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|Other names |
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||128.83 g/mol|
|Melting point||1,100 °C (2,010 °F; 1,370 K)|
|Band gap||0.65 eV (300 K)|
|Electron mobility||3200 cm2/(V.s) (300 K)|
|Thermal conductivity||45 W/(m.K) (300 K)|
Refractive index (nD)
|Main hazards||Irritant, hydrolysis to ammonia|
|Safety data sheet||External MSDS|
| Indium phosphide |
| Boron nitride |
| Indium gallium nitride |
Indium gallium aluminium nitride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Indium nitride (In N) is a small bandgap semiconductor material which has potential application in solar cells and high speed electronics.
The bandgap of InN has now been established as ~0.7 eV depending on temperature(the obsolete value is 1.97 eV). The effective electron mass has been recently determined by high magnetic field measurements, m*=0.055 m0.
Alloyed with GaN, the ternary system InGaN has a direct bandgap span from the infrared (0.69 eV) to the ultraviolet (3.4 eV).
Currently there is research into developing solar cells using the nitride based semiconductors. Using one or more alloys of indium gallium nitride (InGaN), an optical match to the solar spectrum can be achieved.[ citation needed ] The bandgap of InN allows a wavelengths as long as 1900 nm to be utilized. However, there are many difficulties to be overcome if such solar cells are to become a commercial reality: p-type doping of InN and indium-rich InGaN is one of the biggest challenges. Heteroepitaxial growth of InN with other nitrides (GaN, AlN) has proved to be difficult.
Thin layers of InN can be grown using metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD).
Thin polycrystalline films of indium nitride can be highly conductive and even superconductive at liquid helium temperatures. The superconducting transition temperature Tc depends on each samples film structure and carrier density and varies from 0 K to about 3 K.With magnesium doping the Tc can be 3.97 K. The superconductivity persists under high magnetic field (few teslas) that differs from superconductivity in In metal which is quenched by fields of only 0.03 tesla. Nevertheless, the superconductivity is attributed to metallic indium chains or nanoclusters, where the small size increases the critical magnetic field according to the Ginzburg–Landau theory.
Superconductivity is the set of physical properties observed in certain materials, wherein electrical resistance vanishes and from which magnetic flux fields are expelled. Any material exhibiting these properties is a superconductor. Unlike an ordinary metallic conductor, whose resistance decreases gradually as its temperature is lowered even down to near absolute zero, a superconductor has a characteristic critical temperature below which the resistance drops abruptly to zero. An electric current through a loop of superconducting wire can persist indefinitely with no power source.
High-temperature superconductors are operatively defined as materials that behave as superconductors at temperatures above nearly -200°C (-320°F).
Gallium nitride (GaN) is a binary III/V direct bandgap semiconductor commonly used in light-emitting diodes since the 1990s. The compound is a very hard material that has a Wurtzite crystal structure. Its wide band gap of 3.4 eV affords it special properties for applications in optoelectronic, high-power and high-frequency devices. For example, GaN is the substrate which makes violet (405 nm) laser diodes possible, without use of nonlinear optical frequency-doubling.
Magnetic semiconductors are semiconductor materials that exhibit both ferromagnetism and useful semiconductor properties. If implemented in devices, these materials could provide a new type of control of conduction. Whereas traditional electronics are based on control of charge carriers, practical magnetic semiconductors would also allow control of quantum spin state. This would theoretically provide near-total spin polarization, which is an important property for spintronics applications, e.g. spin transistors.
Copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) is a I-III-VI2 semiconductor material composed of copper, indium, gallium, and selenium. The material is a solid solution of copper indium selenide (often abbreviated "CIS") and copper gallium selenide. It has a chemical formula of CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 where the value of x can vary from 0 (pure copper indium selenide) to 1 (pure copper gallium selenide). CIGS is a tetrahedrally bonded semiconductor, with the chalcopyrite crystal structure, and a bandgap varying continuously with x from about 1.0 eV (for copper indium selenide) to about 1.7 eV (for copper gallium selenide).
Indium gallium nitride is a semiconductor material made of a mix of gallium nitride (GaN) and indium nitride (InN). It is a ternary group III/group V direct bandgap semiconductor. Its bandgap can be tuned by varying the amount of indium in the alloy. InxGa1−xN has a direct bandgap span from the infrared for InN to the ultraviolet of GaN. The ratio of In/Ga is usually between 0.02/0.98 and 0.3/0.7.
Indium(III) oxide (In2O3) is a chemical compound, an amphoteric oxide of indium.
The interior of a bulk superconductor cannot be penetrated by a weak magnetic field, a phenomenon known as the Meissner effect. When the applied magnetic field becomes too large, superconductivity breaks down. Superconductors can be divided into two types according to how this breakdown occurs. In type-I superconductors, superconductivity is abruptly destroyed via a first order phase transition when the strength of the applied field rises above a critical value Hc. This type of superconductivity is normally exhibited by pure metals, e.g. aluminium, lead, and mercury. The only alloy known up to now which exhibits type I superconductivity is TaSi2. The covalent superconductor SiC:B, silicon carbide heavily doped with boron, is also type-I.
Multi-junction (MJ) solar cells are solar cells with multiple p–n junctions made of different semiconductor materials. Each material's p-n junction will produce electric current in response to different wavelengths of light. The use of multiple semiconducting materials allows the absorbance of a broader range of wavelengths, improving the cell's sunlight to electrical energy conversion efficiency.
Gallium indium arsenide antimonide phosphide is a semiconductor material.
In chemistry, oxypnictides are a class of materials composed of oxygen, a pnictogen and one or more other elements. Although this group of compounds has been recognized since 1995, interest in these compounds increased dramatically after the publication of the superconducting properties of LaOFeP and LaOFeAs which were discovered in 2006 and 2008. In these experiments the oxide was partly replaced by fluoride.
Covalent superconductors are superconducting materials where the atoms are linked by covalent bonds. The first such material was boron-doped synthetic diamond grown by the high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) method. The discovery had no practical importance, but surprised most scientists as superconductivity had not been observed in covalent semiconductors, including diamond and silicon.
The 122 iron arsenide unconventional superconductors are part of a new class of iron-based superconductors. They form in the tetragonal I4/mmm, ThCr2Si2 type, crystal structure. The shorthand name "122" comes from their stoichiometry; the 122s have the chemical formula AEFe2Pn2, where AE stands for alkaline earth metal (Ca, Ba, Sr or Eu) and Pn is pnictide (As, P, etc.). These materials become superconducting under pressure and also upon doping. The maximum superconducting transition temperature found to date is 38 K in the Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2. The microscopic description of superconductivity in the 122s is yet unclear.
Superconducting wires are wires made of superconductors. When cooled below their transition temperatures, they have zero electrical resistance. Most commonly, conventional superconductors such as niobium-titanium are used, but high-temperature superconductors such as YBCO are entering the market. Superconducting wire's advantages over copper or aluminum include higher maximum current densities and zero power dissipation. Its disadvantages include the cost of refrigeration of the wires to superconducting temperatures, the danger of the wire quenching, the inferior mechanical properties of some superconductors, and the cost of wire materials and construction. Its main application is in superconducting magnets, which are used in scientific and medical equipment where high magnetic fields are necessary.
The International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS) is a major academic conference and exhibition in the field of group III nitride research. It has been held biennially since 1995. Since the second conference in 1997, hosting of the event has rotated between the Asian, European and North American continents. The ICNS and the International Workshop on Nitride Semiconductors (IWN) are held in alternating years, both covering similar subject areas.
CeCoIn5 ("Cerium-Cobalt-Indium 5") is a heavy-fermion superconductor with a layered crystal structure, with somewhat two-dimensional electronic transport properties. The critical temperature of 2.3 K is the highest among all of the Ce-based heavy-fermion superconductors.
I-III-VI2 semiconductors are solid semiconducting materials that contain three or more chemical elements belonging to groups I, III and VI (IUPAC groups 1/11, 13 and 16) of the periodic table. They usually involve two metals and one chalcogen. Some of these materials have a direct bandgap, Eg, of approximately 1.5 eV, which makes them efficient absorbers of sunlight and thus potential solar cell materials. A fourth element is often added to a I-III-VI2 material to tune the bandgap for maximum solar cell efficiency. A representative example is copper indium gallium selenide (CuInxGa(1–x)Se2, Eg = 1.7–1.0 eV for x = 0–1), which is used in copper indium gallium selenide solar cells.
John Kenneth Hulm was a British-American physicist and engineer, known for the development of superconducting materials with applications to high-field superconducting magnets. In 1953 with George F. Hardy he discovered the first A-15 superconducting alloy.