Multiple-language version

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A multiple-language version film, often abbreviated to MLV, is a film, especially from the early talkie era, produced in several different languages for international markets. To offset the marketing restrictions of making sound films in only one language, it became common practice for American and European studios to produce foreign-language versions of their films using the same sets, crew, costumes, etc. [1] The first foreign-language versions appeared in 1929 and largely replaced the International Sound Version method for many major releases. The most common languages used for these productions were English, Spanish, French and German.


Musicals in particular proliferated during the early talkie era, partially because between-song, plot-driven narration could often be easily replaced with intertitles or, as in the case with MLVs, be reshot using local actors. Numerous internationally renowned artists worked on MLVs, some repeatedly. Many are still widely known to modern audiences, including Marlene Dietrich, Greta Garbo, Alfred Hitchcock, Buster Keaton, Fritz Lang and John Wayne. Hal Roach was a great proponent of MLVs and an early adopter of the practice. Within a two-year period between 1929 and 1931 he oversaw the production of many of them for his top acts, including Laurel and Hardy, Charley Chase, Harry Langdon and Our Gang.

Although a vast number of MLVs were made, many of the early export versions are thought lost and relatively few are available today. Some notable exceptions are Anna Christie (1930); The Blue Angel (1930); Dracula's Spanish-language incarnation, Drácula (1931); M (1931); The Threepenny Opera (1931) and various Laurel and Hardy films.

Within a few years the practice had peaked, largely because of the additional production complications and expenses incurred, along with improvements in dubbing and subtitling techniques. Many multiple-language version films were US-European co-productions and the Nazis' rise to power in the early 1930s effectively sealed their fate. European co-productions continued on a reduced scale through until the end of the 1950s before dying out almost completely. In India however, multiple-language versions are still produced on a semi-regular basis, particularly in the case of big budget epics.

List of multiple-language versions

Original filmYearProduction studioForeign versionsNotes
Atlantic 1929 British International Pictures (BIP) Atlantik 1929 (German)
Atlantis 1930 (French)
Berth Marks and The Laurel-Hardy Murder Case 1929 and 1930 Hal Roach StudiosFeu mon oncle 1930 (French)
Spuk um Mitternacht 1931 (German)
Noche de duendes 1930 (Spanish)
All star Laurel and Hardy/
Plots and footage from the English shorts were combined into much longer foreign ones.
Blaze o' Glory 1929 Sono Art Sombras de gloria 1930 (Spanish)
Half Way to Heaven 1929 Paramount Sombras del circo 1931 (Spanish)
À mi-chemin du ciel 1931 (French)
Der Sprung ins Nichts 1932 (German)
Halvvägs till himlen 1932 (Swedish)
His Glorious Night 1929 MGM Olimpia 1930 (Spanish)
Si l'empereur savait ça 1930 (French)
Olympia 1930 (German)
The Hollywood Revue of 1929 1929MGMWir schalten um auf Hollywood: Eine Reportage Revue 1931 (German) Buster Keaton appears in both versions
Laurel and Hardy appear in the English version.
Innocents of Paris 1929ParamountLa chanson de Paris 1930 (French)
The Letter 1929ParamountLa carta 1931 (Spanish)
La lettre 1930 (French)
Weib im Dschungel 1931 (German)
La donna bianca 1931 (Italian)
Jeanne Eagels, the star of the English-language original, died in 1929.
The Love Parade 1929ParamountParade d'amour 1930 (French)
Madame X 1929MGMLa mujer X 1931 (Spanish)
Melody of the Heart (German: Melodie des Herzens)1929 UFA Melody of the Heart 1929 (English)
Mélodie du cœur 1929 (French)
Vasárnap délután 1929 (Hungarian)
The Night Belongs to Us (German: Die Nacht gehört uns)1929UFA La nuit est à nous 1930 (French)
Nothing but the Truth 1929Paramount La pura verdad 1931 (Spanish)
Rien que la vérité 1930 (French)
Die nackte Wahrheit 1932 (German)
Pointed Heels 1929ParamountGente alegre 1931 (Spanish)
The Sacred Flame 1929 Warner Bros. La llama sagrada 1931 (Spanish)
Die heilige Flamme 1931 (German)
The Trial of Mary Dugan 1929MGM El proceso de Mary Dugan 1931 (Spanish)
Le procès de Mary Dugan 1930 (French)
Mordprozeß Mary Dugan 1931 (German)
The Unholy Night 1929MGMLe spectre vert 1930 (French)
All Teed Up1930Hal Roach StudiosLe Joueur de Golf 1930 (French)
El Jugador de Golf 1930 (Spanish)
Almost a Honeymoon 1930BIP/Albatros Le Monsieur de minuit 1931 (French)
Anna Christie 1930MGM Anna Christie 1931 (German)Both star Greta Garbo.
At the Villa Rose 1930 Julius Hagen/Jacques Haïk Le mystère de la villa rose 1930 (French)
The Bad Man 1930 First National El hombre malo 1930 (Spanish)
Lopez, le bandit 1930 (French)
Bear Shooters 1930Hal Roach Studios[title unknown] 1930 (French)
[title unknown] 1930 (German)
Los Cazadores De Osos 1930 (Spanish)
Our Gang shorts.
Behind the Make-Up 1930ParamountMaquillage 1932 (French)
Below Zero 1930Hal Roach StudiosTiembla y Titubea 1930 (Spanish)Both star Laurel and Hardy.
The Benson Murder Case 1930ParamountEl cuerpo del delito 1930 (Spanish)
The Big Fight 1930 James Cruze ProductionsLa fuerza del querer 1930 (Spanish)
The Big House 1930MGMEl presidio 1930 (Spanish)
Révolte dans la prison 1931 (French)
Menschen hinter Gittern 1931 (German)
The Big Kick1930Hal Roach StudiosLa estación de gasolina 1930 (Spanish)
The Big Pond 1930ParamountLa grande mare 1930 (French)
The Big Trail 1930 Fox La gran jornada 1930 (Spanish)
La Piste des géants 1931 (French)
Die große Fahrt 1931 (German)
Il grande sentiero 1931 (Italian)
John Wayne's first starring role.
Blotto 1930Hal Roach StudiosUne Nuit Extravagante 1930 (French)
La Vida Nocturna 1930 (Spanish)
All star Laurel and Hardy.
The Blue Angel (German: Der blaue Engel)1930UFAThe Blue Angel 1930 (English)Both star Marlene Dietrich.
The Boudoir Diplomat 1930 Universal Don Juan diplomático 1931 (Spanish)
Boudoir diplomatique 1931 (French)
Liebe auf Befehl 1931 (German)
Brats 1930Hal Roach StudiosLes bons petits diables 1930 (French)
Glückliche Kindheit 1931 (German)
All star Laurel and Hardy.
Burglars (German: Einbrecher)1930UFA Flagrant délit 1931 (French)
Call of the Flesh 1930MGMSevilla de mis amores 1930 (Spanish)
Le chanteur de Séville 1931 (French)
The Cat Creeps 1930Universal La Voluntad del muerto 1930 (Spanish)
Chacun sa chance (French)1930Marcel Hellmann/Pathé-Natan Kopfüber ins Glück 1931 (German)
Children of Chance 1930BIP Kinder des Glücks 1931 (German)
Common Clay 1930FoxDel mismo barro 1930 (Spanish)
Dangerous Paradise 1930ParamountDans une île perdue 1931 (French)
Niebezpieczny raj 1931 (Polish)
Tropennächte 1931 (German)
La riva dei bruti 1931 (Italian)
Farornas paradis 1931 (Swedish)
The Devil's Holiday 1930ParamountLa fiesta del diablo 1931 (Spanish)
Les vacances du diable 1931 (French)
Sonntag des Lebens 1931 (German)
La vacanza del diavolo 1931 (Italian)
En kvinnas morgondag 1931 (Swedish)
Dollar Dizzy 1930Hal Roach StudiosChercheuses d'or 1930 (French)
El príncipe del dólar 1931 (Spanish)
Doughboys 1930MGMDe frente, marchen 1930 (Spanish)Both star Buster Keaton.
Dreyfus 1930Richard Oswald Produktion/BIP Dreyfus 1931 (English remake)
East Is West 1930UniversalOriente es Occidente 1930 (Spanish)
Eskimo (Norwegian)1930Nordisk Film/Skandinavisk Talefilm The White God 1932 (German: Der weiße Gott)
L'étrange fiancée (French)1930Frantisek HorkýOperené stíny 1931 (Czech)
Fast Work 1930Hal Roach StudiosLocuras de amor 1931 (Spanish)
Father and Son (German: Väter und Söhne)1930Minerva/TerraMarkurells i Wadköping 1931 (Swedish)
Fire in the Opera House (German: Brand in der Oper)1930Carl Froelich-FilmLa barcarolle d'amour 1930 (French)
The First Seven Years 1930Hal Roach Studios[title unknown] 1930 (French)
[title unknown] 1930 (German)
Los Pequeños Papas 1930 (Spanish)
Our Gang shorts.
The Flame of Love 1930BIP Hai-Tang. Der Weg zur Schande 1930 (German)
Hai-Tang 1930 (French)
For Her Sake (Swedish: För hennes skull)1930MinervaMach' mir die Welt zum Paradies 1930 (German)
Free and Easy 1930MGM Estrellados 1930 (Spanish)Both star Buster Keaton.
Girl Shock1930Hal Roach StudiosTimide Malgré Lui 1930 (French)
¡Huye, Faldas! 1930 (Spanish)
Going Wild 1930First NationalL'aviateur 1931 (French)
Grumpy 1930ParamountCascarrabias 1930 (Spanish)
Hans in Every Street (German: Hans in allen Gassen)1930Carl Froelich-Film/Films P.J. de VenlooLa folle aventure 1931 (French)
Her Wedding Night 1930ParamountSu noche de bodas 1931 (Spanish)
Marions-nous 1931 (French)
Ich heirate meinen Mann 1931 (German)
A Minha Noite de Núpcias 1931 (Portuguese) [2]
Hog Wild 1930Hal Roach StudiosPêle-mêle 1930 (French)
Radiomanía 1930 (Spanish)
All star Laurel and Hardy.
Hokuspokus (German)1930UFA The Temporary Widow 1930 (English)
A Hole in the Wall (French: Un trou dans le mur)1930Paramount Un hombre de suerte 1930 (Spanish)
När rosorna slå ut 1930 (Swedish)
Honey 1930ParamountSalga de la cocina 1930 (Spanish)
Chérie 1931 (French)
Jede Frau hat etwas 1931 (German)
Kärlek måste vi ha 1931 (Swedish)
The House of the Arrow 1930Julius Hagen/Jacques Haïk La Maison de la Fléche 1930 (French)
Imperial and Royal Field Marshal (Czech: C. a k. polní maršálek)1930 Elektafilm/Ondra-Lamac/Prociné Standard K. und K. Feldmarschall 1930 (German)
Monsieur le maréchal 1931 (French)
Když struny lkají (Czech)1930 Elektafilm/FeherIhr Junge 1931 (German)
The King1930Hal Roach StudiosDer König 1930 (German)
The King of Paris (German: Der König von Paris)1930 Greenbaum Film Le roi de Paris 1930 (French)
Kismet 1930First National Kismet 1931 (German)
A Lady's Morals 1930MGMJenny Lind 1931 (French)
The Last Company (German: Die letzte Kompagnie)1930UFAThe Last Company 1930 (English)
Laughter 1930ParamountLo mejor es reir 1931 (Spanish)
Rive gauche 1931 (French)
Die Männer um Lucie 1931 (German)
A Dama Que Ri 1931 (Portuguese)
Let Us Be Gay 1930MGMSoyons gais 1930 (French)
Lieutenant, Were You Once a Hussar? (German: Leutnant warst Du einst bei deinen Husaren)1930Aafa Mon coeur incognito 1931 (French)
Looser Than Loose1930Hal Roach StudiosGare las Bomb! 1930 (French)
Una Cana al Aire 1930 (Spanish)
Manslaughter 1930Paramount La incorregible 1930 (Spanish)
Le réquisitoire 1931 (French)
Leichtsinnige Jugend 1931 (German)
Lika inför lagen 1931 (Swedish)
Men of the North 1930MGMMonsieur Le Fox 1931 (French)
Monsieur Le Fox 1931 (German)
Monsieur Le Fox 1931 (Spanish)
Luigi La Volpe 1931 (Italian)
Co-directed by Hal Roach.
Min and Bill 1930MGMLa fruta amarga 1930 (Spanish)
Moby Dick 1930Warner Bros.Moby Dick 1931 (French)
Dämon des Meeres 1931 (German)
Murder! 1930BIP Mary 1931 (German)Both are directed by Alfred Hitchcock.
Night Birds 1930BIP/Richard Eichberg-Film GmbH Der Greifer 1930 (German)
Night Owls 1930MGMLadrones 1930 (Spanish)Both star Laurel and Hardy.
On Your Back 1930FoxEsclavas de la moda 1930 (Spanish)
One Mad Kiss1930FoxEl precio de un beso 1930 (Spanish)
The Other (German: Der Andere)1930 Terra Film Le procureur Hallers 1930 (French)
Paramount on Parade 1930ParamountGalas de la Paramount 1930 (Spanish)
Paramount en parade 1930 (French)
Paramount auf Parade 1930 (German)
Paramount sulla parata 1930 (Italian)
Paramount on Parade 1931 (Swedish)
Paramount op parade 1930 (Dutch)
Parada Paramount 1930 (Romanian)
Paramount on Parade 1930 (Japanese)
Paramount on Parade 1930 (Czech)
Paramount on Parade 1930 (Hungarian)
Paramount on Parade 1930 (Serbian)
Parada Paramountu 1930 (Polish)
Playboy of Paris 1930Paramount Le petit café 1931 (French)
Rendezvous (German: Komm' zu mir zum Rendezvous)1930Cinaes/Harmonie/Braunberger-Richebé/Renacimiento El amor solfeando 1930 (Spanish)
L'amour chante 1930 (French)
Sarah and Son 1930ParamountToda una vida 1930 (Spanish)
Toute sa vie 1930 (French)
Il richiamo del cuore 1930 (Italian)
Hjärtats röst 1931 (Swedish)
A Canção do Berço 1930 (Portuguese)
Glos serca 1930 (Polish)
Scotland Yard 1930FoxEl impostor 1930 (Spanish)
The Sea God 1930MGMEl Dios del mar 1930 (Spanish)
Show Girl in Hollywood 1930First NationalLe masque d'Hollywood 1930 (French)
The Shrimp1930Hal Roach Studios¡Pobre infeliz! (Spanish)
The Singing City (German: Die singende Stadt)1930Allianz Tonfilm City of Song 1931 (English)
Slightly Scarlet 1930ParamountAmor audaz 1930 (Spanish)
L'énigmatique Monsieur Parkes 1930 (French)
The Song Is Ended (German: Das Lied ist aus)1930SuperPetit officier… Adieu! 1930 (French)
The Song of Love (Italian: La canzone dell'amore)1930 Cines Liebeslied 1931 (German)
La dernière berceuse 1931 (French)
The Son of the White Mountain (German: Der Sohn der weißen Berge)1930 Itala/GaumontLes chevaliers de la montagne 1930 (French)
La straniera (Italian)1930Jean de la Cour/HegewaldL'étrangère 1931 (French)
Die Fremde 1931 (German)
La tendresse (French)1930André Hugon/Pathé-NatanZärtlichkeit 1930 (German)
Those Who Dance 1930Warner Bros.Los que danzan 1930 (Spanish)
Contre-enquête 1931 (French)
Der Tanz geht weiter 1931 (German)
The Three from the Filling Station (German: Die Drei von der Tankstelle)1930UFA Le chemin du paradis 1930 (French)
A Tough Winter 1930Hal Roach StudiosTemps d'Hiver 1930 (French)
Winter Wetter 1930 (German)
[title unknown] 1930 (Spanish)
Our Gang shorts.
The Virtuous Sin 1930ParamountGeneralen 1931 (Swedish)
Le Rebelle 1931 (French)
Die Nacht der Entscheidung 1931 (German)
Two Worlds 1930BIP Zwei Welten 1930 (German)
Les deux mondes 1930 (French)
Waltz of Love (German: Liebeswalzer)1930UFA The Love Waltz 1930 (English)
Way for a Sailor 1930MGM En cada puerto un amor 1931 (Spanish)
The Way of All Men 1930First National Die Maske fällt 1931 (German)
What a Man 1930Sono Art Así es la vida 1930 (Spanish)
When the Wind Blows 1930Hal Roach Studios[title unknown] 1930 (French)
[title unknown] 1930 (German)
Las Fantasmas 1930 (Spanish)
Our Gang shorts.
77 Park Lane 1931Famous Players Guild 77 Rue Chalgrin 1931 (French)
Entre noche y día 1932 (Spanish)
Aféra plukovníka Redla (Czech)1931 Elektafilm/SonorDer Fall des Generalstabs-Oberst Redl 1931 (German)
Les amours de minuit (French)1931Carl Froelich/Braunberger-RichebéMitternachtsliebe 1931 (German)
Arabian Nights 1931UniversalEl Tenorio del harem 1931 (Spanish)
Ariane (German)1931UFA The Loves of Ariane 1931 (English)
Ariane, jeune fille russe 1932 (French)
The Bachelor Father 1931MGMLe père célibataire 1931 (French)
Bad Girl 1931FoxMarido y mujer 1931 (Spanish)
The Ball (French: Le Bal)1931Les Films Marcel Vandal et Charles DelacDer Ball 1931 (German)
Be Big! and Laughing Gravy Both 1931Hal Roach StudiosLes Carottiers 1931 (French)
1931 (Spanish)
All star Laurel and Hardy.
Plots and footage from the English shorts were combined into much longer foreign ones.
The Beggar Student (German: Der Bettelstudent)1931Aafa-Film/Amalgamated Films The Beggar Student 1931 (English remake)
Black Coffee 1931 Julius Hagen/Jacques Haïk Le coffret de laque 1932 (French)
Body and Soul 1931FoxCuerpo y alma 1931 (Spanish)
Bombs on Monte Carlo (German: Bomben auf Monte Carlo)1931UFA Le capitaine Craddock 1931 (French)
Monte Carlo Madness 1932 (English)
Business Under Distress (Czech: To neznáte Hadimršku)1931 Elektafilm/Ondra-Lamac Wehe, wenn er losgelassen 1932 (German)
Cape Forlorn 1931BIP Menschen im Käfig 1930 (German)
Le cap perdu 1931 (French)
Charlie Chan Carries On 1931Fox Eran trece 1931 (Spanish)
The Charm of Seville (Spanish: El embrujo de Sevilla)1931Braunberger-Richebé/Tobis/Julio CésarL'Ensorcellement de Séville 1931 (French)
Chickens Come Home 1931Hal Roach StudiosPolitiquerías 1931 (Spanish)Both star Laurel and Hardy.
The Congress Dances (German: Der Kongreß tanzt)1931UFA Le congrès s'amuse 1931 (French)
Congress Dances 1932 (English)
The Criminal Code 1931 Columbia El código penal 1931 (Spanish)
Criminel 1933 (French)
Don't Bet on Women 1931FoxConoces a tu mujer? 1931 (Spanish)
Dracula 1931Universal Drácula 1931 (Spanish)
The Eaglet (French: L'aiglon)1931Les Films Osso Der Herzog von Reichstadt 1931 (German)
The Easiest Way 1931MGMQuand on est belle 1931 (French)
False Millionaire (Swedish: Falska millionären)1931Minerva/Jacques HaïkMon coeur et ses millions 1931 (French)
La Femme d'une nuit (French)1931Braunberger-Richebé Königin einer Nacht 1931 (German)
La donna di una notte 1931 (Italian)
La femme et le rossignol (French)1931André Hugon/UnionDie Frau - Die Nachtigall 1931 (German)
Die Fledermaus (German)1931Ondra-Lamac/VandorLa chauve-souris 1932 (French)
Fra Diavolo (German)1931ItalaFra Diavolo 1931 (French)
Einer Frau muß man alles verzeih'n (German)1931Nowik & Roell/Societé Internationale Cinématographique Durand contre Durand 1931 (French)
Gloria (German)1931Matador/Pathé-NatanGloria 1931 (French)
The Good Bad Girl 1931ColumbiaEl pasado acusa 1931 (Spanish)
Grock (German)1931Sofar/CinemaGrock 1931 (French)
Her Grace Commands (German: Ihre Hoheit befiehlt)1931UFA Princesse, à vos ordres! 1931 (French)
Her Majesty the Barmaid (German: Ihre Majestät die Liebe)1931DLS/May-Film Son altesse l'amour 1931 (French)
Him and His Sister (Czech: On a jeho sestra)1931 Elektafilm/TobisEr und seine Schwester 1931 (German)
Hyppolit, the Butler (Hungarian: Hyppolit, a lakáj)1931SonorEr und sein Diener 1931 (German)
I Go Out and You Stay Here (German: Ich geh' aus und Du bleibst da)1931CiceroL'inconstante. Je sors et tu restes là 1931 (French)
Inquest (German: Voruntersuchung)1931UFA Autour d'une enquête 1931 (French)
It Pays to Advertise 1931ParamountCriez-le sur les toits 1932 (French)
The Lady Who Dared 1931First NationalLa dama atrevida 1931 (Spanish)
Let's Love and Laugh 1931BIP Die Bräutigamswitwe 1931 (German)
The Little Escapade (German: Der kleine Seitensprung)1931UFALe petit écart 1931 (French)
Local Boy Makes Good 1931First NationalL'athlète incomplet 1932 (French)
The Love Express (German: Der Liebesexpreß)1931Greenbaum Film/Emelka Nuits de Venise 1931 (French)
M aka M - Eine Stadt sucht einen Mörder (English: M - A City Looks for a Murderer)1931 Nero-Film AG M 1932 (English)
M - le Maudit 1932 (French)
Mam'zelle Nitouche (French)1931Ondra-Lamac/Vandor Mamsell Nitouche 1932 (German)
The Man Who Came Back 1931FoxDel infierno al cielo 1931 (Spanish)
The Man with the Claw (Italian: L'uomo dall'artiglio)1931Cines/Orplid Die Pranke 1931 (German)
Marius (French)1931Paramount Zum goldenen Anker 1932 (German)
Längtan till havet 1931 (Swedish)
Madame Pompadour (German: Die Marquise von Pompadour)1931DLS/Ellen Richter/Jacques Haïk Un caprice de la Pompadour 1931 (French)
Men in Her Life 1931FoxHombres en mi vida 1931 (Spanish)
Moon Over Morocco (French: Les cinq gentlemen maudits)1931Les Films Marcel Vandal Die fünf verfluchten Gentlemen 1932 (German)
Moritz Makes His Fortune (German: Moritz macht sein Glück)1931André Hugon/Pathé-Natan Les galeries Lévy et Cie 1932 (French)
Mountains on Fire (German: Berge in Flammen)1931Les Films Marcel Vandal et Charles DelacLes monts en flammes 1931 (French)
Doomed Battalion 1932 (English remake)
The Murderer Dimitri Karamazov (German: Der Mörder Dimitri Karamasoff)1931Terra/Pathé-NatanLes frères Karamazoff 1932 (French)
My Cousin from Warsaw (German: Meine Cousine aus Warschau)1931Allianz Tonfilm/Les Films Osso Ma cousine de Varsovie 1931 (French)
My Wife, the Impostor (German: Meine Frau, die Hochstaplerin)1931UFAMa femme... homme d'affaires 1932 (French)
A Night at the Grand Hotel (German: Eine Nacht im Grandhotel)1931Thalia/Nero/PathéLa Femme de mes rêves 1932 (French)
En natt (Swedish)1931Jacques Haïk/SFSerments 1931 (French)
No More Love (German: Nie wieder Liebe!)1931UFA Calais-Dover 1931 (French)
Pardon Us 1931Hal Roach StudioDe Bote en BoteSous les verrous 1931 (French)
Hinter Schloss und Riegel 1931 (German)
1931 (Spanish)
Muraglie 1931 (Italian)
All star Laurel and Hardy.
Parlor, Bedroom and Bath 1931MGMBuster se marie 1931 (French)
Casanova wider Willen 1931 (German)
All star Buster Keaton.
The Phantom of Paris 1931MGMCheri-Bibi 1931 (Spanish)
The Pip From Pittsburgh1931Hal Roach StudiosLa Senorita de Chicago 1931 (Spanish)
The Private Secretary (German: Die Privatsekretärin)1931Greenbaum Film Dactylo 1931 (French)
Sunshine Susie 1931 (English remake)
La segretaria private 1931 (Italian remake)
Resurrection 1931Universal Resurrección 1931 (Spanish)
Ronny (German)1931UFA Ronny 1931 (French)
Rough Seas 1931MGMMonerías 1931 (Spanish)
The Royal Bed 1931 RKO Échec au roi 1931 (French)
Salto Mortale (German)1931Harmonie-Film GmbH Salto Mortale 1931 (French)
Shadows of the Underworld (German: Schatten der Unterwelt)1931ArielOmbres des bas fonds 1931 (French)
De Sensatie van de Toekomst (Dutch)1931ParamountMagie moderne 1931 (French)
Televisione 1931 (Italian)
Trådlöst och kärleksfullt 1931 (Swedish)
Svet bez hranic 1931 (Czech)
Swiat bez granic 1931 (Polish)
Televiziune 1931 (Romanian)
The Song of the Nations (German: Das Lied der Nationen)1931Union/ApollonLa Chanson des nations 1931 (French)
Stamboul 1931ParamountEl hombre que asesinó 1932 (Spanish)
L'homme qui assassina 1931 (French)
Der Mann, der den Mord beging 1931 (German)
The Street Song (German: Gassenhauer)1931Deutsches Lichtspiel-SyndikatLes quatre vagabonds 1931 (French)
Ten Cents a Dance 1931ColumbiaCarne de cabaret 1931 (Spanish)
Their Mad Moment 1931FoxMi último amor 1931 (Spanish)
The Threepenny Opera (German: Die Dreigroschenoper)1931Nero-Film AG/Tobis Filmkunst/Warner Bros.L'opéra de quat'sous 1931 (French)
Thundering Tenors 1931MGMEl alma de la fiesta 1931 (Spanish)
Transgression 1931RKO Nuit d'Espagne 1931 (French)
Trötte Teodor (Swedish)1931Minerva/Jacques HaïkService de nuit 1932 (French)
The Viking 1931J.D. Williams/Newfoundland-Labrador Film CompanyCeux du viking 1932 (French)
When Do You Commit Suicide? (French: Quand te tues-tu?)1931Paramount ¿Cuándo te suicidas? 1932 (Spanish)
The Woman Between 1931RKOLe fils de l'autre 1931 (French)
Alias the Doctor 1932First NationalLe cas du docteur Brenner 1933 (French)
Atlantis (French: L'Atlantide)1932Nero-Film AG/Societé Internationale CinématographiqueDie Herrin von Atlantis 1932 (German)
The Mistress of Atlantis 1932 (English)
Baby (German)1932Ondra-Lamac/VandorBaby 1933 (French)
Bachelor Mother 1932Goldsmith ProductionsTres Amores 1934 (Spanish)
The Beautiful Adventure (German: Das schöne Abenteuer)1932UFA La belle aventure 1932 (French)
A Blonde Dream (German: Ein blonder Traum)1932UFA Happy Ever After 1932 (English)
Un rêve blond 1932 (French)
The Blue Danube 1932 Herbert Wilcox ProductionsLe Danube Bleu 1932 (French)
The Cheeky Devil (German: Der Frechdachs)1932UFA Vous serez ma femme 1932 (French)
The Crowd Roars 1932Warner Bros.La foule hurle 1932 (French)
Le dernier choc (French)1932Les Films OssoNiebla 1932 (Spanish)
Dreaming Lips (German: Der träumende Mund)1932Matador/Pathé-NatanMélo 1932 (French)
Flying Gold (Hungarian: Repülő arany)1932Les Films OssoRouletabille aviateur 1932 (French)
F.P.1 does not reply (German: F.P.1 antwortet nicht)1932UFAI.F.1 ne répond plus 1932 (French)
F.P.1 1932 (English)
Girls to Marry (German: Mädchen zum Heiraten)1932Fellner & Somio/Gainsborough Marry Me 1932 (English)
The Cruel Mistress (German: Die grausame Freundin)1932Ondra-Lamac/Lothar Stark/Les Films Osso Faut-il les marier? 1932 (French)
Großstadtnacht (German)1932Terra/Pathé-NatanMirages de Paris 1933 (French)
Gypsies of the Night (German: Zigeuner der Nacht)1932H.M.-Film/Pathé-Natan Coeurs joyeux 1932 (French)
Haunted People (German: Gehetzte Menschen)1932EmcoŠtvaní lidé 1933 (Czech)
He Is Charming (French: Il est charmant)1932Paramount Studenter i Paris 1932 (Swedish)
High Pressure 1932Warner Bros.Le bluffeur 1932 (French)
I by Day, You by Night (German: Ich bei Tag und du bei Nacht)1932UFA À moi le jour, à toi la nuit 1932 (French)
Early to Bed 1932 (English)
The Ideal Schoolmaster (Czech: Kantor ideál)1932 Elektafilm/Vladimír Kabelík/MoldaviaProfesseur Cupidon 1933 (French)
Kiki (German)1932Ondra-Lamac/VandorKiki 1933 (French)
King of the Hotel (French: Le roi des palaces)1932Gaumont/Gainsborough/British Lion King of the Ritz 1933 (English)
Lelíček ve službách Sherlocka Holmese (Czech)1932 Elektafilm Le roi bis 1932 (French)
The Love Contract 1932British & Dominions Film Corporation/Gaumont/ExcelsiorChauffeur Antoinette 1932 (German)
Conduisez-moi, Madame 1932 (French)
A Mad Idea (German: Ein toller Einfall)1932UFA/ViaUne idée folle 1933 (French)
Madame Makes Her Exit (German: Madame hat Ausgang)1932Tobis/Vandal/Delac L'amoureuse aventure 1932 (French)
Man Without a Name (German: Mensch ohne Namen)1932UFAUn homme sans nom 1932 (French)
Money for Nothing 1932BIP/Jacques HaïkL'amour et la veine 1932 (French)
Monsieur, Madame and Bibi (French: Monsieur, Madame et Bibi)1932Pathé-Natan/H.M.-Film Ein bißchen Liebe für dich 1932 (German)
Due cuori felici 1932 (Italian remake)
Yes, Mr Brown 1933 (English remake)
A Night in Paradise (German: Eine Nacht im Paradies)1932Lothar Stark/Ondra-Lamac/VandorUne nuit au paradis 1932 (French)
The Old Scoundrel (Hungarian: A vén gazember)1932Hunnia/UFA ...und es leuchtet die Puszta 1933 (German)
Once There Was a Waltz (German: Es war einmal ein Walzer)1932Aafa-Film/Amalgamated Films Where Is This Lady? 1932 (English)
One Hour with You 1932ParamountUne heure près de toi 1932 (French)
One Night with You (Italian: Una notte con te)1932Tofa/Itala Kleines Mädel - großes Glück 1933 (German)
Paprika (German)1932Victor Klein/Italfono/S.A.P.F./Romain Pinès Paprika 1933 (Italian)
Paprika 1933 (French)
The Passionate Plumber 1932MGMLe plombier amoureux 1932 (French)Both star Buster Keaton.
Pergolesi (Italian)1932CinesLes amours de Pergolèse 1933 (French)
Une petite femme dans le train (French)1932Paramount/ABJsem děvče s čertem v těle 1933 (Czech)
Quick (German)1932UFAQuick 1932 (French)
The Rebel (German: Der Rebell)1932Deutsche UniversalThe Rebel 1933 (English)
Scampolo (German)1932Lothar StarkUn peu d'amour 1932 (French)
Sehnsucht 202 (German)1932Cine-Allianz/Les Films OssoUne jeune fille et un million 1932 (French)
Sergeant X (German)1932GloriaLe sergent X 1932 (French)
Service for Ladies 1932Paramount Monsieur Albert 1932 (French)
A Shot at Dawn (German: Schuß im Morgengrauen)1932UFACoup de feu à l'aube 1932 (French)
The Song of Night (German: Das Lied einer Nacht)1932Cine-Allianz/Gainsborough Tell Me Tonight 1932 (English)
La chanson d'une nuit 1933 (French)
Spoiling the Game (German: Strich durch die Rechnung)1932UFARivaux de la piste 1933 (French)
Spring Shower (Hungarian: Tavaszi zápor)1932Les Films OssoPrima dragoste 1932 (Romanian)
Marie, légende hongroise 1933 (French)
Storms of Passion (German: Stürme der Leidenschaft)1932UFATumultes 1932 (French)
Three on a Honeymoon (German: Hochzeitsreise zu Dritt)1932Mondial/Romain Pinès/S.I.C. Voyage de noces 1933 (French)
Two Hearts Beat as One (German: Zwei Herzen und ein Schlag)1932UFA La fille et le garçon 1932 (French)
Two in a Car (German: Zwei in einem Auto)1932May-Film/Pathé-Natan Paris-Méditerranée 1932 (French)
The Victor (German: Der Sieger)1932UFALe vainqueur 1932 (French)
Die Vier vom Bob 13 (German)1932Gnom/EquitableL'amour en vitesse 1932 (French)
The White Demon (German: Der weiße Dämon)1932UFA Stupéfiants 1932 (French)
Wrong Number, Miss (German: Fräulein - Falsch verbunden)1932Itala/Cines La telefonista 1932 (Italian remake)
Adventures on the Lido (German: Abenteuer am Lido)1933Pan-Film KG WienLe chant du destin 1933 (French)
And Who Is Kissing Me? (German: ...und wer küßt mich?)1933Itala/Consorzio Persic La ragazza dal livido azzurro 1933 (Italian)
The Big Bluff (German: Der große Bluff)1933T.K. Tonfilm/Tobis/Gaumont-Franco-Film-AubertLe grand bluff 1933 (French)
The Castle in the South (German: Das Schloß im Süden)1933Boston/UFA Château de rêve 1933 (French)
Daughter of the Regiment (German: Die Tochter des Regiments)1933Ondra-Lamac/VandorLa fille du régiment 1933 (French)
Des jungen Dessauers große Liebe (German)1933UFA/ACETambour battant 1934 (French)
Diagnosa X (Czech)1933DAFAUm ein bisschen Glück 1934 (German)
Don Quixote (French: Don Quichotte)1933Nelson Film/Vandor FilmDon Quichotte 1933 (German)
Adventures of Don Quixote 1933 (English)
The Empress and I (German: Ich und die Kaiserin)1933UFA/GainsboroughMoi et l'Impératrice 1933 (French)
The Only Girl 1934 (English)
Flirtation (German: Liebelei)1933Allianz Tonfilm Une histoire d'amour 1933 (French)
Gently My Songs Entreat (German: Leise flehen meine Lieder)1933Allianz Tonfilm Unfinished Symphony 1934 (English)
Ein gewisser Herr Gran (German)1933UFAUn certain monsieur Grant 1933 (French)
Es war einmal ein Musikus (German)1933Friedrich Zelnick-Film/Compagnie Cinematographique Continentale/Olympic FilmsC'était un musicien 1934 (French)
The Girl from Maxim's 1933London Film La dame de chez Maxim's 1933 (French)
The Happiness of Grinzing (German)1933Oka In the Little House Below Emauzy 1933 (Czech)
Happy Days in Aranjuez (German: Die schönen Tage von Aranjuez)1933UFA/ACEAdieu les beaux jours 1933 (French)
His Majesty's Adjutant (German: Der Adjutant seiner Hoheit)1933Meissner Pobočník Jeho Výsosti 1933 (Czech)
Ich will Dich Liebe lehren (German)1933PaxL'homme qui ne sait pas dire non (French)
Ihre Durchlaucht, die Verkäuferin (German)1933UFA/Cine-Allianz/ACECaprice de princesse 1934 (French)
It's Great to Be Alive 1933FoxEl último varon sobre la Tierra 1933 (Spanish)
Kísértetek vonata (Hungarian)1933City Film Rt./Hunnia FilmgyárTrenul fantoma 1933 (Romanian)
Life Is a Dog (Czech: Život je pes)1933Itala/Moldavia Der Doppelbräutigam 1934 (German)
Le Mari rêvé 1936 (French remake)
The Lucky Diamond (Italian: Lisetta)1933Itala/RexDas Blumenmädchen vom Grand-Hotel 1934 (German)
Madame Wants No Children (German: Madame wünscht keine Kinder)1933Lothar Stark/VandorMadame ne veut pas d'enfants 1933 (French)
Marion, That's Not Nice (German: Marion, das gehört sich nicht)1933Itala Cercasi modella 1933 (Italian)
The Merry Monarch1933Tobis/Algra/S.E.P.I.C.Die Abenteuer des Königs Pausole 1933 (German)
Les aventures du roi Pausole 1933 (French)
Money Talks 1933BIP L'argent par les fenêtres 1933 (French)
The Oil Sharks (French: Les requins du pétrole)1933Pan/Sascha/Robert Müller Unsichtbare Gegner 1933 (German)
Pleasure Cruise 1933FoxNo dejes la puerta abierta 1933 (Spanish)
The Rakoczi March (German: Rakoczy-Marsch)1933City/Hunnia/Mondial/Märkische Film GmbHRákóczi induló 1933 (Hungarian)
Refugees (German: Flüchtlinge)1933UFAAu bout du monde 1934 (French)
Revenge at Monte Carlo 1933Mayfair Pictures CorporationDos noches 1933 (Spanish)
S.O.S. Eisberg (German)1933UniversalS.O.S. Iceberg 1933 (English)
Scandal in Budapest (German: Skandal in Budapest)1933Hunnia/Deutsche UniversalPardon, tévedtem 1933 (Hungarian)
Season in Cairo (German: Saison in Kairo)1933UFA Idylle au Caire 1933 (French)
A Song for You (German: Ein Lied für dich)1933UFA/Cine-Allianz/Gaumont Tout pour l'amour 1933 (French)
My Song for You 1934 (English)
A Song Goes Round the World (German: Ein Lied geht um die Welt)1933Rio-Film GmbH My Song Goes Round the World 1934 (English)
The Song of the Sun (Italian: La canzone del sole)1933Itala/CapitaniDas Lied der Sonne 1933 (German)
Sonnenstrahl (German)1933Tobis-Sascha/VandorGardez le sourire 1933 (French)
The Star of Valencia (German: Der Stern von Valencia)1933UFA/ACE L'Étoile de Valencia 1933 (French)
The Testament of Dr. Mabuse (German: Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse)1933Nero-Film AGLe testament du Dr. Mabuse 1933 (French)
A Thousand for One Night (German: Tausend für eine Nacht)1933Avanti/UFA/WolframTisíc za jednu noc 1933 (Czech)
Il trattato scomparso (Italian)1933Bonnard FilmLe masque qui tombe 1933 (French)
The Tsarevich (German: Der Zarewitsch)1933Prima/UFA/ACESon Altesse Impériale 1933 (French)
The Tunnel (German: Der Tunnel)1933 Bavaria Film/Vandor Film Le Tunnel 1933 (French)
The Tunnel 1935 (English remake)
Die Unschuld vom Lande (German)1933Aco/Persin-ItalfilmLa provincialina 1934 (Italian)
The Verdict of Lake Balaton (Hungarian: Ítél a Balaton)1933Hunnia/Les Films OssoTempêtes 1933 (French)
Menschen im Sturm 1933 (German)
The Verdict of Lake Balaton 1933 (English)
Victor and Victoria (German: Viktor und Viktoria)1933UFA Georges et Georgette 1934 (French)
Waltz War (German: Walzerkrieg)1933UFA/ACE La guerre des valses 1933 (French)
Was wissen denn Männer (German)1933UFA/Svensk FilmindustriVad veta väl männen? 1933 (Swedish)
The Way to Love 1933ParamountL'amour guide 1933 (French)
Wege zur guten Ehe (German)1933Gnom/VandorL'amour qu'il faut aux femmes 1934 (French)
Annette in Paradise (German: Annette im Paradies)1934Wolfram-Film/Georg WittAnita v ráji 1934 (Czech)
The Battle (French: La Bataille)1934Bernard Natan/Liano Films The Battle 1934 (English)
Caravan 1934FoxCaravane 1934 (French)
Count Woronzeff (German: Fürst Woronzeff)1934UFA Le secret des Woronzeff 1935 (French)
The Csardas Princess (German: Die Czardasfürstin)1934UFAPrincesse Czardas 1934 (French)
Decoy (German: Lockvogel)1934UFA/ACE Le miroir aux alouettes 1935 (French)
Ende schlecht, alles gut (German)1934City Film/Thalia-FilmHelyet az öregeknek 1934 (Hungarian)
The Eternal Dream (German: Der ewige Traum)1934Cine-AllianzRêve éternel 1935 (French)
Farewell Waltz (German: Abschiedswalzer)1934Boston/TobisLa chanson de l'adieu 1934 (French)
Gold (German)1934UFAL'Or 1934 (French)
Ich kenn' dich nicht und liebe dich (German)1934Boston/TobisToi que j'adore 1934 (French)
The Island (German: Die Insel)1934UFA/ACEVers l'abîme 1934 (French)
Just Once a Great Lady (German: Einmal eine große Dame sein)1934UFA Un jour viendra 1934 (French)
Love, Death and the Devil (German: Liebe, Tod und Teufel)1934UFA/ACE Le diable en bouteille 1935 (French)
The Merry Widow 1934MGMLa veuve joyeuse 1934 (French)
My Heart Calls You (German: Mein Herz ruft nach dir)1934Cine-Allianz/Gaumont Mon cœur t'appelle 1934 (French)
My Heart is Calling 1935 (English)
A Night in Venice (Hungarian: Egy éj Velencében)1934 Hunnia Film Eine Nacht in Venedig 1934 (German)
Polish Blood (German: Polenblut)1934 Elektafilm/Ondra-LamacPolská krev 1934 (Czech)
Princess Turandot (German: Prinzessin Turandot)1934UFA Turandot, princesse de Chine 1935 (French)
Pursued 1934Fox Nada más que una mujer 1934 (Spanish)
Tatranská romance (Czech)1934Tatra-Romanze 1934 (German)
Temptation 1934Milo/Gaumont Antonia, romance hongroise 1935 (French)
Die vertauschte Braut (German)1934Ondra-Lamac/S.I.C./SolL'amour en cage 1934 (French)
The Wedding March (Italian: La marcia nuziale)1934Manderfilm/Paris-Rome FilmsLa marche nuptiale 1935 (French)
Weiße Majestät (German)1934Bavaria/Giovanni Seyta/GefiUn de la montagne 1934 (French)
William Tell (German: Wilhelm Tell)1934Terra/Schweizer Film-Finanzierungs AGWilliam Tell 1934 (English)
A Woman Who Knows What She Wants (Czech: Žena, která ví co chce)1934Slovia/Meissner Eine Frau, die weiß, was sie will 1934 (German)
The Young Baron Neuhaus (German: Der junge Baron Neuhaus)1934UFA/ACE Nuit de mai 1934 (French)
The Affairs of Maupassant (German: Tagebuch der Geliebten)1935Panta/Melodia/AstraIl diario di una donna amata 1935 (Italian)
Amphitryon (German)1935UFALes dieux s'amusent 1935 (French)
April, April! (German)1935UFA 't Was één April 1936 (Dutch)
Barcarole (German)1935UFA/ACEBarcarolle 1935 (French)
Black Roses (German: Schwarze Rosen)1935UFARoses noires 1935 (French)
Black Roses 1936 (English)
Campo di maggio (Italian)1935Consorzio Vis/Tirrenia/ForzanoHundert Tage 1935 (German)
Carnival in Flanders (French: La Kermesse héroïque)1935TobisDie klugen Frauen 1936 (German)
Casta Diva (Italian)1935A.C.I. The Divine Spark 1935 (English)
Csardas (German)1935TerraRozpustilá noc 1935 (Czech)
El diablo del mar (Spanish)1935Theater Classics/Excelsior Devil Monster 1936 (English)
Fietje Peters, Poste Restante (Dutch)1935R.N.-Filmproduktion/UFAHilde Petersen postlagernd 1936 (German)
Fiordalisi d'oro (Italian)1935Forzano/RenaissanceSous la terreur 1936 (French)
Folies Bergère de Paris 1935FoxL'homme des Folies Bergère 1935 (French)
Fresh Wind from Canada (German: Frischer Wind aus Kanada)1935UFA/ACEJonny, haute-couture 1935 (French)
The Green Domino (French: Le domino vert)1935UFADer grüne Domino 1935 (German)
The Gypsy Baron (German: Der Zigeunerbaron)1935UFALe baron tzigane 1935 (French)
Her Highness Dances the Waltz (German: Hoheit tanzt Walzer)1935 Elektafilm Tanecek panny márinky 1935 (Czech)
Valse éternelle 1936 (French)
Hrdina jedné noci (Czech)1935Meissner Held einer Nacht 1935 (German)
I Like All the Women (German: Ich liebe alle Frauen)1935Allianz TonfilmJ'aime toutes les femmes 1935 (French)
Jana (Czech)1935MeissnerJana, das Mädchen aus dem Böhmerwald 1935 (German)
Koho jsem včera líbal? (Czech)1935ElkaLe coup de trois 1936 (French)
Königswalzer (German)1935UFA/ACE Valse royale 1936 (French)
Light Cavalry (German: Leichte Kavallerie)1935UFA/F.D.F./ACE Cavalerie légère 1935 (French)
Make Me Happy (German: Mach' mich glücklich)1935UFA/ACELes époux célibataires 1935 (French)
Midnight Phantom 1935ReliableEl crimen de media noche 1936 (Spanish)
One Too Many on Board (German: Einer zuviel an Bord)1935UFA/ACEUn homme de trop à bord 1935 (French)
Polibek ve sněhu (Czech)1935AlexLiebe auf Bretteln 1935 (German)
Quadrille d'amour (French)1935Societé Internationale CinématographiqueDie Katz' im Sack 1935 (German)
Der Schlafwagenkontrolleur (German)1935Bavaria/VandorLe contrôleur des wagons-lits 1935 (French)
Storm Over the Andes 1935UniversalAlas sobre El Chaco 1935 (Spanish)
Stradivari (German)1935Boston Stradivarius 1935 (French)
Varieté (German)1935Bavaria/VandorVariétés 1935 (French)
Three Maxims 1936 (English remake)
De Vier Mullers (Dutch)1935BMSAlles für die Firma 1935 (German)
Le voyage imprévu (French)1935Gegal Films/International PlayersRunaway Ladies 1935 (English)
Arme kleine Inge (German)1936Meissner/Metropolitan FilmSextánka 1936 (Czech)
Augustus the Strong (German: August der Starke)1936Nerthus Film/Polski TobisUnknown title (Polish), directed by Stanisław Wasylewski
The Beloved Vagabond 1936ToeplitzLe vagabond bien-aimé 1936 (French)
Captain Calamity 1936Metropolitan Pictures/George A. HirlimanEl capitan Tormenta 1936 (Spanish)
City of Anatol (German: Stadt Anatol)1936UFA Puits en flammes 1937 (French)
Coeur de gueux (French)1936Forzano/RenaissanceCuor di vagabondo 1936 (Italian)
Coup de vent (French)1936Lux/CFC/ForzanoUn colpo di vento 1936 (Italian)
The Court Concert (German: Das Hofkonzert)1936UFALa chanson du souvenir 1937 (French)
The Devil on Horseback 1936Metropolitan Pictures/George A. HirlimanEl carnaval del diablo 1936 (Spanish)
Divoch (Czech)1936Meteor/Metropolitan FilmRote Rosen - blaue Adria 1938 (German)
Donogoo Tonka (German)1936UFADonogoo 1936 (French)
Guilty Melody 1936Franco London Films Le disque 413 1936 (French)
Half-Rate Honeymoon (Hungarian: Nászút féláron)1936Lux FilmHochzeitsreise zu 50% 1937 (German)
Heißes Blut (German)1936UFALes deux favoris 1936 (French)
Irca's Romance (Czech: Irčin románek)1936Meissner/Metropolitan Film Flucht an die Adria 1937 (German)
The Last Waltz 1936Warwick/Gnom La dernière valse 1936 (French)
Lucky Kids (German: Glückskinder)1936UFALes gais lurons 1936 (French)
But It's Nothing Serious (Italian: Ma non è una cosa seria)1936Itala/Colombo Der Mann, der nicht nein sagen kann 1938 (German)
Martha (German)1936Lloyd FilmMartha 1936 (French)
Michel Strogoff (French)1936Ermolieff/Richard Eichberg Der Kurier des Zaren 1936 (German)
Paradise Road (Czech: Ulička v ráji)1936Moldavia/TobisDas Gäßchen zum Paradies 1936 (German)
La Vie parisienne 1936Nero-Film Parisian Life 1936 (English)
Port-Arthur (French)1936F.C.L./SlaviaPort Arthur 1936 (German)
Quand minuit sonnera (French)1936France-Europe Films Klokslag Twaalf 1936 (Dutch)
Skeppsbrutne Max (Swedish)1936M-film/Nationalfilm/Götafilm/Rudi LöwenthalRendezvous im Paradies 1936 (German)
Tredici uomini e un cannone (Italian)1936Pisorno/Two Cities 13 Men and a Gun 1938 (English remake)
Dreizehn Mann und eine Kanone 1938 (German remake)
We're in the Legion Now! 1936George A. Hirliman/Metropolitan PicturesDe la sartén al fuego 1936 (Spanish)
A Woman Between Two Worlds (Italian: Una donna tra due mondi)1936Astra/Bavaria Die Liebe des Maharadscha 1936 (German)
A Woman of No Importance (German: Eine Frau ohne Bedeutung)1936Majestic/RéginaUne femme sans importance 1937 (French)
Adventure in Warsaw (German: Abenteuer in Warschau)1937Nerthus/Polski Tobis Dyplomatyczna żona 1937 (Polish)
Cause for Divorce (German: Der Scheidungsgrund)1937Moldavia/Ondra-LamacDuvod k rozvodu 1937 (Czech)
Condottieri (Italian)1937ENIC/TobisCondottieri 1937 (German)
The Girl in the Taxi 1937British Unity PicturesLa chaste Suzanne 1937 (French)
The Man from Nowhere (French: L'homme de nulle part)1937Général Productions/Ala/Colosseum Il fu Mattia Pascal 1937 (Italian)
L'homme sans coeur (French)1937France-Europe Films De Man Zonder Hart 1937 (Dutch)
Poslíček lásky (Czech)1937Lord/Metropolitan/Lloydfilm Not a Word About Love 1937 (German)
Street of Shadows (French: Mademoiselle Docteur)1937Romain Pinès/Trocadero/Pathé/Grafton/Trafalgar Under Secret Orders 1937 (English)
The Three Wishes (Dutch: De drie wensen)1937Odeon/Manenti I tre desideri 1937 (Italian)
Woman of Malacca (French: La Dame de Malacca)1937Régina Andere Welt 1937 (German)
Addresse unbekannt (German)1938KabelacZe vsech jediná 1938 (Czech)
Bozí mlýny (Czech)1938MeissnerDie Gottes Mühlen 1938 (German)
Dir gehört mein Herz (German)1938Itala/Tobis Marionette 1939 (Italian)
The Gambler (German: Der Spieler)1938Euphono/Kreutzberg/TobisLe joueur 1938 (French)
Geld fällt vom Himmel (German)1938Nordland/AlbaPengar från skyn 1938 (Swedish)
Heiraten - aber wen? (German)1938Donau/Elektafilm Falešná kocicka 1938 (Czech)
Ihr Leibhusar (German)1938Eco/Hunnia/PicturaA Noszty fiú esete Tóth Marival 1938 (Hungarian)
The Indian Tomb (German: Das indische Grabmal)1938Richard EichbergLe tombeau hindou 1938 (French)
Lidé pod horami (Czech)1938WolframMenschen in den Bergen 1938 (German)
The Mountain Calls (German: Der Berg ruft)1938Luis Trenker/London Film/Denham The Challenge 1938 (English)
Nights in Andalusia (German: Andalusische Nächte)1938Carl Froelich/Hispano Carmen, la de Triana 1938 (Spanish)
Nuits de princes (French)1938Ermolieff/TobisAb Mitternacht 1938 (German)
Panenka (Czech)1938Metropolitan FilmRobot-Girl Nr. 1 1938 (German)
People Who Travel (German: Fahrendes Volk)1938Tobis Les gens du voyage 1938 (French)
Princess Tarakanova (French: Tarakanowa)1938Chronos/Nero/SAFI La principessa Tarakanova 1938 (Italian)
Prison Without Bars 1938CIPRA/London FilmPrison sans barreaux 1938 (French)
Roxy and the Wonderteam (German: Roxy und das Wunderteam)1938H.T. Film3:1 a szerelem javára 1938 (Hungarian)
The Tiger of Eschnapur (German: Der Tiger von Eschnapur)1938Richard EichbergLe tigre du Bengale 1938 (French)
Unsere kleine Frau (German)1938ItalaMia moglie si diverte 1938 (Italian)
The Woman Thief (French: Le Voleur de femmes)1938Films Union/PisornoLadro di donne 1938 (Italian)
Casa lontana (Italian)1939Itala Der singende Tor 1939 (German)
Castles in the Air (Italian: Castelli in aria)1939Astra FilmIns blaue Leben 1939 (German)
Dernière jeunesse (French)1939Lumen Films/ScaleraUltima giovinezza 1939 (Italian)
Unknown of Monte Carlo (French: L'inconnue de Monte Carlo)1939Continentalcine/Franco London Films La signora di Montecarlo 1939 (Italian)
Menschen vom Varieté (German)1939Pictura/HunniaA varieté csillagai 1939 (Hungarian)
Miracle on Main Street 1939Grand National/ArcadiaEl milagro de la calle mayor 1939 (Spanish)
Il segreto inviolabile (Italian)1939Nembo FilmSu mayor aventura 1940 (Spanish)
Terra di fuoco (Italian)1939ManentiTerre de feu 1942 (French)
Zwischen Strom und Steppe (German)1939Spectrum/HunniaTiszavirág 1939 (Hungarian)
Bercsenyi huszárok (Hungarian)1940Magyar Film Iroda/Nuova Il capitano degli ussari 1940 (Italian)
Dopo divorzieremo (Italian)1940ExcelsaEl marido provisional 1940 (Spanish)
Ecco la felicità (Italian)1940Discina/Scalera/Societé Parisienne de Distribution Cinématographique La Comédie du bonheur 1942 (French)
Inspector Vargas (Italian: L'ispettore Vargas)1940Sovrania Film/I.C.A.R./CIFESAEl inspector Vargas 1947 (Spanish)
Ritorno (Italian)1940Itala Film/Scalera FilmTraummusik 1940 (German)
The Sin of Rogelia Sanchez (Italian: Il peccato di Rogelia Sanchez)1940SAFIC/Producciones Hispánicas Santa Rogelia 1940 (Spanish)
L'uomo della legione (Italian)1940Continentalcine/DuroEl hombre de la legión 1941 (Spanish)
Capitan Tempesta (Italian)1942Scalera FilmEl capitán Tormenta 1943 (Spanish)
Dove andiamo, signora? (Italian)1942Styria/Elica/XX SecoloAbenteuer im Grand Hotel 1943 (German)
Giungla (Italian)1942SAFIC/ICI/F.D.F.Vom Schicksal verweht 1942 (German)
Il leone di Damasco (Italian)1942Scalera FilmEl león de Damasco 1943 (Spanish)
Much Ado About Nixi (German: Viel Lärm um Nixi)1942Klagemann/AmatoNon mi sposo più 1942 (Italian)
Seven Years of Good Luck (German: Sieben Jahre Glück)1942Bavaria/Fono Roma Sette anni di felicità 1943 (Italian)
Cinco fueron escogidos (Spanish)1943Alpha FilmsFive Were Chosen 1944 (English)
Lascia cantare il cuore (Italian)1943Deka/Fono/UFA...und die Musik spielt dazu 1943 (German)
I pagliacci (Italian)1943Tobis/ItalaLache Bajazzo 1943 (German)
Cinco lobitos (Spanish)1945Faro/Filmes LumiarO Diabo São Elas 1945 (Portuguese)
Barrio (Spanish)1947Faro/DoperfilmeViela, rua sem sol 1947 (Portuguese)
Whispering City (English)1947Québec Productions La Forteresse 1947 (French)Same director with different sets of actors
But Not in Vain 1948Anglo-DutchNiet tevergeefs 1948 (Dutch)
Le Dessous des cartes (French)1948Flaminia/Gladiator/RéginaManù il contrabbandiere 1948 (Italian)
Alarm Bells (Italian: Campane a martello)1949Lux/Ortus Children of Chance 1949 (English)
L'Inconnu d'un soir (French)1949Arta/Berna/DonauLiebling der Welt 1949 (German)
Orage d'été (French)1949Pathé/P.A.C. Due sorelle amano 1950 (Italian)
Singoalla (Swedish)1949TerrafilmSingoalla 1950 (French)
The Wind Is My Lover (English)
Scenes were recorded in Swedish, French and English. [3]
The Glass Castle (French: Le Château de verre)1950Fortezza/Universalia/Franco LondonL'amante di una notte 1950 (Italian)
Gunman in the Streets 1950Sacha Gordine/Victor PahlenLe traqué 1950 (French)
Shadow of the Eagle 1950Dario Sabatello/Scalera/Sparta/Tuscania/Valiant La rivale dell'imperatrice 1951 (Italian)
Un sourire dans la tempête (French)1950Acteurs et Technicians Alliance FrancaisEin Lächeln im Sturm 1951 (German)
Vuelve Pancho Villa (Spanish)1950Hispano Continental Pancho Villa Returns 1950 (English)
Bluebeard (French: Barbe-Bleue)1951Alcina/Como Film/Union-Film Blaubart 1951 (German)
The Dream of Andalusia (Spanish: El sueño de Andalucía)1951CCFC/U.D.I.F./Columbia/C.E.A.Andalousie 1951 (French)
Love and Blood (Italian: Amore e sangue)1951A.B. Film/Comedia/La Quercia Schatten über Neapel 1951 (German)
Mon phoque et elles (French)1951TerraMin vän Oscar 1951 (Swedish)
Never Take No for an Answer (The Small Miracle)1951Constellation/Excelsa Peppino e Violetta 1951 (Italian)
Pardon My French 1951Sagitta/Jupiter/Cusick Dans la vie tout s'arrange 1952 (French)
The Red Needle (French: L'aiguille rouge)1951Alcina/National Verträumte Tage 1951 (German)
Stronghold 1951Lippert/Filmadora InternacionalFuria roja 1951 (Spanish)
Adventure in Vienna (German: Abenteuer in Wien)1952Transglobe/Kriedel/Schönbrunn Stolen Identity 1953 (English)
The Girl with the Whip (French: La fille au fouet)1952Aidal Beaujon/Monopole/Karpat/Tempo-Film Das Geheimnis vom Bergsee 1953 (Swiss German)
Monte Carlo Baby 1952HocheNous irons à Monte Carlo 1952 (French)
Plaisirs de Paris (French)1952Pallas/SpévaTraumschöne Nacht 1952 (German)
The Moon Is Blue 1953Otto Preminger Die Jungfrau auf dem Dach 1953 (German)
Die Tochter der Kompanie (German)1953Alexander SalkindLa figlia del reggimento 1953 (Italian)
Carnival Story 1954King Brothers Rummelplatz der Liebe 1954 (German)
Godzilla (Japanese: Gojira)1954Toho Godzilla, King of the Monsters! 1955 (English)
The Gypsy Baron (German: Der Zigeunerbaron)1954BerolinaBaron Tzigane 1954 (French)
Hungarian Rhapsody (German: Ungarische Rhapsodie)1954Florida/Gamma/OskaPar ordre du tsar 1954 (French)
La patrouille des sables (French)1954Sirius/Benito Perojo/Suevia/VégaTres hombres van a morir 1955 (Spanish)
Il prigioniero del re (Italian)1954Venturini FilmLe Masque de fer 1955 (French)
Bel Ami (French)1955Les Films Malesherbes/Projektograph/KleberBel Ami 1955 (German)
Ciske de Rat (Dutch)1955Filmproduktiemaatschappij Amsterdam/Omega FilmCiske - Ein Kind braucht Liebe 1955 (German)
Marianne of My Youth (French: Marianne de ma jeunesse)1955Filmsonor/Regina/Francinex/Royal/Allfram Marianne 1955 (German)
Oasis (French)1955Criterion/RoxyOase 1955 (German)
Special Delivery 1955Trans-Rhein FilmVom Himmel gefallen 1955 (German)
The Star of Rio (German: Stern von Rio)1955CCC/ErmesStella di Rio 1955 (Italian)
The Three from the Filling Station (German: Die Drei von der Tankstelle)1955Berolina/Comptoir d'Expansion Cinématographique Le chemin du paradis 1956 (French)
Walk Into Paradise 1956Discifilm/Southern International ProductionsL'Odyssée du capitaine Steve 1956 (French)
Jenny (Dutch)1958Bittins/StandaardAcht Mädels im Boot 1959 (German)
Die Sklavenkarawane (German)1958Neubert/Jesús SáizCaravana de esclavos 1959 (Spanish)
St. Peter's Umbrella (Slovak: Dáždnik svätého Petra)1958Hunnia Filmstúdió/Štúdio Hraných Filmov BratislavaSzent Péter esernyője 1958 (Hungarian)
The Stowaway 1958Silver/Discifilm/Corona/Southern International ProductionsLe passager clandestin 1958 (French)
Der Löwe von Babylon (German)1959Neubert/CIFESA/AquilaEn las ruinas de Babilonia 1960 (Spanish)
The Restless and the Damned (French: Amore e sangue)1959Silver/Chrysaor/Flora/Sud-Pacifique Films/AtelThe Restless and the Damned 1959 (English)
Rommel Calls Cairo (German: Rommel ruft Kairo)1959Omega/Omnia Foxhole in Cairo 1960 (English)
The Devil's Daffodil 1961Rialto/OmniaDas Geheimnis der gelben Narzissen 1961 (German)
Five Golden Hours 1961Anglofilm/Avers/Cinematografica InternazionaleCinque ore in contanti 1961 (Italian)
Reptilicus (Danish)1961Saga StudiosReptilicus (English)Danish-American giant monster film filmed in both Danish and English
Beş Ateşli Kadin (Turkish)1968Saner FilmEasabat Al'nisa 1969 (Arabic)
Le Cerveau (French)1969Gaumont International/Dino de Laurentiis Cinematografica The Brain (English)The English version runs 20 minutes less than the French version.
Malkoçoğlu Cem Sultan (Turkish)1969Duru FilmSerzemin-e Delaveran 1972 (Persian)
Misir'in Gelen Gelin (Turkish)1969Kemal FilmAroos-e Istanbul (Persian) 1972Same director, added scenes featuring Iranian actors include Naser Malek Motiee
Cîntecele mării (Romanian)1970Studioul Cinematografic București/Mosfilm Songs of the Sea (1970 film) (Russian: Pesni morya)
Fadime (Turkish)1970Erler FilmIn gorooh-e zebel (Persian)
The Nameless Knight (Turkish: Adsız Cengaver)1970Erman FilmFarzande Shamshir 1972 (Persian)Different directors with the same actors.
Ölüm Fermanı (Turkish)1970Topkapı FilmSe Delavar 1971 (Persian)The directors are different, but the actors are the same. The Turkish version was shown as an adventure film, in the Iranian version as a comedy.
Selahattin Eyyubi (Turkish)1970Akün FilmSalahuddin Ayoubi 1972 (Persian)Different directors with the same actors. The Iranian version is 23 minutes longer than the original Turkish version.
Le Casse (French)1971Columbia Films/Vides Cinematografica The Burglars (English)The English version is 11 minutes shorter than the original French version.
Kommissar X jagt die roten Tiger 1971Regina Film Theo Maria Werner/KG Divina-Film GmbH & Co./Virginia Cinematografica S.r.l./Montana Film Tiger Gang (Urdu)
Hak Yolu (Turkish)1971Erler Film/Pars FilmMive-ye gonah (Persian)The Turkish version is 14 minutes shorter than the original Iranian version.
İki Esir (Turkish)1971Erler FilmAsir (Persian)Different directors with the same actors.
Una matta, matta, matta corsa in Russia (Italian)1973Dino De Laurentiis Company/Mosfilm Unbelievable Adventures of Italians in Russia (Russian: Neveroyatnye Priklyucheniya Italyantsev v Rossii)
Karateciler İstanbul'da (Turkish)1974Erler FilmMat Ling (Cantonese)Same director with different sets of actors, in Hong Kong was shot additional scenes with Bolo Yeung [4]
Che carambole ragazzi... (Italian)1976Erler Film/Dany FilmÜç kağıtçılar (Turkish)
Se rafiq (Persian)
Different directors, with the same actors, but different characters' names [5]
Ma-ma (Romanian)1976Romania Film/Mosfilm/Ralux FilmRock'n'Roll Wolf (English)
Ma-Ma (Russian)
The three versions were shot back to back.
Acı Hatıralar (Turkish)1977Erler FilmSarsapardeh (Persian)Different directors with the same actors.
İnsanları Seveceksin (Turkish)1978Gülgen Film/Piza FilmKriminal Porno (Italian)The Italian version added erotic scenes and was 9 minutes shorter than the Turkish version.
Bandish (Urdu)1980Juwita (Indonesian)Different director with the same actors.
Maria, Mirabela (Romanian)1981Moldova-Film/Soyuzmultfilm/Casa de Filme 5Maria, Mirabela (Russian)
Oasis of the Zombies (French: L'Abîme des morts vivants)1982Eurociné/Marte/DiasaLa tumba de los muertos vivientes 1983 (Spanish)
The Return of Godzilla (Japanese: Gojira)1984Toho Godzilla 1985 (English)
Orions belte (Norwegian)1985 Orion's Belt (1985) (English)Different directors, but the same actors.
Un amour de sorcière (French)1997Les Films Christian Fechner / TF1 Films Production / Canal+A Witch's Way of Love (English)
Cuisine américaine (French)1998Les Films Balenciaga / M6 Films / PolyGram AudiovisuelAmerican Cuisine (English)
Nouvelle-France (French)2004Lions Gate / Melenny / UKFS / Davis Battle of the Brave 2005 (English)
Nomad 2005Ibrus/Kazakhfilm/True Story/Wild Bunch Köşpendiler 2005 (Kazakh)
Polytechnique (French)2009Alliance Films/Remstar/Wild Bunch Polytechnique (English)
In the Land of Blood and Honey 2011 GK Films Made with two versions. One version in geographically accurate Bosnian, Serbian, and Croatian, and one in English, shot back to back.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Silent film</span> Film with no synchronized recorded dialogue

A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound. Though silent films convey narrative and emotion visually, various plot elements or key lines of dialogue may, when necessary, be conveyed by the use of title cards.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Laurel and Hardy</span> British-American comedy duo

Laurel and Hardy were a British-American comedy duo act during the early Classical Hollywood era of American cinema, consisting of Englishman Stan Laurel (1890–1965) and American Oliver Hardy (1892–1957). Starting their career as a duo in the silent film era, they later successfully transitioned to "talkies". From the late 1920s to the mid-1950s, they were internationally famous for their slapstick comedy, with Laurel playing the clumsy, childlike friend to Hardy's pompous bully. Their signature theme song, known as "The Cuckoo Song", "Ku-Ku", or "The Dance of the Cuckoos" was heard over their films' opening credits, and became as emblematic of them as their bowler hats.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sound film</span> A motion picture with synchronized sound

A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film. The first known public exhibition of projected sound films took place in Paris in 1900, but decades passed before sound motion pictures became commercially practical. Reliable synchronization was difficult to achieve with the early sound-on-disc systems, and amplification and recording quality were also inadequate. Innovations in sound-on-film led to the first commercial screening of short motion pictures using the technology, which took place in 1923. The sound film was also played with organs or pianos in the actual movie to represent sound.

<i>The Phantom of the Opera</i> (1925 film) 1925 American silent horror film

The Phantom of the Opera is a 1925 American silent horror film adaptation of Gaston Leroux's 1910 novel Le Fantôme de l'Opéra, directed by Rupert Julian and starring Lon Chaney in the title role of the deformed Phantom who haunts the Paris Opera House, causing murder and mayhem in an attempt to make the woman he loves a star. The film remains most famous for Chaney's ghastly, self-devised make-up, which was kept a studio secret until the film's premiere. The picture also features Mary Philbin, Norman Kerry, Arthur Edmund Carewe, Gibson Gowland, John St. Polis and Snitz Edwards. The last surviving cast member was Carla Laemmle, niece of producer Carl Laemmle, who played a small role as a "prima ballerina" in the film when she was about 15 years old. The film was released on September 6, 1925, premiering at the Astor Theatre in New York. The film's final budget was $632,357.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charley Chase</span> Actor, comedian, director, writer

Charles Joseph Parrott, known professionally as Charley Chase, was an American comedian, actor, screenwriter and film director. He worked for many pioneering comedy studios but is chiefly associated with producer Hal Roach. Chase was the elder brother of comedian/director James Parrott.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">H. M. Walker</span> American screenwriter

Harley M. Walker was a member of the Hal Roach Studios production company from 1916 until his resignation in 1932. The title cards he wrote for Harold Lloyd, Charley Chase, Our Gang and Laurel and Hardy comedies "have entered legend, both for silent films, and as opening remarks for the earlier talkies." He was also an officer of the Roach Studio corporation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Laurel and Hardy filmography</span>

Laurel and Hardy were a motion picture comedy team whose official filmography consists of 106 films released between 1921 and 1951. Together they appeared in 34 silent shorts, 45 sound shorts, and 27 full-length sound feature films. In addition to these, Laurel and Hardy appeared in at least 20 foreign-language versions of their films and a promotional film, Galaxy of Stars (1936), produced for European film distributors.

<i>Blackmail</i> (1929 film) 1929 film by Alfred Hitchcock

Blackmail is a 1929 British thriller directed by Alfred Hitchcock and starring Anny Ondra, John Longden, and Cyril Ritchard. Based on the 1928 play of the same name by Charles Bennett, the film is about a London woman who is blackmailed after killing a man who tries to rape her.

The following is a complete list of the 220 Our Gang short films produced by Hal Roach Studios and/or Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer between 1922 and 1944, numbered by order of release along with production order.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lupita Tovar</span> Mexican-American actress (1910–2016)

Guadalupe Natalia Tovar Sullivan, known professionally as Lupita Tovar, was a Mexican-born American actress best known for her starring role in the 1931 Spanish-language version of Drácula, filmed in Los Angeles by Universal Pictures at night using the same sets as the Bela Lugosi version, but with a different cast and director. She also starred in the 1932 film Santa, one of the first Mexican sound films, and one of the first commercial Spanish-language sound films. At the time of her death, she was the oldest living actress and one of the last surviving stars from the Golden Age of Hollywood.

<i>Our Gang</i> Film series

Our Gang is an American series of comedy short films chronicling a group of poor neighborhood children and their adventures. Created by film producer Hal Roach, also the producer of the Laurel and Hardy films, Our Gang shorts were produced from 1922 to 1944, spanning the silent film and early sound film periods of American cinema. Our Gang is noted for showing children behaving in a relatively natural way; Roach and original director Robert F. McGowan worked to film the unaffected, raw nuances apparent in regular children, rather than have them imitate adult acting styles. The series also broke new ground by portraying white and black children interacting as equals during the Jim Crow era of racial segregation in the United States.

<i>Pardon Us</i> 1931 film

Pardon Us is a 1931 American pre-Code Laurel and Hardy film. It was the duo's first starring feature-length comedy film, produced by Hal Roach and Stan Laurel, directed by James Parrott, and originally distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1931.

Linda Loredo was an American-born actress and dancer of Mexican descent. She is most commonly associated with Spanish language versions of Laurel and Hardy short subjects. Her sister, Maria Loredo, was also an actress.

<i>Perfect Day</i> (1929 film) 1929 film

Perfect Day is a 1929 short comedy film starring Laurel and Hardy.

<i>Berth Marks</i> 1929 film by Lewis R. Foster

Berth Marks is the second sound film starring Laurel and Hardy and was released on June 1, 1929.

A part-talkie is a partly, and most often primarily, silent film which includes one or more synchronous sound segments with audible dialog or singing. During the silent portions, lines of dialog are presented as intertitles—printed text briefly filling the screen—and the soundtrack is used only to supply musical accompaniment and sound effects.

Operetta films are a genre of musical films associated with, but not exclusive to, German language cinema. The genre began in the late 1920s, but its roots stretch back into the tradition of nineteenth century Viennese operettas.

International Sound Version is a term for a film in which all dialogue is replaced with music and foreign inter-titles. It was a method used by movie studios during the early talkie period (1928-1931) to make sound films for foreign markets. This method was much cheaper than the alternative, the "Foreign Language Version", in which the entire film was re-shot with a cast that was fluent in the appropriate language.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sharon Lynn</span> American actress and singer

Sharon Lynn was an American actress and singer. She began playing in silent films but enjoyed her biggest success in the early sound years of motion pictures before fading away in the mid-1930s. She is perhaps best known for portraying Lola Marcel, the villainess in the Laurel and Hardy comedy feature, Way Out West.


  1. "The Multiple-Language Version Film: A Curious Moment in Cinema History" at retrieved 7 July 2015
  2. Críticas ao filme «A Minha Noite de Núpcias», Paulo Borges, blog Cinema Português, February 16, 2014 (Portuguese)
  3. "Ett medeltidsfiaskos historia Archived 2017-10-29 at the Wayback Machine " (in Swedish), Kult. no 2, Linköpings universitet, 2004. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  4. "Türk sinemasını kurtaran adam". 13 March 2021.
  5. "Yeşilçam'ın efsane filmi Üç Kağıtçılar'ın Rıza'sı Robert Widmark herkesi hayrete düşürdü".