Italian protectorate of Albania (1939–1943)

Last updated

Albanian Kingdom

Mbretëria Shqiptare
Regno d'Albania
1939–1943
Motto: "FERT"
Anthem:  Himni i Flamurit
("Hymn to the Flag")

Royal anthem:  Marcia Reale d'Ordinanza
("Royal March of Ordinance")
Albanian Kingdom (1942).svg
The Italian protectorate of Albania in 1942
Status Protectorate and dependency of Italy
Capital Tirana
Common languages Albanian
Italian
Religion
Islam (Sunni Islam, Bektashism)
Christianity (Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy)
Government Fascist one-party totalitarian state under a constitutional monarchy
King  
 1939–1943
Victor Emmanuel III
Lieutenant-General of the King  
 1939–1943
Francesco Jacomoni
 1943
Alberto Pariani
Prime Minister  
 1939–1941
Shefqet Vërlaci
 1941–1943
Mustafa Merlika-Kruja
 1943
Maliq Bushati
 1943
Eqrem Libohova
Legislature Parliament
Historical era Interbellum  · World War II
12 April 1939
10 July 1941
8 September 1943
Area
52,667 km2 (20,335 sq mi)
Population
 
1,701,463
Currency Franga (1939–1941)
Italian lira (1941–1943)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag Kingdom Of Albania.svg Kingdom of Albania
Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg Kingdom of Yugoslavia
German occupation of Albania Flag of German occupied Albania.svg

The Italian protectorate of Albania, also known as the Kingdom of Albania or Greater Albania, [1] [2] existed as a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy. It was practically a union between Italy and Albania, officially led by Italy's King Victor Emmanuel III and its government: Albania was led by Italian governors, after being militarily occupied by Italy, from 1939 until 1943. During this time, Albania ceased to exist as an independent country and remained as an autonomous part of the Italian Empire led by Italian government officials, who intended to make Albania part of a Greater Italy by assimilating Albanians as Italians and colonizing Albania with Italian settlers from the Italian Peninsula to transform it gradually into an Italian land. [3]

Contents

In the Treaty of London during World War I, the Triple Entente had promised to Italy, central and southern Albania as a possession; as a reward for fighting alongside the Entente. [4] In June 1917, after Italian soldiers seized control of substantial areas of Albania, Italy formally declared a protectorate over central and southern Albania; however this was overturned in September 1920 when Italy was pressured to remove its army from Albania. [4] Italy was enraged with the minimal gains that it received from peace negotiations, which it regarded as having violated the Treaty of London. Italian Fascists claimed that Albanians were ethnically linked to Italians through links with the prehistoric Italiotes, Illyrian and Roman populations, and that the major influence exerted by the Roman and Venetian empires over Albania justified Italy's right to possess it. [5] Italy also justified the annexation of Albania on the basis that because several hundred thousand people of Albanian descent had been absorbed into society in southern Italy already, that the incorporation of Albania was a reasonable measure that would unite people of Albanian descent into one state. [6] Italy supported Albanian irredentism, directed against the predominantly Albanian-populated Kosovo in Yugoslavia and Epirus in Greece, particularly the border area of Chameria, inhabited by the Cham Albanian minority. [7]

History

Pre-invasion: Italy's influence and aims in Albania

Italian soldiers in Vlore, Albania during World War I. The tricolour flag of Italy bearing the Savoy royal shield is shown hanging alongside an Albanian flag from the balcony of the Italian headquarters. Vlora zur Zeit der italienischen Besatzung 1916-1920.jpg
Italian soldiers in Vlorë, Albania during World War I. The tricolour flag of Italy bearing the Savoy royal shield is shown hanging alongside an Albanian flag from the balcony of the Italian headquarters.

Prior to direct intervention in World War I, Italy occupied the port of Vlorë in Albania in December 1914. [4] Upon entering the war, Italy spread its occupation to region of southern Albania beginning in the autumn 1916. [4] Italian forces in 1916 recruited Albanian irregulars to serve alongside them. [4] Italy with permission of the Allied command, occupied Northern Epirus on 23 August 1916, forcing the Greek Army to withdraw its occupation forces from there. [4] In June 1917, Italy proclaimed central and southern Albania as a protectorate of Italy while Northern Albania was allocated to the states of Serbia and Montenegro. [4] By 31 October 1918, French and Italian forces expelled the Austro-Hungarian Army from Albania. [4] After World War I ended, Italy withdrew its military forces on 2 September 1920 from Albania as a result of foreign pressure and defeat in the Vlora War. [4]

The Italian Fascist regime had politically and economically penetrated and dominated Albania during Zog's rule and was planning for annexation of Albania years prior to the event. [8] Albania became a de facto protectorate of Italy after the signing of the Treaties of Tirana of 1926 and 1927. [9] [10] [11] Under Zog, Albania's economy was dependent on multiple financial loans given from Italy since 1931. [12]

In August 1933, Mussolini placed stringent demands on Zog in exchange for Italy's continued support of Albania, including demands that all new appointments to leading positions in the Albanian government had to have received an "Italian education"; that an Italian expert was in the future to be in all Albanian government ministries; that Italy would take control of Albania's military – including its fortifications; that British officers that were training Albania's gendarmee be replaced by Italian officers; and that Albania must annul all of its existing commercial treaties with other countries and make no new agreements without the approval of the Italian government; and that Albania sign a commercial convention that would make Italy Albania's "most favoured country" in trade. [13] In 1934 when Albania did not deliver its scheduled payment of one loan to Italy, Italian warships arrived off the coast of Albania to intimidate Albania to submit to Italian goals in the region. However, the British opposed Italy's actions and under pressure, Italy backed down and claimed that the naval exercise was merely a "friendly visit". [12]

On 25 August 1937, Italian foreign minister Count Ciano wrote in his diary of Italy's relations with Albania in the following: "We must create stable centres of Italian influence there. Who knows what the future may have in store? We must be ready to seize opportunities which will present themselves. We are not going to withdraw this time, as we did in 1920. In the south [of Italy] we have absorbed several hundred thousand Albanians. Why shouldn’t the same thing happen on the other side of the entrance to the Adriatic.". [6] On 26 March 1938, Ciano wrote in his diary of annexing Albania like Germany did with Austria shortly prior: "A report from Jacomoni on the situation in Albania. Our penetration is becoming steadily more intense and more organic. The programme which I traced after my visit is being carried out without a hitch. I am wondering whether the general situation – particularly the Anschluss [with Austria] – does not permit us to take a step forward towards the more complete domination of this country, which will be ours." and days later on 4 April of that year wrote "We must gradually underline the protectorate element of our relations with Albania". [14]

Invasion and the establishment of the Italian regime

Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, King of Albania from 1939 to 1943 Vitorioemanuel.jpg
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, King of Albania from 1939 to 1943
Shefqet Verlaci, Prime Minister of Albania from 1939 to 1941 Shefqet Verlaci.jpg
Shefqet Vërlaci, Prime Minister of Albania from 1939 to 1941
"The Kosovars are 850,000 Albanians, strong of body, firm in spirit, and enthusiastic about the idea of a Union with their Homeland. Apparently, the Serbians are terrified of them. Today one must ... chloroform the Yugoslavians. But later on one must adopt a politics of deep interest in Kosovo. This will help to keep alive in the Balkans an irredentist problem which will polarize the attention of the Albanians themselves and be a knife at the back of Yugoslavia..."

Galeazzo Ciano, Mussolini's son-in-law, the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs, speaking of Albanian claims to Kosovo as valuable to Italy's objectives. [15]

In spite of Albania's long-standing protection and alliance with Italy, on 7 April 1939 Italian troops invaded Albania, [16] five months before the start of the Second World War. The Albanian armed resistance proved ineffective against the Italians and, after a short defense, the country was occupied. On 9 April 1939 the Albanian king, Zog I fled to Greece. [17] Although Albania had been a de facto Italian protectorate since 1927, [11] [18] [19] Italy's political leader, Benito Mussolini wanted direct control over the country to increase his and Italy's prestige, provide a response to Germany's annexation of Austria and occupation of Czechoslovakia, and to have firm control over Albania to station large forces of the Italian military for future operations involving Yugoslavia and Greece.

Albania was an Italian protectorate subordinated to Italian interests, along the lines of the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Victor Emmanuel III was proclaimed king of Albania, creating a personal union with Italy; he was represented in Tirana by a viceroy. A customs union was created, and Rome took over Albanian foreign policy. The Albanian armed forces were subsumed into the Italian military, Italian advisers were placed inside all levels of the Albanian administration, and the country was fascisticized with the establishment of an Albanian Fascist Party and its attendant organizations, modelled after the Italian prototype. The Albanian Fascist Party was a branch of the National Fascist Party of Italy, members of the Albanian Fascist Party took an oath to obey the orders of the Duce of Fascism, Mussolini. [20] Italian citizens began to settle in Albania as colonists and to own land so that they could gradually transform it into Italian soil. [3]

While Victor Emmanuel ruled as king, Shefqet Vërlaci served as the Prime Minister. Vërlaci controlled the day-to-day activities of the Italian protectorate. On 3 December 1941, Shefqet Vërlaci was replaced as Prime Minister and Head of Government by Mustafa Merlika-Kruja. [21] The country's natural resources too came under direct control of Italy. All petroleum resources in Albania went through Agip, Italy's state petroleum company. [22]

Albania was important culturally and historically to the nationalist aims of the Italian Fascists, as the territory of Albania had long been part of the Roman Empire, even prior to the annexation of northern Italy by the Romans. Later, during the High Middle Ages some coastal areas (like Durazzo) had been influenced and owned by Italian powers, chiefly the Kingdom of Naples and the Republic of Venice for many years (cf. Albania Veneta). The Italian Fascist regime legitimized its claim to Albania through studies proclaiming the racial affinity of Albanians and Italians, especially as opposed to the Slavic Yugoslavs. [23] Italian Fascists claimed that Albanians were linked through ethnic heritage to Italians due to links with the prehistoric Italiotes, Illyrian and Roman populations, and that the major influence exhibited by the Roman and Venetian empires over Albania justified Italy's right to possess it. [5]

Italy also attempted to legitimize and win public support for its rule over Albania by supporting Albanian irredentism, directed against the predominantly Albanian-populated Kosovo in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Epirus in Greece, particularly the border area of Chameria, inhabited by the Cham Albanian minority. [7] Thus a Fascist Italian publication named Geopolitica claimed that the population of the Epirus-Acarnania region of Greece belonged to Albania due to it being racially Dinaric, and formed a 'single geographic system' with the Adriatic zone. [5] Despite the efforts of the Italian vicegerent, Francesco Jacomoni, to stir up insurrections and create a fifth column, and the favourable reports he sent to the Italian foreign minister Count Ciano, events proved that there was little enthusiasm among the Albanians themselves: after the Italian invasion of Greece, most Albanians either deserted or defected. [24]

Albania at war

Italian troops disembarking from ships, April 1939 Albania, April 1939, Italian soldiers disembarking from ships.jpg
Italian troops disembarking from ships, April 1939
Italian troops entering Durazzo Durazzo, Albania, April 1939, Italian soldiers entering the city.jpg
Italian troops entering Durazzo
The Greek counteroffensive (13 November 1940-7 April 1941) during the Greco-Italian War Greek Offensive 1940 41 in Northern Epirus.svg
The Greek counteroffensive (13 November 1940-7 April 1941) during the Greco-Italian War

Strategically, control of Albania gave Italy an important beachhead in the Balkans: not only did it complete Italian control of the Strait of Otranto and the entrance to the Adriatic Sea, it could be used to invade either Yugoslavia (in tandem with another thrust via Venezia Giulia) or Greece. [18]

In 1939, Count Ciano spoke of Albanian irredentist claims to Kosovo as valuable to Italy's objectives, saying:

The Kosovars [are] 850,000 Albanians, strong of body, firm in spirit, and enthusiastic about the idea of a Union with their Homeland. Apparently, the Serbians are terrified of them. Today one must…chloroform the Yugoslavians. But later on one must adopt a politics of deep interest in Kosovo. This will help to keep alive in the Balkans an irredentist problem which will polarize the attention of the Albanians themselves and be a knife at the back of Yugoslavia. [25]

Galeazzo Ciano, 1939

The Corporative Council of the Albanian Fascist Party, a quasi-statal organization, issued a directive on 16 June 1940, shortly after Italy's declarations of war against Britain and France, that stated that "The Kingdom of Albania considers itself at war with all nations against which Italy is at war—at present or in the future." [26]

In October 1940, during the Greco-Italian War, Albania served as a staging-area for Italian dictator Benito Mussolini's unsuccessful invasion of Greece. Mussolini planned to invade Greece and other countries like Yugoslavia in the area to give Italy territorial control of most of the Mediterranean Sea coastline, as part of the Fascists' objective of creating the objective of Mare Nostrum ("Our Sea") in which Italy would dominate the Mediterranean. But the Albanian army under the command of colonel (later general) Prenk Pervizi [27] abandoned the Italians in combat, causing a major unraveling of their lines. The Albanian army believed to be the cause of the betrayal was removed from the front. The Colonel Pervizi and his staff of officials was isolated in the mountains of Puka and Shkodra to the North. [28] This was the first action of revolt against the Italian occupation.

1940 Albanian Kingdom Laissez Passer issued for traveling to Italy after the invasion of 1939 1940 Albanian Kingdom Laissez Passer issued for traveling to Fascist Italy after the invasion of 1939.jpg
1940 Albanian Kingdom Laissez Passer issued for traveling to Italy after the invasion of 1939

But, soon after the Italian invasion, the Greeks counter-attacked and a sizable portion of Albania was in Greek hands (including the cities of Gjirokastër and Korçë). In April 1941, Greece capitulated after an overwhelming German invasion. All of Albania returned to Italian control, which was also extended to most of Greece, which was jointly occupied by Italy, Germany and Bulgaria. Italian plans however to annex Chameria to Albania were shelved due strong opposition and ethnic conflict between Albanians and Greeks, as well as opposition by Aromanians to the region being Albanianized. [29]

After the fall of Yugoslavia and Greece in April 1941, the Italian government began negotiations with Germany, Bulgaria, and the newly established client state, the Independent State of Croatia, on defining their borders. In April Mussolini called for the borders of Albania to be expanded – including annexing Montenegro into Albania that would have an autonomous government within Albania, and expanding Albania's border eastwards, though not as far as the Vardar river as some had proposed – citing that Ohrid should be left to the Slavic Macedonians, regardless of whether Vardar Macedonia would become an independent state or be annexed by Bulgaria. [30] However the Italian government changed its positions on the border throughout April, later supporting the annexation of Ohrid while giving the territory lying directly outside of Ohrid (including the sacred birthplace of Saint Clement) to the Slavic Macedonians. [30] After a period of negotiations Italy's new Balkan borders – including Albania's new borders, were declared by royal decree on 7 June 1941. [30]

After the Italian capitulation in September 1943, the country was occupied by the Germans until the end of the war.

Economy

Albania during World War II Map of Albania during WWII.png
Albania during World War II

Upon the occupation of Albania and installation of a new government, the economies of Albania and Italy were connected through a customs union that resulted in the removal of most trade restrictions. [20] Through a tariff union, the Italian tariff system was put in place in Albania. [20] Due to the expected economic losses in Albania from the alteration in tariff policy, the Italian government provided Albania 15 million Albanian leks each year in compensation. [20] Italian customs laws were to apply in Albania and only Italy alone could conclude treaties with third parties. [20] Italian capital was allowed to dominate the Albanian economy. [20] As a result, Italian companies were allowed to hold monopolies in the exploitation of Albanian natural resources. [20]

In 1944, the number of companies and industrial enterprises reached 430, from just 244 in 1938 and only 71 such in 1922. The degree of concentration of workers in industrial production in 1938 doubled compared with 1928. At this time, Albania's economy had trade relations with 21 countries, but most developed were first to Italy and then to Yugoslavia, France, Germany, Greece, etc.

The country entered capitalist economic development much later than other European countries. Despite the presence of some foreign (mainly Italian) investment, Albania had made little move towards industrial development at the onset of World War II. Agriculture, which employed over 87% of the workforce, was the main sector of the economy and contributed 92.4% of the national income, with main outputs being wheat, maize and rye. Agriculture used primitive tools such as wood ploughs, whilst fertilisers were hardly known at all, and drainage poor. The level of productivity and level of organization and mechanization of agriculture in this period were very low.

Administrative division

The Italians adopted the existing Albanian system of prefectures (Italian: prefetture). In line with the administrative structure of the rest of Italy these were also called provinces (Italian: provincia). However, unlike Italy the Albanian sub-prefecture (Italian: sotto prefetture) was retained. There were initially 10 prefectures. [31] [32] Under this was 30 sub-prefectures and 23 municipalities (Italian: municipalità). [33] Each Prefecture was run by a Prefect located in the city of the same name. In 1941, following the dismemberment of Yugoslavia, three new Prefectures were added. Kossovo, Metohija and Debar, with 5 sub-prefectures [34]

Administrative divisions in 1941 KingdomOfAlbania1941.png
Administrative divisions in 1941
PrefectureSub-PrefecturesMunicipalities
Berat Fieri
Lushnje
Ballsh
Skrapar
Berat
Fieri
Lushnje
Peshkopi Burreli e Mat
Zerqan
Peshkopi
Burrel
Durazzo Kavaja
Krue
Shijak
Durazzo
Kavaja
Shijak
Krue
Elbasan Librazhd
Gramshi
Elbasan
Argirocastro Ciamuria
Delvina
Kurvelesh
Libohova
Permeti
Tepelena
Santi Quaranta
Argirocastro
Permeti
Tepelena
Porto Edda
Delvina
Coritza Bilishti
Kolonjë
Leskoviku
Pogradeci
None
Kukesi Lumë
Malësi e Gjakovës
Kukesi
Scutari Alessio
Dukagjin
Malësi e Madhe
Mirdite
Puka
Scutari
Valona Himara Valona
Tirana None Tirana
Debar Rostuse
Tetovo
Debar
Prizren
Metohija Gjakovës Peja
Kossovo Rahovec
Suva Reka
Prishtina

See also

Related Research Articles

The history of Albania forms a part of the history of Europe. During the classical times, Albania was home to several Illyrian tribes such as the Ardiaei, Albanoi, Amantini, Enchele, Taulantii and many others, but also Thracian and Greek tribes, as well as several Greek colonies established on the Illyrian coast. In the 3rd century BC, the area was annexed by Rome and became part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Moesia Superior. Afterwards, the territory remained under Roman and Byzantine control until the Slavic migrations of the 7th century. It was integrated into the Bulgarian Empire in the 9th century.

Axis powers Alliance of countries in World War II

The Axis powers, also known as "Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis", were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allies. The Axis powers agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not completely coordinate their activity.

World War II in Albania war

In Albania, World War II began with its invasion by Italy in April 1939. Fascist Italy set up Albania as its protectorate or puppet state. The resistance was largely carried out by Communist groups against the Italian and then German occupation in Albania. At first independent, the Communist groups united in the beginning of 1942, which ultimately led to the successful liberation of the country in 1944.

Greater Albania irredentism

Greater Albania is an irredentist concept that seeks to unify the lands that many Albanians consider to form their national homeland, based on claims on the present-day or historical presence of Albanian populations in those areas. In addition to the existing Republic of Albania, the term incorporates claims to regions in the neighbouring states, the areas include Kosovo, the Preševo Valley of Serbia, territories in southern Montenegro, northwestern Greece, and a western part of North Macedonia.

Balkans campaign (World War II) part of World War II

The Balkans campaign of World War II began with the Italian invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940. In the early months of 1941, Italy's offensive had stalled and a Greek counter-offensive pushed into Albania. Germany sought to aid Italy by deploying troops to Romania and Bulgaria and attacking Greece from the east. Meanwhile, the British landed troops and aircraft to shore up Greek defences. A coup d'état in Yugoslavia on 27 March caused Adolf Hitler to order the conquest of that country.

Greco-Italian War 1940 and 1941 conflict between Italy and Greece

The Greco-Italian War took place between the kingdoms of Italy and Greece from 28 October 1940 to 23 April 1941. This local war began the Balkans Campaign of World War II between the Axis powers and the Allies. It turned into the Battle of Greece when British and German ground forces intervened early in 1941.

Albanian Fascist Party political party

The Albanian Fascist Party was a Fascist organization active during World War II which held nominal power in Albania from 1939, when the country was conquered by Italy, until 1943, when Italy capitulated to the Allies. Afterwards, Albania fell under German occupation, and the PFSh was replaced by the Guard of Greater Albania.

National Fascist Party Italian fascist political party founded by Benito Mussolini

The National Fascist Party was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Italian Fascism. The party ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1922 when Fascists took power with the March on Rome until the fall of the Fascist regime 1943, when Mussolini was deposed by the Grand Council of Fascism.

Albanian Kingdom (1928–1939) 1928-1939 kingdom in Europe, predecessor of modern Albania

The Kingdom of Albania was the official name of Albania between 1928 and 1939. Albania was declared a monarchy by the Constituent Assembly, and President Ahmet Bej Zogu was declared King Zog I. The kingdom was supported by the fascist regime in Italy, and the two countries maintained close relations until Italy's sudden invasion of the country in 1939. Zog fled into exile and never saw his country again. The Communist Party of Labor of Albania gained control of the country toward the end of World War II, established a communist government, and formally deposed Zog.

Albanian Republic 1925-1928 sovereign state in Europe, predecessor of modern Albania

The Albanian Republic was the official name of Albania as enshrined in the Constitution of 1925. Albania became a de facto protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy after the signing of the Treaties of Tirana of 1926 and 1927. Albania was declared a constitutional monarchy in 1928. Upon its inception, Italy demanded to be allies with the republic. This was done largely to increase Italy's influence in the Balkans, and to aid Italian and Albanian security in their territorial feuds with the Second Hellenic Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

Mustafa Merlika-Kruja Albanian politician

Mustafa Merlika-Kruja was one of the signatories of the Albanian Declaration of Independence. He served as Prime Minister of Albania during the Italian occupation from December 4, 1941 to January 19, 1943.

Italian invasion of Albania World War II invasion

The Italian invasion of Albania was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Kingdom of Albania. The conflict was a result of the imperialist policies of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Albania was rapidly overrun, its ruler, King Zog I, forced into exile, and the country made part of the Italian Empire as a protectorate in personal union with the Italian crown.

Italian imperialism under Fascism

Imperialism, colonialism and irredentism played an important role in the foreign policy of Fascist Italy. Among the regime's goals were the acquisition of territory considered historically Italian in France and Yugoslavia, the expansion of Italy's sphere of influence into the Balkans and the acquisition of more colonies in Africa. The pacification of Libya (1923–32), the invasion of Ethiopia (1935–36), the invasion of Albania (1939), the invasion of France (1940), the invasion of Greece (1940–41) and the invasion of Yugoslavia (1941) were all undertaken in part to add to Italy's national space.

Italian Empire Italy during the era of modern European imperialism

The Italian colonial empire, known as the Italian Empire between 1936 and 1943, comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy. The genesis of the Italian colonial empire was the purchase in 1869 of Assab Bay on the Red Sea by an Italian navigation company which intended to establish a coaling station at the time the Suez Canal was being opened to navigation. This was taken over by the Italian government in 1882, becoming modern Italy's first overseas territory.

Italian colonists in Albania

The Italian colonists in Albania were Italians who, between the two world wars, moved to Albania to colonize the Balkan country for the Kingdom of Italy. Many of them promoted the union of Albania to Italy

Xhafer Deva Albanian politician

Xhafer Ibrahim Deva was a Kosovo Albanian fascist politician during World War II. A notable local politician in Kosovo and in Axis-occupied Albania, he took charge German-occupied Mitrovica and worked with the Germans to establish a pro-German Albanian government in Kosovo. Following the capitulation of Italy from the war, he helped form a provisional government under German occupation and set up the Second League of Prizren alongside other Albanian nationalists. On 5 November 1943, he was appointed Minister of the Interior of Albania and was effectively given direct command of the forces of the newly formed Albanian government. On 4 February 1944, police units subordinate to him massacred 86 residents of Tirana suspected of being anti-fascists. Deva was later involved in recruiting Kosovo Albanians to join the 21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg. He lost his position as Minister of the Interior with the dissolution of the Albanian government on 16 June, and subsequently became leader of the Second League of Prizren and led anti-Partisan operations around Prizren in September. Soon after, he fled to Croatia and then to Austria with the help of the Germans, where he joined other anti-Communist Albanians. After the war, he moved via Italy to Damascus, where he helped publish an exile newspaper entitled Bashkimi i Kombit. In 1956, he immigrated to the United States and briefly lived in New York and Boston before moving to Calaveras County, California in 1960. Here, he worked as an assistant supervisor at the mailing department of Stanford University in Palo Alto until his retirement in 1972. During this time, he led the Third League of Prizren and played an active role in organizing anti-Communist resistance until his death on 25 May 1978. Files released after his death showed that he had been recruited by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) while living in the United States.

Tefik Mborja Albanian diplomat and politician

Tefik Selim Mborja was an Albanian politician and lawyer. He served as the general secretary of the Albanian Fascist Party during the Second World War.

The Holocaust in Albania

The Holocaust in Albania consisted of crimes committed against Jews in Greater Albania by German, Italian, and Albanian collaborationist forces while Albania was under Italian and German occupation during World War II. Throughout the war, nearly 2,000 Jews sought refuge in Albania-proper. Most of these Jewish refugees were treated well by the local population, despite the fact that Albania-proper was occupied first by Fascist Italy, and then by Nazi Germany. Albanians often sheltered Jewish refugees in mountain villages and transported them to Adriatic ports from where they fled to Italy. Other Jews joined resistance movements throughout the country.

Prenk Pervizi Albanian general

Prenk Pervizi was an Albanian military figure, General of the Albanian army, who also served as Minister of Defence for a short period during World War II. Pervizi attended the Military Academy in Vienna, Austria, from 1914–1918, and later in Torino, 1930–1933. As a military figure, he was a protagonist in the foreground of Albanian history in the years between 1918–1944. Friend and right-hand man of King Zog, he remained loyal from the beginning to the end to him and the Albanian Kingdom, 1928-1939. During World War II he was involved in military operations. Recruited by the Italians and sent to the first line of combat, he came into conflict with them, withdrawing the Albanian troops from the Greco-Italian War. He also opposed the German SS troops recruitment process in Albania. Bitter opponent of the communists, after failed attempts to engage some serious support from the British emissaries, he was forced to exile, first in Greece and later in Belgium as a political refugee. He spent the rest of his life in Belgium, where he died at age 80, on September 6, 1977.

The First (1926) and Second (1927) Treaties of Tirana were signed in Tirana between Albania and Italy, focusing on the Albanian economy and military. They allowed Italy to gain power over the country and join the Axis Powers.

References

  1. Micheletta, Luca (2007), Questioni storiche: Italy, Greater Albania and Kosovo 1939–1943, Universita degli studi di Roma La Sapienza, pp. 521–542
  2. Papa Pandelejmoni, Enriketa (2012), Doing politics in Albania doing World War II: The case of Mustafa Merlika Kruja fascist collaboration, Založba ZRC, ZRC SAZU, pp. 67–83
  3. 1 2 Lemkin, Raphael; Power, Samantha (2008), Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd., pp. 99–107, ISBN   978-1-58477-901-8
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Nigel Thomas. Armies in the Balkans 1914–18. Osprey Publishing, 2001. Pp. 17.
  5. 1 2 3 Rodogno., Davide (2006). Fascism's European empire: Italian occupation during the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. p. 106. ISBN   0-521-84515-7.
  6. 1 2 Owen Pearson. Albania in the twentieth century: a history, Volume 3. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: I.B. Taurus Publishers, 2004. Pp. 389.
  7. 1 2 Fischer, Bernd Jürgen (1999), Albania at War, 1939–1945, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, pp. 70–73, ISBN   978-1-85065-531-2
  8. Owen Pearson. Albania in the twentieth century: a history, Volume 3. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: I.B. Taurus Publishers, 2004. Pp. 378, 389.
  9. Aristotle A. Kallis. Fascist ideology: territory and expansionism in Italy and Germany, 1922–1945. London, England, UK: Routledge, 2000. Pp. 132.
  10. Zara S. Steiner. The lights that failed: European international history, 1919–1933. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press, 2005. Pp. 499.
  11. 1 2 Roy Palmer Domenico. Remaking Italy in the twentieth century. Lanham, Maryland, USA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2002. Pp. 74.
  12. 1 2 Owen Pearson. Albania in the twentieth century: a history, Volume 3. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: I.B. Taurus Publishers, 2004. Pp. 378.
  13. Owen Pearson. Albania in the twentieth century: a history, Volume 3. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: I.B. Taurus Publishers, 2004. Pp. 351.
  14. Owen Pearson. Albania in the twentieth century: a history, Volume 3. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: I.B. Taurus Publishers, 2004. Pp. 396.
  15. Zolo, Danilo. Invoking humanity: war, law, and global order. London, UK/New York, NY: Continuum International Publishing Group (2002), p. 24.
  16. Keegan, John; Churchill, Winston (1986). The Second World War (Six Volume Boxed Set). Boston: Mariner Books. p. 314. ISBN   0-395-41685-X.
  17. Zabecki, David T. (1999). World War II in Europe: an encyclopedia. New York: Garland Pub. p. 1353. ISBN   0-8240-7029-1.
  18. 1 2 Kallis, Aristotle A. (2000), Fascist ideology: territory and expansionism in Italy and Germany, 1922–1945, Routledge, p. 132
  19. Steiner, Zara S. (2005), The lights that failed: European international history, 1919–1933, Oxford University Press, p. 499
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Raphaël Lemkin. Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. Slark, New Jersey, USA: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd., 2005. Pp. 102.
  21. Owen Pearson (2006). Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History : Volume II: Albania in Occupation and War, 1939–45. London: I. B. Tauris. p. 167. ISBN   1-84511-104-4.
  22. Kallis, Aristotle A. (2000), Fascist ideology: territory and expansionism in Italy and Germany, 1922–1945, Routledge, pp. 132–133
  23. Fischer, Bernd Jürgen (1999), Albania at War, 1939–1945, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, pp. 73–79, ISBN   978-1-85065-531-2
  24. Danilo Zolo. Invoking humanity: war, law, and global order. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2002. Pp. 24.
  25. Angelo Piero Sereni, "The Legal Status of Albania", The American Political Science Review35 2 (1941): 317.
  26. Pieter Hidri, General Prenk Pervizi, Tirana, Toena, 2002.
  27. Julian Amery, The sons of the Eagle, London, 1946, s. 302–306
  28. Rodogno., Davide (2006). Fascism's European empire: Italian occupation during the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. p. 108. ISBN   0-521-84515-7.
  29. 1 2 3 Davide Rodogno. Fascism's European empire. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006 Pp. 79.
  30. Great Britain, War Office; Italy OR 5301 (1943)
  31. Great Britain, War Office; Albania OR 5824 (1943)
  32. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 October 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  33. Davide Rodogno. Fascism's European empire. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006 Pp. 293.

Other bibliography

Coordinates: 41°32′06″N19°49′12″E / 41.5350°N 19.8200°E / 41.5350; 19.8200