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Thawb (Arabic : ثَوْب), also known as Kameez (Arabic : قمیض), is an ankle-length garment, usually with long sleeves. It is commonly worn in the Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, neighbouring Arab countries, and some countries in East and West Africa. In Pakistan, the garment is popularly known as Kameez. Kameez is also the national dress of Pakistan. Izaar, salwar and lungi are typically worn underneath.
Thawbs are usually white in summer and darker colors in the winter and colder days in the Arab Peninsula while in Pakistan, Thawbs are worn of many different colors. The biggest Thawb/Kameez brand in Pakistan is Junaid Jamshed brand.
The word thawb is the standard Arabic word for 'a garment'. It is sometimes spelled thobe or thaub. It is a tunic, generally long. The word is used specifically for this garment in Arab states of the Persian Gulf and some areas in the south of Egypt. There has been some debate regarding the correct length of the thawb.
The word "kameez" also derives from the Arabic language for cover. It is sometimes spelled qamis and qameez. According to Wehr's A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic: " قميص qamīs means covering, cover, case, wrap.
The thawb is commonly worn by men in the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and other Arab countries bordering the Persian Gulf. It is normally made of cotton, but heavier materials such as sheep's wool can also be used, especially in colder climates in Iraq and Syria.The style of the thawb varies slightly among the various regions in the area. The sleeves and the collar can be stiffened to give a more formal appearance. Other names may be used for this garment. In Iraq, Kuwait, the Levant, and Oman, dishdasha is the most common word for the garment; in the United Arab Emirates, the word kandura is used. In Morocco, the sleeves tend to be much shorter so that the thawb may seem more like a long T-shirt and is locally called gandora. The neck also tends to be more open than in its Saudi counterpart and, along with the breast pocket, is often embroidered. It might also lack buttons altogether.
The term thawb is also used to refer to similar women's garments.In the leadup to independence in Sudan, new styles of thawbs became fashionable as Sudanese women "expressed their growing opportunities and desires through fashion." The traditional Palestinian woman's long tunic is also a thawb. This style originated in the early 19th century and is richly embroidered, with different colours and patterns signifying various aspects of the wearer's social position. Since the Nakba, or 1948 Palestinian exodus, the thawb has also come to represent Palestinian political identity.
This garment is also known as kanzu in Swahili, and is commonly worn on the Swahili Coast by Swahili men.
|Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Palestine||Hejazi Arabic, Najdi Arabic, Bahraini Arabic, Palestinian Arabic||Thawb (ثَوْب)|
|Levant, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Iran||Levantine, Iraqi, Khuzestani, Omani & Kuwaiti Arabic; Persian||Dishdāshah (دِشْدَاشَة)|
|Pakistan||Urdu, Balochi, Pashto, Sindhi, Saraiki, Bruoshaski||Kameez (قمیض)|
|UAE||Emirati/Gulf Arabic||Kandūrah (كَنْدُورَة)|
|Yemen||Yemeni Arabic||Thaob (ثَوْب)|
|Upper Egypt, Libya, Chad & Sudan||Upper Egyptian, Libyan, Chadian, Sudanese Arabic||Jilābiyah (جِلَابِيَة)|
|Maghreb||Maghrebi Arabic, Berber||Djellaba (جِلَّابَة)|
|Greater Somalia||Somali||Jelabiyad (جلابياد)|
|Ethiopia||Amharic, Afaan Oromoo||Mudawwar (مدور)|
|Indo-Malay Peninsula||Indonesian, Malay||Jubah (جوبة)|
|Afghanistan||Dari, Pashto||Pērâhan (پیراهن)|
|Swahili Coast||Swahili||Kanzu (كانزو)|
A thawb is sometimes worn with a bisht (بِشْت), also known in other parts of the Arabian Peninsula as a mishlah (مِشْلَح) or ʿabāʾ (عَبَاء), meaning 'cloak'. It is usually worn in ceremonial occasions or by officials. A bisht is usually worn by religious clergy, but can also be worn in weddings, Eids, and funerals. It may indicate a status of wealth and royalty, or sometimes a religious position. It was originally manufactured in Syria, Iraq and Jordan, and it is usually worn in Jordan, Syria, Iraq and the Arabian peninsula.
According to H. R. P. Dickson,Bedouin women would mount a brightly coloured thawb on a pole in front of a tent in order to welcome home a traveller or an important person coming to visit.
Rashida Tlaib, a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from Michigan and the first Palestinian-American woman elected to that body, wore a thawb to her swearing-in ceremony on January 3, 2019.This inspired a number of Palestinian and Palestinian-American women to share pictures on social media with the hashtag #TweetYourThobe.
A kurta is a loose collarless shirt worn in many regions of South Asia, and now also worn around the world. Tracing its roots to Central Asian nomadic tunics, or upper body garments, of the late-ancient- or early-medieval era, the kurta has evolved stylistically over the centuries, especially in the Indian subcontinent, as a garment for everyday wear as well as for formal occasions.
A folk costume expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history. It can also indicate social, marital or religious status. If the costume is used to represent the culture or identity of a specific ethnic group, it is usually known as ethnic costume. Such costumes often come in two forms: one for everyday occasions, the other for traditional festivals and formal wear.
A kaftan or caftan is a variant of the robe or tunic, and has been worn in a number of cultures around the world for thousands of years and is of Asiatic origin. In Russian usage, kaftan instead refers to a style of men's long suit with tight sleeves. Used by many West and Southwest Asian ethnic groups, the kaftan is ancient Mesopotamian in origin. It may be made of wool, cashmere, silk, or cotton, and may be worn with a sash. Popular during the time of the Ottoman Empire, detailed and elaborately designed garments were given to ambassadors and other important guests at the Topkapi Palace. Variations of the kaftan were inherited by cultures throughout Asia and were worn by individuals in Russia, Southwest Asia and Northern Africa Styles, uses, and names for the kaftan vary from culture to culture. The kaftan is often worn as a coat or as an overdress, usually having long sleeves and reaching to the ankles. In regions with a warm climate, it is worn as a light-weight, loose-fitting garment. In some cultures, the kaftan has served as a symbol of royalty.
A chemise or shift is a classic smock, or a modern type of women's undergarment or dress. Historically, a chemise was a simple garment worn next to the skin to protect clothing from sweat and body oils, the precursor to the modern shirts commonly worn in Western nations.
The culture of Bahrain is part of the historical region of Eastern Arabia. Thus, Bahrain's culture is similar to that of its Arab neighbours in the Arabian Gulf region. Bahrain is known for its cosmopolitanism, Bahraini citizens are very ethnically diverse. Though the state religion is Islam, the country is tolerant towards other religions: Catholic and Orthodox churches, Hindu temples as well as a (now-defunct) Jewish synagogue are present on the island.
The Hejazi turban, also spelled Hijazi turban or known as the Arabian turban, is a type of the turban headdress native to the region of Hejaz in modern-day western Saudi Arabia.
A Senegalese kaftan is a pullover men's robe with long bell sleeves. In the Wolof language, this robe is called a mbubb or xaftaan and in French it is called a boubou. The Senegalese caftan is an ankle length garment. It is worn with matching drawstring pants called tubay in Wolof. Normally made of cotton brocade, lace, or synthetic fabrics, these robes are common throughout West Africa. A kaftan and matching pants is called a kaftan suit. The kaftan suit can be worn with a kufi cap. Senegalese kaftans are formal wear in all West African countries. In the United States, some merchants sell this robe as a Senegalese style dashiki pant set or a full length dashiki pant set. Men who are members of the Hausa tribe, wear these kaftans to formal events like naming ceremonies and weddings. In the United States, a kaftan is one of three formal suits, equivalent to the tuxedo, that African-American grooms select for their weddings. The other styles being the dashiki pant set, and the grand boubou, pronounced gran boo-boo. There are various other formal robes that are worn throughout West Africa, and with the exception of the Yoruba Gbarie robe, pronounced barry, most of these are a form of Islamic dress, see sartorial hijab. The kaftan is worn by Christians, African Jews, Muslims, and followers of African traditional religion. Furthermore, Senegalese kaftans are common among men of African descent in the African diaspora. The Senegalese kaftan is men's attire. In West Africa, and the United States, this robe is not worn by women. The women's robe is called a kaftan.
Pakistani clothing refers to the ethnic clothing that is typically worn by people in the country of Pakistan. Pakistani clothes express the culture of Pakistan, the demographics of Pakistan and cultures from the Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Gilgit-Baltistan and Kashmir regions of the country. Dress in each regional culture reflect weather conditions, way of living and distinctive style which gives it a unique identity among all cultures.
The taqiyah or araqchin, is a short, rounded skullcap. They are often worn for religious purposes; for example, Muslims believe that the Islamic prophet Muhammad used to keep his head covered, therefore making it mustahabb. Muslim men often wear them during the five daily prayers.
A kanzu is a white or cream coloured robe worn by men in the African Great Lakes region. It is referred to as a tunic in English, and as the Thawb in Arab countries. The kanzu is an ankle or floor length garment. It serves as the national costume of Tanzania as well as the Comoros, where it is called/pronounced 'Kandu' as well as thawb. The robe is also worn in some coastal Muslim regions of Tanzania and Kenya. The men of Uganda in Uganda consider it their most important dress. Kanzu is a Ganda word of Swahili origin, which means "robe" or "tunic". In Tanzania, the term is used interchangeably with kaftan.
Shalwar kameez is a traditional combination dress worn by women, and in some regions by men, in South Asia, and Central Asia.
An izaar, also izar or ʾizār, also known as futah (فُوطَة), maʿawaz (مَعَوَز), wizarah (وِزَرَة), maqtab (مَقْطَب) is a traditional Yemeni clothing worn in Yemen especially by Hadhrami people who call it "saroun صارون" in their local dialect. It's a lower garment typically worn by men in Yemen, also known in United Arab Emirates, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and Qatar, and the Horn of Africa. Omani people typically wear a white izaar underneath the Thawb instead of sirwar pyjamas. Izaar like clothing is also worn in countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Pakistan and countries in some parts of East Africa and in India. It is commonly worn by Yemenis at home, and work. In some parts of Arabia such as Yemen and the Jizan and ʿAsir regions of Saudi Arabia, it is known as futah instead. Some of these may feature tassels.
Saudis or Saudi Arabians are a nation composed mainly of Arab ethnic groups which are native to the Arabian Peninsula and live in the five historical Regions: Najd, Al-Hijaz, Asir, Tihama and Al-Ahsa; the regions which Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded on or what was formerly known as the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd in the Arabian Peninsula. Saudis speak one of the accents and dialects of the Peninsular Arabic, including the Hejazi, Najdi, Gulf and Southern Arabic dialects, as a mother tongue. There are also Saudi Hejazis of Albanian, Bosniak, Egyptian, Hadremi, Jawi (Indonesian), Turkish, Bukhari (Uzbek), Levantine, Maghrebi, South Asian and Sub-Saharan African origins in the cities of Mecca, Medina and Jeddah. According to the 2010 census, Saudi nationals represented approximately 19,335,377 making up 74.1% of the total population. Saudi Arabia is a state governed by absolute monarchy, with the king as its head of state. The word Saudis refer to the name of the ruling family in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia today as an inclusive name for the people of the five regions:.
Shalwar or Shalwar is cloth worn from the waist to the ankles, covering both legs separately. It is the lower-garment of the Shalwar kameez suit which is widely-worn in South Asia. It is known for its lively hues, rich fabrics, and embroidery. It is also the national dress of Pakistan, since the later 1960s with the salwar being used in government offices in Pakistan. The outfit has been a part of Punjabi tradition for centuries. Salwar can be distinguished to the Punjabi suthan which is shorter than the salwar. Salwar originated in Central Asia and its use spread to South Asia.
Sindhi women wear the Shalwar kameez or the sari and the men wear the shalwar kameez or the kurta with pyjamma. However, before the adoption of the Shalwar kameez, the sari and the kurta, Sindhi's had their own traditional costumes.
An agal, also spelled iqal, egal or igal, is an Arab mens' accessory. It is a black cord, worn doubled, used to keep a ghutrah in place on the wearer's head. It is traditionally made of goat hair.
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The keffiyeh or kufiya also known as a ghutrah (غُترَة), shemagh, ḥaṭṭah (حَطَّة) or mashadah (مَشَدَة), is a traditional Arabian headdress, or what is sometimes called a habit, which originated in Mesopotamia; it is now worn throughout the Middle East region. In Iran it is known chafiyeh (چفیه).
The jellabiya, also jalabiya or galabeya is a loose-fitting, traditional Egyptian garment from the Nile Valley, also traditionally worn in Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea. The Sudanese style is more colorful and is worn by both men and women.
Arab folk dances, also referred to as Oriental dance, Middle-Eastern dance and Eastern dance, are the traditional folk dances of the Arabs in Arab world. Arab dance has many different styles, including the three main types of folklore, classical, and contemporary. It is enjoyed and implemented throughout the Arab region, from North Africa to the Middle East.
expressed their growing opportunities and desires through fashion.