Effects of nuclear explosions

Last updated
The 14-kiloton test shot Charlie of Operation Buster-Jangle at the Nevada Proving Grounds on October 30, 1951. The red/orange color seen here in the cap of the mushroom cloud is largely due to the fireball's intense heat in combination with the oxygen and nitrogen naturally found in air. Oxygen and nitrogen, though generally unreactive toward each other, form NOx species when heated to excess, specifically nitrogen dioxide, which is largely responsible for the color. There was concern in the 1970s and 1980s, later proven unfounded, regarding fireball NOx and ozone loss. Atomic blast Nevada Yucca 1951 (better quality).png
The 14-kiloton test shot Charlie of Operation Buster-Jangle at the Nevada Proving Grounds on October 30, 1951. The red/orange color seen here in the cap of the mushroom cloud is largely due to the fireball's intense heat in combination with the oxygen and nitrogen naturally found in air. Oxygen and nitrogen, though generally unreactive toward each other, form NOx species when heated to excess, specifically nitrogen dioxide, which is largely responsible for the color. There was concern in the 1970s and 1980s, later proven unfounded, regarding fireball NOx and ozone loss.

The effects of a nuclear explosion on its immediate vicinity are typically much more destructive and multifaceted than those caused by conventional explosives. In most cases, the energy released from a nuclear weapon detonated within the troposphere can be approximately divided into four basic categories: [1]

Nuclear explosion

A nuclear explosion is an explosion that occurs as a result of the rapid release of energy from a high-speed nuclear reaction. The driving reaction may be nuclear fission or nuclear fusion or a multi-stage cascading combination of the two, though to date all fusion-based weapons have used a fission device to initiate fusion, and a pure fusion weapon remains a hypothetical device.

Nuclear weapon Explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions. Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first test of a fission ("atomic") bomb released an amount of energy approximately equal to 20,000 tons of TNT (84 TJ). The first thermonuclear ("hydrogen") bomb test released energy approximately equal to 10 million tons of TNT (42 PJ). A thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds (1,100 kg) can release energy equal to more than 1.2 million tons of TNT (5.0 PJ). A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast, fire, and radiation. Since they are weapons of mass destruction, the proliferation of nuclear weapons is a focus of international relations policy.

Troposphere The lowest layer of the atmosphere

The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place. It contains approximately 75% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of the total mass of water vapor and aerosols. The average height of the troposphere is 18 km in the tropics, 17 km in the middle latitudes, and 6 km in the polar regions in winter. The total average height of the troposphere is 13 km.

Contents

Explosion sudden release of energy through high temperatures and gas expansion

An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases. Supersonic explosions created by high explosives are known as detonations and travel via supersonic shock waves. Subsonic explosions are created by low explosives through a slower burning process known as deflagration.

Thermal radiation electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter

Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of particles in matter. All matter with a temperature greater than absolute zero emits thermal radiation. Particle motion results in charge-acceleration or dipole oscillation which produces electromagnetic radiation.

Ionizing radiation radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules

Ionizing radiation is radiation that carries enough energy to detach electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them. Ionizing radiation is made up of energetic subatomic particles, ions or atoms moving at high speeds, and electromagnetic waves on the high-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Depending on the design of the weapon and the location in which it is detonated, the energy distributed to any one of these categories may be significantly higher or lower. The blast effect is created by the coupling of immense amounts of energy, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum, with the surroundings. The environment of the explosion (e.g. submarine, ground burst, air burst, or exo-atmospheric) determines how much energy is distributed to the blast and how much to radiation. In general, surrounding a bomb with denser media, such as water, absorbs more energy and creates more powerful shockwaves while at the same time limiting the area of its effect. When a nuclear weapon is surrounded only by air, lethal blast and thermal effects proportionally scale much more rapidly than lethal radiation effects as explosive yield increases. [2] The physical-damage mechanisms of a nuclear weapon (blast and thermal radiation) are identical to those of conventional explosives, but the energy produced by a nuclear explosion is usually millions of times more powerful per unit mass and temperatures may briefly reach the tens of millions of degrees.

The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.

A ground burst is the detonation of an explosive device such as an artillery shell, nuclear weapon or air-dropped bomb that explodes upon hitting the ground. These weapons are set off by (fuses) that are activated when the weapon strikes the ground or something equally hard, such as a concrete building.

Air burst

An air burst or airburst is the detonation of an explosive device such as an anti-personnel artillery shell or a nuclear weapon in the air instead of on contact with the ground or target or a delayed armor-piercing explosion. The principal military advantage of an air burst over a ground burst is that the energy from the explosion is distributed more evenly over a wider area; however, the peak energy is lower at ground zero.

Energy from a nuclear explosion is initially released in several forms of penetrating radiation. When there is a surrounding material such as air, rock, or water, this radiation interacts with and rapidly heats the material to an equilibrium temperature (i.e. so that the matter is at the same temperature as the fuel powering the explosion). This causes vaporization of the surrounding material, resulting in its rapid expansion. Kinetic energy created by this expansion contributes to the formation of a shockwave. When a nuclear detonation occurs in air near sea level, much of the released energy interacts with the atmosphere and creates a shockwave which expands spherically from the center. Intense thermal radiation at the hypocenter forms a nuclear fireball which, if the burst is low enough, is often associated with a mushroom cloud. In a high-altitude burst, where the density of the atmosphere is low, more energy is released as ionizing gamma radiation and X-rays than as an atmosphere-displacing shockwave.

Vaporization phase transition from the liquid phase to vapor (either through evaporation or boiling)

Vaporization of an element or compound is a phase transition from the liquid phase to vapor. There are two types of vaporization: evaporation and boiling. Evaporation is a surface phenomenon, whereas boiling is a bulk phenomenon.

Kinetic energy energy possessed by an object by virtue of its motion

In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes. The same amount of work is done by the body when decelerating from its current speed to a state of rest.

Hypocenter site of an earthquake or a nuclear explosion

A hypocenter is the point of origin of an earthquake or a subsurface nuclear explosion. In seismology, it is a synonym of the focus. The term hypocenter is also used as a synonym for ground zero, the surface point directly beneath a nuclear airburst.

In 1942, there was some initial speculation among the scientists developing the first nuclear weapons that a large enough nuclear explosion might ignite the Earth's atmosphere. This notion concerned the nuclear reaction of two atmospheric nitrogen atoms forming a carbon and an oxygen atom, with an associated release of energy. The scientists hypothesized that this energy would heat up the remaining atmospheric nitrogen enough to keep the reaction going until all nitrogen atoms were consumed, thereby burning all of the Earth's atmosphere (which is composed of nearly 80% diatomic nitrogen) in one single massive combustion event. Hans Bethe was assigned the task of studying this hypothesis in the very early days, and eventually concluded that combustion of the entire atmosphere was not possible: the cooling of the fireball due to an inverse Compton effect all but guaranteed that such a scenario would not become a reality. [3] Richard Hamming, a mathematician, was asked to make a similar calculation just before Trinity, with the same result. [4] Nevertheless, the notion has persisted as a rumor for many years and was the source of gallows humor at the Trinity test.

Hans Bethe German-American nuclear physicist

Hans Albrecht Bethe was a German-American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, and won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.

Richard Hamming American mathematician and information theorist

Richard Wesley Hamming was an American mathematician whose work had many implications for computer engineering and telecommunications. His contributions include the Hamming code, the Hamming window, Hamming numbers, sphere-packing, and the Hamming distance.

Trinity (nuclear test) code name for the first nuclear detonation

Trinity was the code name of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon. It was conducted by the United States Army at 5:29 a.m. on July 16, 1945, as part of the Manhattan Project. The test was conducted in the Jornada del Muerto desert about 35 miles (56 km) southeast of Socorro, New Mexico, on what was then the USAAF Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range, now part of White Sands Missile Range. The only structures originally in the vicinity were the McDonald Ranch House and its ancillary buildings, which scientists used as a laboratory for testing bomb components. A base camp was constructed, and there were 425 people present on the weekend of the test.

Direct effects

Blast damage

Overpressure ranges from 1 to 50 psi (6.9 to 345 kilopascals) of a 1 kiloton of TNT air burst as a function of burst height. The thin black curve indicates the optimum burst height for a given ground range. Military planners prefer to maximise the range at which 10 psi, or more, is extended over when attacking countervalue targets, thus a 220 m height of burst would be preferred for a 1 kiloton blast. To find the optimum height of burst for any weapon yield, the cubed root of the yield in kilotons is multiplied by the ideal H.O.B for a 1 kt blast, e.g. the optimum height of burst for a 500 kt weapon is ~ 1745 m. Blastcurves psi.svg
Overpressure ranges from 1 to 50 psi (6.9 to 345 kilopascals) of a 1 kiloton of TNT air burst as a function of burst height. The thin black curve indicates the optimum burst height for a given ground range. Military planners prefer to maximise the range at which 10 psi, or more, is extended over when attacking countervalue targets, thus a 220 m height of burst would be preferred for a 1 kiloton blast. To find the optimum height of burst for any weapon yield, the cubed root of the yield in kilotons is multiplied by the ideal H.O.B for a 1 kt blast, e.g. the optimum height of burst for a 500 kt weapon is ~ 1745 m.
An estimate of the size of the damage caused by the 16 kt and 22 kt atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Abombdamage1945.svg
An estimate of the size of the damage caused by the 16 kt and 22 kt atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

The high temperatures and radiation cause gas to move outward radially in a thin, dense shell called "the hydrodynamic front". The front acts like a piston that pushes against and compresses the surrounding medium to make a spherically expanding shock wave. At first, this shock wave is inside the surface of the developing fireball, which is created in a volume of air heated by the explosion's "soft" X-rays. Within a fraction of a second the dense shock front obscures the fireball, and continues to move past it, now expanding outwards, free from the fireball, causing the characteristic double pulse of light seen from a nuclear detonation, with the dip causing the double pulse due to the shock wave–fireball interaction. [6] It is this unique feature of nuclear explosions that is exploited when verifying that an atmospheric nuclear explosion has occurred and not simply a large conventional explosion, with radiometer instruments known as Bhangmeters capable of determining the nature of explosions.

Shock wave propagating disturbance

In physics, a shock wave, or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance that moves faster than the local speed of sound in the medium. Like an ordinary wave, a shock wave carries energy and can propagate through a medium but is characterized by an abrupt, nearly discontinuous, change in pressure, temperature, and density of the medium.

Radiometer device for measuring the radiant flux (power) of electromagnetic radiation

A radiometer or roentgenometer is a device for measuring the radiant flux (power) of electromagnetic radiation. Generally, a radiometer is an infrared radiation detector or an ultraviolet detector. Microwave radiometers operate in the microwave wavelengths.

A bhangmeter is a non-imaging radiometer installed on reconnaissance and navigation satellites to detect atmospheric nuclear detonations and determine the yield of the nuclear weapon. They are also installed on some armored fighting vehicles, in particular NBC reconnaissance vehicles, in order to help detect, localise and analyse tactical nuclear detonations. They are often used alongside pressure and sound sensors in this role in addition to standard radiation sensors. Some nuclear bunkers and military facilities may also be equipped with such sensors alongside seismic event detectors.

For air bursts at or near sea-level, 50–60% of the explosion's energy goes into the blast wave, depending on the size and the yield of the bomb. As a general rule, the blast fraction is higher for low yield weapons. Furthermore, it decreases at high altitudes because there is less air mass to absorb radiation energy and convert it into blast. This effect is most important for altitudes above 30 km, corresponding to less than 1 percent of sea-level air density.

The effects of a moderate rain storm during an Operation Castle nuclear explosion was found to dampen, or reduce, peak pressure levels by approximately 15% at all ranges. [7]

The General Effects of the Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Describes effects, particularly blast effects, and the response of various types of structures to the weapons effects.

Much of the destruction caused by a nuclear explosion is due to blast effects. Most buildings, except reinforced or blast-resistant structures, will suffer moderate damage when subjected to overpressures of only 35.5 kilopascals (kPa) (5.15 pounds-force per square inch or 0.35 atm). Data obtained from the Japanese surveys found that 8 psi (55 kPa) was sufficient to destroy all wooden and brick residential structures. This can reasonably be defined as the pressure capable of producing severe damage. [8]

The blast wind at sea level may exceed one thousand km/h, or ~300 m/s, approaching the speed of sound in air. The range for blast effects increases with the explosive yield of the weapon and also depends on the burst altitude. Contrary to what one might expect from geometry, the blast range is not maximal for surface or low altitude blasts but increases with altitude up to an "optimum burst altitude" and then decreases rapidly for higher altitudes. This is due to the nonlinear behaviour of shock waves. When the blast wave from an air burst reaches the ground it is reflected. Below a certain reflection angle the reflected wave and the direct wave merge and form a reinforced horizontal wave, this is known as the 'Mach stem' (named after Ernst Mach) and is a form of constructive interference. [9] [10] [11] This constructive interference is the phenomenon responsible for the bumps or 'knees' in the above overpressure range graph.

For each goal overpressure there is a certain optimum burst height at which the blast range is maximized over ground targets. In a typical air burst, where the blast range is maximized to produce the greatest range of severe damage, i.e. the greatest range that ~10 psi (69 kPa) of pressure is extended over, is a GR/ground range of 0.4 km for 1 kiloton (kt) of TNT yield; 1.9 km for 100 kt; and 8.6 km for 10 megatons (Mt) of TNT. The optimum height of burst to maximize this desired severe ground range destruction for a 1 kt bomb is 0.22 km; for 100 kt, 1 km; and for 10 Mt, 4.7 km.

Two distinct, simultaneous phenomena are associated with the blast wave in air:

Most of the material damage caused by a nuclear air burst is caused by a combination of the high static overpressures and the blast winds. The long compression of the blast wave weakens structures, which are then torn apart by the blast winds. The compression, vacuum and drag phases together may last several seconds or longer, and exert forces many times greater than the strongest hurricane.

Acting on the human body, the shock waves cause pressure waves through the tissues. These waves mostly damage junctions between tissues of different densities (bone and muscle) or the interface between tissue and air. Lungs and the abdominal cavity, which contain air, are particularly injured. The damage causes severe hemorrhaging or air embolisms, either of which can be rapidly fatal. The overpressure estimated to damage lungs is about 70 kPa. Some eardrums would probably rupture around 22 kPa (0.2 atm) and half would rupture between 90 and 130 kPa (0.9 to 1.2 atm).

Blast winds: The drag energies of the blast winds are proportional to the cubes of their velocities multiplied by the durations. These winds may reach several hundred kilometers per hour.

Thermal radiation

Silent USSBS (United States Strategic Bombing Survey) footage which is primarily an analysis of flash burn injuries to those at Hiroshima. At 2:00, as is typical of the shapes of sunburns, the protection afforded by clothing, in this case pants, with the nurse pointing to the line of demarcation where the pants begin to completely protect the lower body from burns. At 4:27 it can be deduced from the burn shape that the man was facing the fireball and was wearing a vest at the time of the explosion etc. Many of the burn injuries exhibit raised keloid healing patterns. 25 female survivors required extensive post war surgeries, and were termed the Hiroshima maidens.

Nuclear weapons emit large amounts of thermal radiation as visible, infrared, and ultraviolet light, to which the atmosphere is largely transparent. This is known as "Flash". [12] The chief hazards are burns and eye injuries. On clear days, these injuries can occur well beyond blast ranges, depending on weapon yield. [2] Fires may also be started by the initial thermal radiation, but the following high winds due to the blast wave may put out almost all such fires, unless the yield is very high, where the range of thermal effects vastly outranges blast effects, as observed from explosions in the multi-megaton range. [2] This is because the intensity of the blast effects drops off with the third power of distance from the explosion, while the intensity of radiation effects drops off with the second power of distance. This results in the range of thermal effects increasing markedly more than blast range as higher and higher device yields are detonated. [2] Thermal radiation accounts for between 35–45% of the energy released in the explosion, depending on the yield of the device. In urban areas, the extinguishing of fires ignited by thermal radiation may matter little, as in a surprise attack fires may also be started by blast-effect-induced electrical shorts, gas pilot lights, overturned stoves, and other ignition sources, as was the case in the breakfast-time bombing of Hiroshima. [13] Whether or not these secondary fires will in turn themselves be snuffed out as modern noncombustible brick and concrete buildings collapse in on themselves from the same blast wave is uncertain, not least of which, because of the masking effect of modern city landscapes on thermal and blast transmission are continually examined. [14] When combustible frame buildings were blown down in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, they did not burn as rapidly as they would have done had they remained standing. The noncombustible debris produced by the blast frequently covered and prevented the burning of combustible material. [15] Fire experts suggest that unlike Hiroshima, due to the nature of modern U.S. city design and construction, a firestorm in modern times is unlikely after a nuclear detonation. [16] This does not exclude fires from being started, but means that these fires will not form into a firestorm, due largely to the differences between modern building materials and those used in World War II era Hiroshima.

There are two types of eye injuries from the thermal radiation of a weapon:

Flash blindness is caused by the initial brilliant flash of light produced by the nuclear detonation. More light energy is received on the retina than can be tolerated, but less than is required for irreversible injury. The retina is particularly susceptible to visible and short wavelength infrared light, since this part of the electromagnetic spectrum is focused by the lens on the retina. The result is bleaching of the visual pigments and temporary blindness for up to 40 minutes.

Burns visible on a woman in Hiroshima during the blast. Darker colors of her kimono at the time of detonation correspond to clearly visible burns on the skin which touched parts of the garment exposed to thermal radiation. Since kimonos are not form-fitting attire, some parts not directly touching her skin are visible as breaks in the pattern, and the tighter-fitting areas approaching the waistline have a much more well-defined pattern. The patient's skin is burned in a pattern corresponding to the dark portions of a kimono - NARA - 519686.jpg
Burns visible on a woman in Hiroshima during the blast. Darker colors of her kimono at the time of detonation correspond to clearly visible burns on the skin which touched parts of the garment exposed to thermal radiation. Since kimonos are not form-fitting attire, some parts not directly touching her skin are visible as breaks in the pattern, and the tighter-fitting areas approaching the waistline have a much more well-defined pattern.

A retinal burn resulting in permanent damage from scarring is also caused by the concentration of direct thermal energy on the retina by the lens. It will occur only when the fireball is actually in the individual's field of vision and would be a relatively uncommon injury. Retinal burns may be sustained at considerable distances from the explosion. The height of burst, and apparent size of the fireball, a function of yield and range will determine the degree and extent of retinal scarring. A scar in the central visual field would be more debilitating. Generally, a limited visual field defect, which will be barely noticeable, is all that is likely to occur.

When thermal radiation strikes an object, part will be reflected, part transmitted, and the rest absorbed. The fraction that is absorbed depends on the nature and color of the material. A thin material may transmit a lot. A light colored object may reflect much of the incident radiation and thus escape damage, like anti-flash white paint. The absorbed thermal radiation raises the temperature of the surface and results in scorching, charring, and burning of wood, paper, fabrics, etc. If the material is a poor thermal conductor, the heat is confined to the surface of the material.

Actual ignition of materials depends on how long the thermal pulse lasts and the thickness and moisture content of the target. Near ground zero where the energy flux exceeds 125 J/cm2, what can burn, will. Farther away, only the most easily ignited materials will flame. Incendiary effects are compounded by secondary fires started by the blast wave effects such as from upset stoves and furnaces.

In Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, a tremendous firestorm developed within 20 minutes after detonation and destroyed many more buildings and homes, built out of predominantly 'flimsy' wooden materials. [13] A firestorm has gale-force winds blowing in towards the center of the fire from all points of the compass. It is not peculiar to nuclear explosions, having been observed frequently in large forest fires and following incendiary raids during World War II. Despite fires destroying a large area of the city of Nagasaki, no true firestorm occurred in the city, even though a higher yielding weapon was used. Many factors explain this seeming contradiction, including a different time of bombing than Hiroshima, terrain, and crucially, a lower fuel loading/fuel density in the city than that of Hiroshima.

Nagasaki probably did not furnish sufficient fuel for the development of a fire storm as compared to the many buildings on the flat terrain at Hiroshima. [17]

As thermal radiation travels, more or less, in a straight line from the fireball (unless scattered) any opaque object will produce a protective shadow that provides protection from the flash burn. Depending on the properties of the underlying surface material, the exposed area outside the protective shadow will be either burnt to a darker color, such as charring wood, [18] or a brighter color, such as asphalt. [19] If such a weather phenomenon as fog or haze is present at the point of the nuclear explosion, it scatters the flash, with radiant energy then reaching burn sensitive substances from all directions. Under these conditions, opaque objects are therefore less effective than they would otherwise be without scattering, as they demonstrate maximum shadowing effect in an environment of perfect visibility and therefore zero scattering. Similar to a foggy or overcast day, although there are few, if any, shadows produced by the sun on such a day, the solar energy that reaches the ground from the sun's infrared rays is nevertheless considerably diminished, due to it being absorbed by the water of the clouds and the energy also being scattered back into space. Analogously, so too is the intensity at range of burning flash energy attenuated, in units of J/cm2, along the slant/horizontal range of a nuclear explosion, during fog or haze conditions. So despite any object that casts a shadow being rendered ineffective as a shield from the flash by fog or haze, due to scattering, the fog fills the same protective role, but generally only at the ranges that survival in the open is just a matter of being protected from the explosion's flash energy. [20]

The thermal pulse also is responsible for warming the atmospheric nitrogen close to the bomb, and causing the creation of atmospheric NOx smog components. This, as part of the mushroom cloud, is shot into the stratosphere where it is responsible for dissociating ozone there, in exactly the same way as combustion NOx compounds do. The amount created depends on the yield of the explosion and the blast's environment. Studies done on the total effect of nuclear blasts on the ozone layer have been at least tentatively exonerating after initial discouraging findings. [21]

Indirect effects

Electromagnetic pulse

Gamma rays from a nuclear explosion produce high energy electrons through Compton scattering. For high altitude nuclear explosions, these electrons are captured in the Earth's magnetic field at altitudes between twenty and forty kilometers where they interact with the Earth's magnetic field to produce a coherent nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) which lasts about one millisecond. Secondary effects may last for more than a second.

The pulse is powerful enough to cause moderately long metal objects (such as cables) to act as antennas and generate high voltages due to interactions with the electromagnetic pulse. These voltages can destroy unshielded electronics. There are no known biological effects of EMP. The ionized air also disrupts radio traffic that would normally bounce off the ionosphere.

Electronics can be shielded by wrapping them completely in conductive material such as metal foil; the effectiveness of the shielding may be less than perfect. Proper shielding is a complex subject due to the large number of variables involved. Semiconductors, especially integrated circuits, are extremely susceptible to the effects of EMP due to the close proximity of the PN junctions, but this is not the case with thermionic tubes (or valves) which are relatively immune to EMP. A Faraday cage does not offer protection from the effects of EMP unless the mesh is designed to have holes no bigger than the smallest wavelength emitted from a nuclear explosion.

Large nuclear weapons detonated at high-altitudes also cause geomagnetically induced current in very long electrical conductors. The mechanism by which these geomagnetically induced currents are generated is entirely different from the gamma ray induced pulse produced by Compton electrons.

Radar blackout

The heat of the explosion causes air in the vicinity to become ionized, creating the fireball. The free electrons in the fireball affect radio waves, especially at lower frequencies. This causes a large area of the sky to become opaque to radar, especially those operating in the VHF and UHF frequencies, which is common for long-range early warning radars. The effect is less for higher frequencies in the microwave region, as well as lasting a shorter time – the effect falls off both in strength and the affected frequencies as the fireball cools and the electrons begin to re-form onto free nuclei. [22]

A second blackout effect is caused by the emission of beta particles from the fission products. These can travel long distances, following the Earth's magnetic field lines. When they reach the upper atmosphere they cause ionization similar to the fireball, but over a wider area. Calculations demonstrate that one megaton of fission, typical of a two megaton H-bomb, will create enough beta radiation to black out an area 400 kilometres (250 mi) across for five minutes. Careful selection of the burst altitudes and locations can produce an extremely effective radar-blanking effect. [22]

The physical effects giving rise to blackout are those that also cause EMP, which itself can cause power blackouts. The two effects are otherwise unrelated, and the similar naming can be confusing.

Ionizing radiation

About 5% of the energy released in a nuclear air burst is in the form of ionizing radiation: neutrons, gamma rays, alpha particles and electrons moving at speeds up to the speed of light. Gamma rays are high energy electromagnetic radiation; the others are particles that move slower than light. The neutrons result almost exclusively from the fission and fusion reactions, while the initial gamma radiation includes that arising from these reactions as well as that resulting from the decay of short-lived fission products.

The intensity of initial nuclear radiation decreases rapidly with distance from the point of burst because the radiation spreads over a larger area as it travels away from the explosion (the inverse-square law). It is also reduced by atmospheric absorption and scattering.

The character of the radiation received at a given location also varies with distance from the explosion. [23] Near the point of the explosion, the neutron intensity is greater than the gamma intensity, but with increasing distance the neutron-gamma ratio decreases. Ultimately, the neutron component of initial radiation becomes negligible in comparison with the gamma component. The range for significant levels of initial radiation does not increase markedly with weapon yield and, as a result, the initial radiation becomes less of a hazard with increasing yield. With larger weapons, above 50 kt (200 TJ), blast and thermal effects are so much greater in importance that prompt radiation effects can be ignored.

The neutron radiation serves to transmute the surrounding matter, often rendering it radioactive. When added to the dust of radioactive material released by the bomb itself, a large amount of radioactive material is released into the environment. This form of radioactive contamination is known as nuclear fallout and poses the primary risk of exposure to ionizing radiation for a large nuclear weapon.

Details of nuclear weapon design also affect neutron emission: the gun-type assembly Hiroshima bomb leaked far more neutrons than the implosion type 21 kt Nagasaki bomb because the light hydrogen nuclei (protons) predominating in the exploded TNT molecules (surrounding the core of the Nagasaki bomb) slowed down neutrons very efficiently while the heavier iron atoms in the steel nose forging of the Hiroshima bomb scattered neutrons without absorbing much neutron energy. [24]

It was found in early experimentation that normally most of the neutrons released in the cascading chain reaction of the fission bomb are absorbed by the bomb case. Building a bomb case of materials which transmitted rather than absorbed the neutrons could make the bomb more intensely lethal to humans from prompt neutron radiation. This is one of the features used in the development of the neutron bomb.

Earthquake

The pressure wave from an underground explosion will propagate through the ground and cause a minor earthquake. [25] Theory suggests that a nuclear explosion could trigger fault rupture and cause a major quake at distances within a few tens of kilometers from the shot point. [26]

Summary of the effects

The following table summarizes the most important effects of single nuclear explosions under ideal, clear skies, weather conditions. Tables like these are calculated from nuclear weapons effects scaling laws. [27] [28] [29] [30] Advanced computer modelling of real world conditions and how they impact on the damage to modern urban areas has found that most scaling laws are too simplistic and tend to overestimate nuclear explosion effects. As it is only simplistic and unclassified scaling laws that are commonly encountered, that do not take important things like varying land topography into account to ease calculation time and equation length. The scaling laws that were used to produce the table below, assume among other things, a perfectly level target area, no attenuating effects from urban terrain masking, e.g. skyscraper shadowing, and no enhancement effects from reflections and tunneling by city streets. [31] As a point of comparison in the chart below, the most likely nuclear weapons to be used against countervalue city targets in a global nuclear war are in the sub-megaton range. Weapons of yields from 100 to 475 kilotons have become the most numerous in the US and Russian nuclear arsenals; for example the warheads equipping the Russian Bulava submarine launched ballistic missile (SLBM) have a yield of 150 kilotons. [32] US examples are the W76 and W88 warheads, with the lower yield W76 being over twice as numerous as the W88 in the US nuclear arsenal.

EffectsExplosive yield / height of burst
1 kt / 200 m20 kt / 540 m1 Mt / 2.0 km20 Mt / 5.4 km
Blast—effective ground range GR / km
Urban areas completely levelled (20 psi or 140 kPa)0.20.62.46.4
Destruction of most civilian buildings (5 psi or 34 kPa)0.61.76.217
Moderate damage to civilian buildings (1 psi or 6.9 kPa)1.74.71747
Railway cars thrown from tracks and crushed
(62 kPa; values for other than 20 kt are extrapolated using the cube-root scaling)
≈0.41.0≈4≈10
Thermal radiation—effective ground range GR / km
Conflagration 0.52.01030
Third degree burns 0.62.51238
Second degree burns 0.83.21544
First degree burns 1.14.21953
Effects of instant nuclear radiation—effective slant range1SR / km
Lethal2 total dose (neutrons and gamma rays)0.81.42.34.7
Total dose for acute radiation syndrome21.21.82.95.4

1 For the direct radiation effects the slant range instead of the ground range is shown here, because some effects are not given even at ground zero for some burst heights. If the effect occurs at ground zero the ground range can be derived from slant range and burst altitude (Pythagorean theorem).

2 "Acute radiation syndrome" corresponds here to a total dose of one gray, "lethal" to ten grays. This is only a rough estimate since biological conditions are neglected here.

Further complicating matters, under global nuclear war scenarios, with conditions similar to that during the Cold War, major strategically important cities, like Moscow, and Washington are likely to be hit not once, but numerous times from sub megaton multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles, in a cluster bomb or "cookie cutter" configuration. [33] It has been reported that during the height of the Cold War in the 1970s Moscow was targeted by up to 60 warheads. [34] The reasons that the cluster bomb concept is preferable in the targeting of cities is twofold, the first is down to the fact that large singular warheads are much easier to neutralize as both tracking and successful interception by anti-ballistic missile systems than it is when several smaller incoming warheads are approaching. This strength in numbers advantage to lower yield warheads is further compounded by such warheads tending to move at higher incoming speeds, due to their smaller, more slender physics package size, assuming both nuclear weapon designs are the same (a design exception being the advanced W88). [35] The second reason for this cluster bomb, or ‘layering’ [36] (using repeated hits by accurate low yield weapons), is that this tactic along with limiting the risk of failure, also reduces individual bomb yields, and therefore reduces the possibility of any serious collateral damage to non-targeted nearby civilian areas, including that of neighboring countries. This concept was pioneered by Philip J. Dolan and others.

Other phenomena

Mushroom cloud height depending on yield for ground bursts.

0 = Approx. altitude at which a commercial aircraft operates
1 = Fat Man
2 = Castle Bravo Nukecloud.png
Mushroom cloud height depending on yield for ground bursts.
0 = Approx. altitude at which a commercial aircraft operates
1 = Fat Man
2 = Castle Bravo

Gamma rays from the nuclear processes preceding the true explosion may be partially responsible for the following fireball, as they may superheat nearby air and/or other material. [12] The vast majority of the energy that goes on to form the fireball is in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, with these X-rays being produced by the inelastic collisions of the high speed fission and fusion products. It is these reaction products and not the gamma rays which contain most of the energy of the nuclear reactions in the form of kinetic energy. This kinetic energy of the fission and fusion fragments is converted into internal and then radiation energy by approximately following the process of blackbody radiation emitting in the soft X-ray region. [37] As a result of numerous inelastic collisions, part of the kinetic energy of the fission fragments is converted into internal and radiation energy. Some of the electrons are removed entirely from the atoms, thus causing ionization, others are raised to higher energy (or excited) states while still remaining attached to the nuclei. Within an extremely short time, perhaps a hundredth of a microsecond or so, the weapon residues consist essentially of completely and partially stripped (ionized) atoms, many of the latter being in excited states, together with the corresponding free electrons. The system then immediately emits electromagnetic (thermal) radiation, the nature of which is determined by the temperature. Since this is of the order of 107 degrees, most of the energy emitted within a microsecond or so is in the soft X-ray region. To understand this one must remember that temperature depends on the average internal energy/heat of the particles in a certain volume, and internal energy or heat is due to kinetic energy.

For an explosion in the atmosphere, the fireball quickly expands to maximum size, and then begins to cool as it rises like a balloon through buoyancy in the surrounding air. As it does so it takes on the flow pattern of a vortex ring with incandescent material in the vortex core as seen in certain photographs. [38] This effect is known as a mushroom cloud. [12]

Sand will fuse into glass if it is close enough to the nuclear fireball to be drawn into it, and is thus heated to the necessary temperatures to do so; this is known as trinitite. [39]

At the explosion of nuclear bombs lightning discharges sometimes occur. [40]

Smoke trails are often seen in photographs of nuclear explosions. These are not from the explosion; they are left by sounding rockets launched just prior to detonation. These trails allow observation of the blast's normally invisible shock wave in the moments following the explosion. [41]

The heat and airborne debris created by a nuclear explosion can cause rain; debris is thought to do this by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. During the city firestorm which followed the Hiroshima explosion, drops of water were recorded to have been about the size of marbles. [42] This was termed black rain, and has served as the source of a book and film by the same name. Black rain is not unusual following large fires, and is commonly produced by pyrocumulus clouds during large forest fires. The rain directly over Hiroshima on that day is said to have begun around 9 a.m. with it covering a wide area from the hypocenter to the north-west, raining heavily for one hour or more in some areas. The rain directly over the city may have carried neutron activated building material combustion products, but it did not carry any appreciable nuclear weapon debris or fallout, [43] although this is generally to the contrary to what other less technical sources state. The "oily" black soot particles, are a characteristic of incomplete combustion in the city firestorm.

The element einsteinium was discovered when analyzing nuclear fallout.

A side-effect of the Pascal-B nuclear test during Operation Plumbbob may have resulted in the first man-made object launched into space. The so-called "thunder well" effect from the underground explosion may have launched a metal cover plate into space at six times Earth's escape velocity, although the evidence remains subject to debate.

Survivability

This is highly dependent on factors such as if one is indoors or out, the size of the explosion, the proximity to the explosion, and to a lesser degree the direction of the wind carrying fallout. Death is highly likely and radiation poisoning is almost certain if one is caught in the open with no terrain or building masking effects within a radius of 0–3 km from a 1 megaton airburst, and the 50% chance of death from the blast extends out to ~8 km from the same 1 megaton atmospheric explosion. [44]

To highlight the variability in the real world, and the effect that being indoors can make, despite the lethal radiation and blast zone extending well past her position at Hiroshima, [45] Akiko Takakura survived the effects of a 16 kt atomic bomb at a distance of 300 meters from the hypocenter, with only minor injuries, due mainly to her position in the lobby of the Bank of Japan, a reinforced concrete building, at the time. [46] [47] In contrast, the unknown person sitting outside, fully exposed, on the steps of the Sumitomo Bank, next door to the Bank of Japan, received lethal third degree burns and was then likely killed by the blast, in that order, within two seconds. [48]

With medical attention, radiation exposure is survivable to a 200 rems acute dose exposure. If a group of people is exposed to a 50 to 59 rems acute (within 24 hours) radiation dose, none will get radiation sickness. If the group is exposed to 60 to 180 rems, 50% will become sick with radiation poisoning. If medically treated, all of the 60–180 rems group will survive. If the group is exposed to 200 to 450 rems, most if not all of the group will become sick. 50% of the 200–450 rems group will die within two to four weeks, even with medical attention. If the group is exposed to 460 to 600 rems, 100% of the group will get radiation poisoning. 50% of the 460–600 rems group will die within one to three weeks. If the group is exposed to 600 to 1000 rems, 50% will die in one to three weeks. If the group is exposed to 1,000 to 5,000 rems, 100% of the group will die within 2 weeks. At 5,000 rems, 100% of the group will die within 2 days. [49]

See also

Related Research Articles

Little Boy codename for the atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945

"Little Boy" was the code name for the type of atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 during World War II. It was the first nuclear weapon used in warfare. The bomb was dropped by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces. It exploded with an energy of approximately 15 kilotons of TNT (63 TJ) and caused widespread death and destruction throughout the city. The Hiroshima bombing was the second nuclear explosion in history, after the Trinity test, and the first uranium-based detonation.

A neutron bomb, officially defined as a type of enhanced radiation weapon (ERW), is a low yield thermonuclear weapon designed to maximize lethal neutron radiation in the immediate vicinity of the blast while minimizing the physical power of the blast itself. The neutron release generated by a nuclear fusion reaction is intentionally allowed to escape the weapon, rather than being absorbed by its other components. The neutron burst, which is used as the primary destructive action of the warhead, is able to penetrate enemy armor more effectively than a conventional warhead, thus making it more lethal as a tactical weapon.

A nuclear electromagnetic pulse is a burst of electromagnetic radiation created by a nuclear explosion. The resulting rapidly varying electric and magnetic fields may couple with electrical and electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges. The specific characteristics of a particular nuclear EMP event vary according to a number of factors, the most important of which is the altitude of the detonation.

Bomb explosive weapon

A bomb is an explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy. Detonations inflict damage principally through ground- and atmosphere-transmitted mechanical stress, the impact and penetration of pressure-driven projectiles, pressure damage, and explosion-generated effects. Bombs have been utilized since the 11th century starting in East Asia.

Nuclear fallout residual radioactive material following a nuclear blast

Nuclear fallout, or fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed. It commonly refers to the radioactive dust and ash created when a nuclear weapon explodes. The amount and spread of fallout is a product of the size of the weapon and the altitude at which it is detonated. Fallout may get entrained with the products of a pyrocumulus cloud and fall as black rain.

Nuclear weapon design Process by which nuclear WMDs are designed and produced

Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate. There are three existing basic design types:

Mushroom cloud cloud

A mushroom cloud is a distinctive pyrocumulus mushroom-shaped cloud of debris/smoke and usually condensed water vapor resulting from a large explosion. The effect is most commonly associated with a nuclear explosion, but any sufficiently energetic detonation or deflagration will produce the same effect. They can be caused by powerful conventional weapons, like thermobaric weapons, including the ATBIP and GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast. Some volcanic eruptions and impact events can produce natural mushroom clouds.

Operation Greenhouse

Operation Greenhouse was the fifth American nuclear test series, the second conducted in 1951 and the first to test principles that would lead to developing thermonuclear weapons. Conducted at the new Pacific Proving Ground, specifically on islands of the Enewetak Atoll, all of the devices were mounted in large steel towers, to simulate air bursts. This series of nuclear weapons tests was preceded by Operation Ranger and succeeded by Operation Buster-Jangle.

Duck and cover suggested method of personal protection against the effects of a nuclear explosion

"Duck and cover" is a method of personal protection against the effects of a nuclear explosion. Ducking and covering is useful at conferring a degree of protection to personnel situated outside the radius of the nuclear fireball but still within sufficient range of the nuclear explosion that standing upright and uncovered is likely to cause serious injury or death. In the most literal interpretation, the focus of the maneuver is primarily on protective actions one can take during the first few crucial seconds-to-minutes after the event, while the film by the same name and a full encompassing of the advice, also caters to providing protection up to weeks after the event.

<i>Duck and Cover</i> (film) 1951 film by Anthony Rizzo

Duck and Cover is a civil defense social guidance film that is often popularly mischaracterized as propaganda. With similar themes to the more adult oriented civil defense training films, the film was widely distributed to United States schoolchildren in the 1950s. It instructionally teaches students on what to do in the event of a nuclear explosion.

Ivy Mike Nuclear test

Ivy Mike was the codename given to the first test of a full-scale thermonuclear device, in which part of the explosive yield comes from nuclear fusion. It was detonated on November 1, 1952 by the United States on the island of Elugelab in Enewetak Atoll, in the Pacific Ocean, as part of Operation Ivy. It was the first full test of the Teller–Ulam design, a staged fusion device.

Operation Hardtack I series of nuclear tests performed by USA

Operation Hardtack I was a series of 35 nuclear tests conducted by the United States from April 28 to August 18 in 1958 at the Pacific Proving Grounds. At the time of testing, the Operation Hardtack I test series included more nuclear detonations than the total of all prior nuclear explosions in the Pacific Ocean. These tests followed the Project 58/58A series, which occurred from 1957 December 6 to 1958, March 14, and preceded the Operation Argus series, which took place in 1958 from August 27 to September 6.

Elugelab

Elugelab, or Elugelap, was an island, part of the Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands. It was increased in size, and then destroyed by the world's first true hydrogen bomb test on 1 November 1952, a test which was codenamed shot "Mike" of Operation Ivy. Prior to being enlarged, and destroyed, the island was described as "just another small naked island of the atoll".

Rope trick effect "Spikes" emanating from suspended nuclear explosions

Rope trick is the term given by physicist John Malik to the curious lines and spikes which emanate from the fireball of certain nuclear explosions just after detonation.

Neutron activation process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials

Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states. The excited nucleus often decays immediately by emitting gamma rays, or particles such as beta particles, alpha particles, fission products, and neutrons. Thus, the process of neutron capture, even after any intermediate decay, often results in the formation of an unstable activation product. Such radioactive nuclei can exhibit half-lives ranging from small fractions of a second to many years.

Nuclear weapon yield Energy released in nuclear weapons explosions

The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy released when that particular nuclear weapon is detonated, usually expressed as a TNT equivalent (the standardized equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene which, if detonated, would produce the same energy discharge), either in kilotons (kt—thousands of tons of TNT), in megatons (Mt—millions of tons of TNT), or sometimes in terajoules (TJ). An explosive yield of one terajoule is equal to 0.239 kilotonnes of TNT. Because the accuracy of any measurement of the energy released by TNT has always been problematic, the conventional definition is that one kiloton of TNT is held simply to be equivalent to 1012 calories.

Effects of nuclear explosions on human health

The medical effects of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima upon humans can be put into the four categories below, with the effects of larger thermonuclear weapons producing blast and thermal effects so large that there would be a negligible number of survivors close enough to the center of the blast who would experience prompt/acute radiation effects, which were observed after the 16 kiloton yield Hiroshima bomb, due to its relatively low yield:

Nuclear blackout, also known as fireball blackout or radar blackout, is an effect caused by explosions of nuclear weapons that disturbs radio communications and causes radar systems to be blacked out or heavily refracted so they can no longer be used for accurate tracking and guidance. Within the atmosphere, the effect is caused by the large volume of ionized air created by the energy of the explosion, while above the atmosphere it is due to the action of high-energy beta particles released from the decaying bomb debris. At high altitudes, the effect can spread over large areas, hundreds of kilometers. The effect slowly fades as the fireball dissipates.

References

  1. "Nuclear Explosions: Weapons, Improvised Nuclear Devices". U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008-02-16. Retrieved 2008-07-03.
  2. 1 2 3 4 http://www.remm.nlm.gov/RemmMockup_files/radiationlethality.jpg
  3. Konopinski, E. J; Marvin, C.; Teller, Edward (1946). "Ignition of the Atmosphere with Nuclear Bombs" (PDF). LA–602. Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved 2013-12-06. The date of the article is 1946; it may have been written to demonstrate due diligence on the problem. It was declassified in 1970.
  4. Hamming, Richard (1998). "Mathematics on a Distant Planet". The American Mathematical Monthly. 105 (7): 640–650. JSTOR   2589247.
  5. Dolan, Samuel Glasstone, Philip J. "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons". www.fourmilab.ch. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  6. "The Soviet Weapons Program - The Tsar Bomba". www.nuclearweaponarchive.org. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  7. AFSWP (30 March 2018). "Military Effects Studies on Operation CASTLE" . Retrieved 30 March 2018 via Internet Archive.
  8. AFSWP (30 March 2018). "Military Effects Studies on Operation CASTLE" . Retrieved 30 March 2018 via Internet Archive.
  9. "The Mach Stem - Effects of Nuclear Weapons - atomicarchive.com". www.atomicarchive.com. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  10. https://www.fas.org/nuke/intro/nuke/blast.htm
  11. video of the mach 'Y' stem, it is not a phenomenon unique to nuclear explosions, conventional explosions also produce it.
  12. 1 2 3 "Nuclear Bomb Effects". The Atomic Archive. solcomhouse.com. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
  13. 1 2 Oughterson, A. W.; LeRoy, G. V.; Liebow, A. A.; Hammond, E. C.; Barnett, H. L.; Rosenbaum, J. D.; Schneider, B. A. (19 April 1951). "Medical Effects Of Atomic Bombs The Report Of The Joint Commission For The Investigation Of The Effects Of The Atomic Bomb In Japan Volume 1". osti.gov. doi:10.2172/4421057 . Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  14. Modeling the Effects of Nuclear Weapons in an Urban Setting Archived July 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  15. Glasstone & Dolan (1977) Thermal effects Chapter pg 26
  16. "Planning Guidance for Response to a Nuclear Detonation FEMA, NASA, and other agencies. pg 24
  17. Glasstone & Dolan (1977) Thermal effects Chapter pg 304
  18. "Damage by the Heat Rays/Shadow Imprinted on an Electric Pole". www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  19. "Various other effects of the radiated heat were noted, including the lightening of asphalt road surfaces in spots which had not been protected from the radiated heat by any object such as that of a person walking along the road. Various other surfaces were discolored in different ways by the radiated heat." From the Flash Burn section of "The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki", a report by the Manhattan Engineering District, June 29, 1946
  20. "Glasstone & Dolan 1977 Thermal effects Chapter" (PDF). fourmilab.ch. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  21. Christie, J.D. (1976-05-20). "Atmospheric ozone depletion by nuclear weapons testing". Journal of Geophysical Research. 81 (15): 2583–2594. doi:10.1029/JC081i015p02583. This link is to the abstract; the whole paper is behind a paywall.
  22. 1 2 "Anti-Ballistic-Missile Systems", Scientific American, March 1968, pp. 21–32.
  23. Pattison, J.E., Hugtenburg, R.P., Beddoe, A.H., and Charles, M.W. (2001). "Experimental Simulation of A-bomb Gamma-ray Spectra for Radiobiology Studies", Radiation Protection Dosimetry95(2):125–136.
  24. "Credible effects of nuclear weapons for real world peace: peace through tested, proved and practical declassified deterrence and countermeasures against collateral damage. Credible deterrence through simple, effective protection against concentrated and dispersed invasions and aerial attacks. Discussions of the facts as opposed to inaccurate, misleading lies of the "disarm or be annihilated" political dogma variety. Hiroshima and Nagasaki anti-nuclear propaganda debunked by the hard facts. Walls not wars. Walls bring people together by stopping divisive terrorists". glasstone.blogspot.com. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  25. "Alsos: Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: The Parted Veil". alsos.wlu.edu. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  26. http://seismo.berkeley.edu/seismo/faq/nuke_2.html
  27. Paul P. Craig, John A. Jungerman. (1990) The Nuclear Arms Race: Technology and Society pg 258
  28. Calder, Nigel "The effects of a 100 Megaton bomb" New Scientist, 14 Sep 1961, p 644
  29. Sartori, Leo "Effects of nuclear weapons" Physics and Nuclear Arms Today (Readings from Physics Today) pg 2
  30. "Effects of Nuclear Explosions". nuclearweaponarchive.org. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  31. "Wayback Machine" (PDF). archive.org. 6 July 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  32. The modern Russian Bulava SLBM is armed with warheads of 100 – 150 kilotons in yield. Archived October 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  33. "The Effects of Nuclear War" Office of Technology Assessment, May 1979. pages 42 and 44. Compare the destruction from a single 1 megaton weapon detonation on Leningrad on page 42 to that of 10 clustered 40 kiloton weapon detonations in a 'cookie cutter' configuration on page 44; the level of total destruction is similar in both cases despite the total yield in the second attack scenario being less than half of that delivered in the 1 megaton case
  34. Sartori, Leo "Effects of nuclear weapons" Physics and Nuclear Arms Today (Readings from Physics Today) pg 22
  35. Robert C. Aldridge (1983) First Strike! The Pentagon's Strategy for Nuclear War pg 65
  36. "The Nuclear Matters Handbook". Archived from the original on 2013-03-02.
  37. "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons (1977) CHAPTER II: "Descriptions of Nuclear Explosions, Scientific Aspects of Nuclear Explosion Phenomena."". vt.edu. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  38. "Photo". nuclearweaponarchive.org. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  39. Robert Hermes and William Strickfaden, 2005, New Theory on the Formation of Trinitite, Nuclear Weapons Journal http://www.wsmr.army.mil/pao/TrinitySite/NewTrinititeTheory.htm
  40. An empirical study of the nuclear explosion-induced lightning seen on IVY-MIKE
  41. "What are Those Smoke Trails Doing in That Test Picture?". nuclearweaponarchive.org. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  42. Hersey, John. "Hiroshima", The New Yorker, August 31, 1946.
  43. Strom, P. O.; Miller, C. F. (1 January 1969). "Interaction of Fallout with Fires. Final Report" . Retrieved 30 March 2018 via www.osti.gov.
  44. http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/nuclear/nukgr3.gif
  45. http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/nuclear/nukgr1.gif
  46. "What I Want to Say Now". www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  47. "Testimony of Akiko Takakura - The Voice of Hibakusha - The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Historical Documents - atomicarchive.com". www.atomicarchive.com. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  48. http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/museum/index.php?l=e&no=1000
  49. McCarthy, Walton (2013). M.E. (6th ed.). Dallas, TX: Brown Books Publishing Group. p. 420. ISBN   978-1612541143 . Retrieved 9 December 2016.