|Heads of state of Federal Republic of Central America|
Coat of arms of the Federal Republic of Central America
|Precursor||Gabino Gaínza (as Captain General of Guatemala)|
|Formation||15 September 1821|
|First holder||Gabino Gaínza (acting)|
|Final holder||Diego Vigil Cocaña (acting)|
|Abolished||31 March 1840|
|Part of a series on|
This is a list of heads of state of Federal Republic of Central America from its founding in 1821/1823 until its dissolution in 1840.
The Federal Republic of Central America, also called the United Provinces of Central America in its first year of creation, was a sovereign state in Central America consisting of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala of New Spain. It existed from 1823 to 1841, and was a republican democracy.
|No||Head of State||Took office||Left office||Party|
|1||Gabino Gaínza||15 September 1821||5 January 1822|
|2||Part of the First Mexican Empire (5 January 1822-1 July 1823)|
|3||Vicente Filisola||1 July 1823||10 July 1823|
|Head of State||Took office||Left office||Party|
|4||Pedro Molina Mazariegos||10 July 1823||4 October 1823||Liberal|
|5||Antonio Rivera Cabezas||10 July 1823||4 October 1823||Liberal|
|6||Juan Vicente Villacorta Díaz||10 July 1823||4 October 1823|
|Head of State||Took office||Left office||Party|
|7||Juan Vicente Villacorta Díaz||6 October 1823||15 March 1824||Liberal|
|8||Manuel José Arce||15 March 1824||20 October 1824||Liberal|
|9||José Manuel de la Cerda y Aguilar||20 October 1824||29 April 1825|
|10||Tomas O'Horan||4 October 1823||29 April 1825|
|11||José Santiago Milla Pineda Arriaga||4 October 1823||5 February 1824|
|12||José Cecilio del Valle||5 February 1824||29 April 1825||Conservative|
|President||Took office||Left office||Party|
|13||Manuel José Arce||29 April 1825||13 April 1829||Liberal|
|14|| Mariano Beltranena y Llano |
|13 April 1829||14 June 1829||Liberal|
|15|| José Francisco Barrundia |
|26 June 1829||16 June 1830||Liberal|
|16||Francisco Morazán||16 September 1830||16 September 1834||Liberal|
|17|| José Cecilio del Valle ||Elected in 1834||Died in 1834 before being sworn into office||Conservative|
|18|| José Gregorio Salazar |
|16 September 1834||14 February 1835||Liberal|
|19||Francisco Morazán||14 February 1835||1 February 1839||Liberal|
|20|| Diego Vigil Cocaña |
|1 February 1839||31 March 1840||Liberal|
Central America is located on the southern tip of North America, or is sometimes defined as a subcontinent of the Americas, bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south. Central America consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. The combined population of Central America has been estimated to be 41,739,000 and 42,688,190.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government with regional governments in a single political system. Its distinctive feature, exemplified in the founding example of modern federalism by the United States under the Constitution of 1787, is a relationship of parity between the two levels of government established. It can thus be defined as a form of government in which there is a division of powers between two levels of government of equal status.
Serbia and Montenegro, officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, also known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1992 to 2003, was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992. The republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation in 1992 as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia was a country in Southeastern and Central Europe for most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I in 1918 under the name of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs with the Kingdom of Serbia, and constituted the first union of the South Slavic people as a sovereign state, following centuries in which the region had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. Peter I of Serbia was its first sovereign. The kingdom gained international recognition on 13 July 1922 at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris. The official name of the state was changed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929.
The United Mexican States is a federal republic composed of 31 states and the capital, Mexico City, an autonomous entity.
A federation is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism). In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of either party, the states or the federal political body. Alternatively, federation is a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided between a central authority and a number of constituent regions so that each region retains some degree of control over its internal affairs. It is often argued that federal states where the central government has the constitutional authority to suspend a constituent state's government by invoking gross mismanagement or civil unrest, or to adopt national legislation that overrides or infringe on the constituent states' powers by invoking the central government's constitutional authority to ensure "peace and good government" or to implement obligations contracted under an international treaty, are not truly federal states.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states. Since today's Germany was formed from an earlier collection of several states, it has a federal constitution, and the constituent states retain a measure of sovereignty. With an emphasis on geographical conditions, Berlin and Hamburg are frequently called Stadtstaaten (city-states), as is the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, which in fact includes the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The remaining 13 states are called Flächenländer.
Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a country. A federal government is formed when a group of political units, such as states or provinces join together in a federation, delegating their individual sovereignty and many powers to the central government while retaining or reserving other limited powers. As a result, two or more levels of government exist within an established geographic territory. The body of law of the common central government is the federal law.
The national flag of Costa Rica is based on a design created in 1848. It is also used as the official ensign, and includes the coat of arms of Costa Rica. The civil ensign, commonly used as an unofficial national flag, omits the coat of arms.
The national flag of Honduras was adopted on March 7, 1866, based on the flag of the Federal Republic of Central America. In 1823 Honduras joined the United Provinces of Central America and adopted their flag. In 1866 it was amended; five cerulean stars were placed in the center to represent the five original Central American provinces. The colors and pattern are the same as the flag of the United Provinces of Central America. Civilian and government ships fly it as an ensign. Ships of the Honduran Navy fly as a naval ensign a version in which the five star emblem is replaced by the coat of arms of Honduras above an inverted arch of five small turquoise stars.
The official coat of arms of the Republic of Costa Rica was designed in 1848, with modifications in 1906, 1964, and 1998. The latest change was the addition of smoke to distinguish the three volcanoes.
The Greater Republic of Central America was a short-lived political union between Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador, lasting from 1896 to 1898. It was an attempt to revive the failed Federal Republic of Central America from earlier in the century.
A central government is the government that holds absolute supremacy over a unitary state. Its equivalent in a federation is the federal government, which may have distinct powers at various levels authorized or delegated to it by its federated states, though the adjective 'central' is sometimes also used to describe it.
Gran Colombia is the name historians use to refer to the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831. The state included the territories of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Venezuela, and parts of northern Peru, western Guyana and northwestern Brazil. The term Gran Colombia is used historiographically to distinguish it from the current Republic of Colombia, which is also the official name of the former state.
A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman provincia, which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outside Italy. The term province has since been adopted by many countries. In some countries with no actual provinces, "the provinces" is a metaphorical term meaning "outside the capital city".
The Central American Integration System has been the economic and political organization of Central American states since February 1, 1993. On December 13, 1991, the ODECA countries signed the Protocol of Tegucigalpa, extending earlier cooperation for regional peace, political freedom, democracy and economic development. SICA's General Secretariat is in El Salvador.
A democratic republic is a form of government operating on principles adopted from a republic and a democracy. Rather than being a cross between two entirely separate systems, democratic republics may function on principles shared by both republics and democracies.
The Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) is the internationally recognised government of Somalia, and the first attempt to create a central government in Somalia since the collapse of the Somali Democratic Republic. It replaced the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia on 20 August 2012 with the adoption of the Constitution of Somalia.