Press, 2010) p34
  94. "ABL Opens Amid Rules Confusion", Miami News, October 28, 1961, p2B
  95. Richard Clogg, Parties and Elections in Greece: the Search for Legitimacy (Duke University Press, 1987) p41
  96. Michael Kort and Cathal J Nolan, Weapons of Mass Destruction (Infobase Publishing, 2010) pp77-78
  97. "The Khariton Version", by Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (May 1993) p30
  98. The Miami News, ed. (October 30, 1961). "Two Big Russian Explosions Nikita Fires Super Bomb". Associated Press.
  99. Lawrence S. Wittner, Resisting the Bomb: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement, 1954-1970 (Stanford University Press, 1997) p340
  100. " Belize Marked 45th Anniversary of Deadly Hurricane Hattie" Archived 2012-07-23 at the Wayback Machine , Belize National Emergency Management Organization
  101. Thomas Reed, At the Abyss: An Insider's History of the Cold War (Random House, 2005) p29
  102. CNN Interactive – Almanac – October 31, CNN, (October 31) 1961, Russia's de-Stalinization program reached a climax when his body was removed from the mausoleum in Red Square and re-buried.
  103. Syrian Air – About Us Archived 2010-04-18 at the Wayback Machine