July 1961

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July 21, 1961: U.S. astronaut Gus Grissom escapes sinking space capsule on return to Earth Grissom lifted from water 61-MR4-82.jpg
July 21, 1961: U.S. astronaut Gus Grissom escapes sinking space capsule on return to Earth
July 2, 1961: Author Ernest Hemingway commits suicide Ernest Hemingway 1950 crop.jpg
July 2, 1961: Author Ernest Hemingway commits suicide
July 4, 1961: Soviet nuclear sub K-19 has reactor accident K-19.jpg
July 4, 1961: Soviet nuclear sub K-19 has reactor accident
July 23, 1961: Higashikuni Shigeko, Princess of Japan, dies aged 35 of cancer Higashikuni Shigeko (1959).jpg
July 23, 1961: Higashikuni Shigeko, Princess of Japan, dies aged 35 of cancer

The following events occurred in July 1961:


July 1, 1961 (Saturday)

July 2, 1961 (Sunday)

July 3, 1961 (Monday)

July 4, 1961 (Tuesday)

July 5, 1961 (Wednesday)

July 6, 1961 (Thursday)

July 7, 1961 (Friday)

July 8, 1961 (Saturday)

July 9, 1961 (Sunday)

July 10, 1961 (Monday)

July 11, 1961 (Tuesday)

July 12, 1961 (Wednesday)

July 12, 1961: TIROS weather satellite launched by U.S. TIROS VI satellite used in Parade of Progress Show.jpg
July 12, 1961: TIROS weather satellite launched by U.S.

July 13, 1961 (Thursday)

July 14, 1961 (Friday)

July 15, 1961 (Saturday)

July 16, 1961 (Sunday)

July 17, 1961 (Monday)

July 18, 1961 (Tuesday)

July 19, 1961 (Wednesday)

Memorial for 670 killed in French attack on Tunisian protesters Monument des martyrs Bizerte.jpg
Memorial for 670 killed in French attack on Tunisian protesters

July 20, 1961 (Thursday)

July 21, 1961 (Friday)

Gus Grissom Grissom prepares to enter Liberty Bell 7 61-MR4-76.jpg
Gus Grissom

July 22, 1961 (Saturday)

July 23, 1961 (Sunday)

July 24, 1961 (Monday)

July 25, 1961 (Tuesday)

July 26, 1961 (Wednesday)

July 27, 1961 (Thursday)

July 28, 1961 (Friday)

July 29, 1961 (Saturday)

July 30, 1961 (Sunday)

July 31, 1961 (Monday)

Related Research Articles

Cuban Missile Crisis Confrontation between the U.S. and Soviet Union over ballistic missiles in Cuba

The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962, the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 1 month, 4 day confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union which escalated into an international crisis when American deployments of missiles in Italy and Turkey were matched by Soviet deployments of similar ballistic missiles in Cuba. Despite the short time frame, the Cuban Missile Crisis remains a defining moment in U.S. national security and nuclear war preparation. The confrontation is often considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war.


Brinksmanship, or Brinkmanship, is the practice of trying to achieve an advantageous outcome by pushing dangerous events to the brink of active conflict. The tactic occurs in international politics, foreign policy, labor relations, and in contemporary military strategy by involving the threat of nuclear weapons, and high-stakes litigation. The maneuver of pushing a situation with the opponent to the brink succeeds by forcing the opponent to back down and make concessions. That might be achieved through diplomatic maneuvers by creating the impression that one is willing to use extreme methods rather than concede.

Cold War (1953–1962)

The Cold War (1953–1962) discusses the period within the Cold War from the death of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in 1953 to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. Following the death of Stalin, new leaders attempted to "de-Stalinize" the Soviet Union causing unrest in the Eastern Bloc and members of the Warsaw Pact. In spite of this there was a calming of international tensions, the evidence of which can be seen in the signing of the Austrian State Treaty reuniting Austria, and the Geneva Accords ending fighting in Indochina. However, this period of good happenings was only partial with an expensive arms race continuing during the period and a less alarming, but very expensive space race occurring between the two superpowers as well. The addition of African countries to the stage of cold war, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo joining the Soviets, caused even more unrest in the west.

May 1960 Month of 1960

The following events occurred in May 1960:

July 1959 Month of 1959

The following events occurred in July 1959:

September 1959 Month of 1959

The following events occurred in September 1959:

January 1960 Month of 1960

The following events occurred in January 1960:

November 1960 Month of 1960

The following events occurred in November 1960:

January 1961 Month of 1961

The following events occurred in January 1961:

May 1961 Month of 1961

The following events occurred in May 1961:

June 1961 Month of 1961

The following events occurred in June 1961:

August 1961 Month of 1961

The following events happened in August 1961:

September 1961 Month of 1961

The following events occurred in September 1961:

October 1961 Month of 1961

The following events occurred in October 1961:

February 1962 Month of 1962

The following events occurred in February 1962:

June 1962 Month of 1962

The following events occurred in June 1962:

July 1962 Month of 1962

The following events occurred in July 1962:

October 1962 Month of 1962

The following events occurred in October 1962:

December 1962 Month of 1962

The following events occurred in December 1962:

July 1963 Month of 1963

The following events occurred in July 1963:


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  9. "Incumbents Win Mexican Election", Miami News, July 3, 1961, p2
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  12. "GUN KILLS ERNEST HEMINGWAY", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 3, 1961, p1
  13. "A Loyal Filipino, MacArthur Returns", Miami News, July 3, 1961, p2
  14. "New Korea Coup; Chang Quits", Miami News, July 3, 1961, p1
  15. Holly Dressel, Who Killed the Queen?: the Story of a Community Hospital and How to Fix Public Health Care (McGill-Queen's Press) p204
  16. "Rush On To Send The Ships To Sea", Miami News, July 4, 1961, p1
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  23. Phillip C. Naylor, Historical Dictionary of Algeria (Scarecrow Press, 2006) pp130-131
  24. "108 Czech Miners Die in Blaze", Spokane Spokesman-Review, July 9, 1961, p1
  25. Blaze at Dukla mine in Karviná on July 7th, 1961 Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine (in Czech)
  26. "McKinley No Match for Laver in Wimbledon Final", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 8, 1961, p2-3
  27. Terry Crowdy, Military Misdemeanors: Corruption, Incompetence, Lust and Downright Stupidity (Osprey Publishing, 2007) p204
  28. "237 Perish In Sea Blast", Miami News, July 10, 1961, p1
  29. Patsy Sims, The Klan (University Press of Kentucky, 1996) p94
  30. "Angela Wins Wimbledon Singles Title", Miami News, July 9, 1961, p2-C
  31. Vincent Bugliosi, Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy (W. W. Norton & Company, 2007) p616
  32. Allan F. Tatham, Enlargement of the European Union (Kluwer Law International, 2009) pp 28-29; "Pact Links Greece with Common Market", New York Times, July 10, 1961
  33. Jacob M. Landau, Radical Politics in Modern Turkey (BRILL, 1974) p9
  34. Vladislav M. Zubok, A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in the Cold War from Stalin to Gorbachev (UNC Press Books, 2007) p141
  35. "'Axis Sally' Walks Jauntily Out Of Prison", Miami News, July 10, 1961, p1
  36. Bank Regulatory Structure: The Federal Republic of Germany (DIANE Publishing, 1994) p9
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  39. "ANOTHER PLANE CRASHES, 17 KILLED", Miami News, July 12, 1961, p1
  40. "U.S. Midas 'Spies' on Russ — Weather Eye Also Launched", Milwaukee Sentinel, July 13, 1961, p1
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  42. Walter J. Boyne, Air Warfare: an International Encyclopedia: A-L (ABC-CLIO, 2002) pp170-171
  43. Lech Wałęsa and Arkadiusz Rybicki, The Struggle and the Triumph: An Autobiography (Arcade Publishing, 1992) p95
  44. Colin Evans, Blood on the Table: The Greatest Cases of New York City's Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (Penguin, 2008)
  45. Spokane Spokesman-Review, July 12, 1961, p1
  46. E. Randall Floyd, Great Southern Mysteries (Barnes & Noble Publishing, 2000) p76
  47. Jim Brandon Weird America: A Guide to Places of Mystery in the United States (Dutton, 1978)
  48. Gerry Kennedy and Rob Churchill, The Voynich Manuscript: The Unsolved Riddle of an Extraordinary Book Which Has Defied Interpretation for Centuries (Orion, 2004) p242
  49. "Identical Triplets Reunited After 19 Years Apart", Daytona Beach Morning Journal, September 24, 1980, p1
  50. Elyse Schein and Paula Bernstein, Identical Strangers: A Memoir of Twins Separated and Reunited (Random House Digital, Inc., 2008)
  51. Crowe-Grande, Trish (9 August 2020). "Exploring the early years of Newmarket literary icon Mazo de la Roche". NewmarketToday.ca. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  52. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics (Cambridge University Press, 2006) p222
  53. "Governor Takes Control As Finn Crisis Ends", Deseret News (Salt Lake City), July 15, 1961, p1
  54. Christophe Jaffrelot, A History of Pakistan and Its Origins (Anthem Press, 2004) pp70-71
  55. "Negro Beats Niagara Falls", Miami News, July 16, 1961, p1
  56. Langley, Brig C A (22 December 1961), Report on the Collision at Singleton Bank (PDF), HMSO, retrieved 2009-01-10; "Train Crash Fatal to Six- 125 Others Are Hurt in Britain on Way to Sea Coast", Milwaukee Journal, July 17, 1961, p2
  57. "200 Red Guerillas Killed In Viet Trap", Miami News, July 17, 1961, p1
  58. "Russ Goof, So Brumel Just Ties Thomas' Mark", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 19, 1961, p2-2
  59. "Brumel Ends On Top Over John Thomas", Edmonton Journal, July 17, 1961, p9
  60. Robert P. Clark, The Basques, the Franco Years and Beyond (University of Nevada Press, 1979) p157
  61. Walter Laqueur, Voices of terror: Manifestos, Writings, and Manuals of Al Qaeda, Hamas, and Other Terrorists from around the World and throughout the Ages (Sourcebooks, Inc., 2004) p500
  62. Mark Gilbert, Surpassing Realism: The Politics of European Integration since 1945 (Rowman & Littlefield, 2003) p91
  63. Geoffrey A. Hosking, Church, Nation and State in Russia and Ukraine (CIUS Press, 1990) p318
  64. Douglas Gomery, Shared Ppleasures: A History of Movie Presentation in the United States (University of Wisconsin Press, 1992) p141
  65. "Navy Base At Bizerte Ringed By Tunisians", Miami News, July 19, 1961, p1 (first edition)
  66. "Tunis Fires On Helicopter Over Bizerte", Miami News, July 19, 1961, p1 (final edition)
  67. "TUNISIANS, FRENCH OPEN FIRE", Windsor (Ont.) Star, July 19, 1961, p1
  68. Christopher Alexander, Tunisia (Taylor & Francis, 2010) p90
  69. "Airliner Crashes, All 67 Killed", Miami News, July 19, 1961, p1
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  71. Malik Mufti, Sovereign Creations: Pan-Arabism and Political Order in Syria and Iraq (Cornell University Press, 1996) pp133-134
  72. Norman Mailer, Oswald's Tale: An American Mystery (Random House, 1995) p235, 295
  73. "GRISSOM SAVED, CAPSULE LOST", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 22, 1961, p1; "It Was a Good Flight and a Great Float", by Virgil Grissom, LIFE Magazine, July 28, 1961, p27
  74. "Salvage team finds Mercury capsule", Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, May 3, 1999, p7A; "Gus Grissom's Space Capsule Recovered", Toledo Blade, July 21, 1999, p14
  75. Francis French, et al., Into That Silent Sea: Trailblazers of the Space Era, 1961-1965 (University of Nebraska Press, 2009) pp79-90
  76. "'We've Got Only One Gus But Plenty Of Capsules'", Ottawa Citizen, July 21, 1961, p1
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  80. On July 7, the 1961 Council voted 32-17 to accept. "San Marino OKs Britain's Offer For War Damage", Youngstown Vindicator, July 6, 1961, p5
  81. Stephen E. Atkins, Encyclopedia of Modern Worldwide Extremists and Extremist Groups (Greenwood Publishing, 2004) p97
  82. Michael Newton, The Encyclopedia of Kidnappings (Infobase Publishing, 2002) p214
  83. Video and text of speech Archived 2011-06-05 at the Wayback Machine , "Report on the Berlin Crisis" MillerCenter.org
  84. "U.S. WILL FIGHT FOR BERLIN, PRESIDENT WARNS RUSSIANS", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 26, 1961, p1
  85. Dee Garrison, Bracing for Armageddon: Why Civil Defense Never Worked (Oxford University Press US, 2006) p112
  86. Nicholas A. Veronico, et al., Military Aircraft Boneyards (Zenith Imprint, 2000) p103
  87. Dickson A. Mungazi, The last defenders of the laager: Ian D. Smith and F.W. de Klerk (Greenwood Publishing, 1998) p112
  88. "New Evidence on the Berlin Crisis 1958-1962", by Douglas Selvage, Cold War International History Project Bulletin 11, p219
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  90. "Britain Will Seek Ties With Common Market", Milwaukee Journal, July 29, 1961, p2
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  95. Douglas Gomery, Patsy Cline: The Making of an Icon (Trafford Publishing, 2011) p372
  96. Christopher M. Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (Basic Books, 2000) p181
  97. "RUSSIA: The New Gospel", TIME Magazine, August 11, 1961; "Russian Press, Radio Hammer Home Khrushchev Vision of Red Utopia", Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, July 31, 1961, p. 1; "The 1961 Party Programme and the fate of Khrushchev's reforms", by Alexander Titov, in Soviet State and Society under Nikita Khrushchev (Taylor & Francis US, 2009), p. 18.
  98. A. R. Schaefer, Bristol Motor Speedway (Capstone Press, 2006), p. 10.
  99. "'Sky Pirates' Held in Crash", Daily News (New York), August 1, 1961, p30
  100. "Aterriza el olvido al 'Avión Pirata'" (Spanish) ("The 'Pirate Plane' that landed in oblivion", El Dia (Santa Cruz, Bolivia), August 19, 2012
  101. "New Typewriter Eliminates Type Bar, Movable Carriage", St. Petersburg (FL) Times, August 1, 1961, p6-B; Stephen Van Dulken, American Inventions: A History of Curious, Extraordinary, and Just Plain Useful Patents (NYU Press, 2004) p203
  102. "All-Stars Duel to 1-1 Draw", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 1, 1961, p2-2
  103. "Barber (67) Wins Playoff", Milwaukee Sentinel, August 1, 1961, p2-2