Internet radio

Last updated

An Internet radio studio Selbstfahrerstudio-modern.jpg
An Internet radio studio

Internet radio, also known as Online radio, web radio, net radio, streaming radio, e-radio and IP radio, is a digital audio service transmitted via the Internet. Broadcasting on the Internet is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means. It can either be used as a stand-alone device running through the Internet, or as a software running through a single computer. [1]


Internet radio is generally used to communicate and easily spread messages through the form of talk. It is distributed through a wireless communication network connected to a switch packet network (the internet) via a disclosed source. [2]

Internet radio involves streaming media, presenting listeners with a continuous stream of audio that typically cannot be paused or replayed, much like traditional broadcast media; in this respect, it is distinct from on-demand file serving. Internet radio is also distinct from podcasting, which involves downloading rather than streaming.

Internet radio services offer news, sports, talk, and various genres of music—every format that is available on traditional broadcast radio stations. [3] Many Internet radio services are associated with a corresponding traditional (terrestrial) radio station or radio network, although low start-up and ongoing costs have allowed a substantial proliferation of independent Internet-only radio stations.[ citation needed ]

The first Internet radio service was launched in 1993. As of 2017, the most popular Internet radio platforms and applications in the world include (but are not limited to) TuneIn Radio, iHeartRadio, and Sirius XM. In the U.S., unlike over-the-air broadcast radio, an FCC license is not required to operate an Internet radio service.

Internet radio technology

Internet radio services are usually accessible from anywhere in the world with a suitable internet connection available; one could, for example, listen to an Australian station from Europe and America. This has made internet radio particularly suited to and popular among expatriate listeners. Nevertheless, some major networks like TuneIn Radio, Audacy, Pandora Radio, iHeartRadio and Citadel Broadcasting (except for news/talk and sports stations) in the United States, and Chrysalis in the United Kingdom, restrict listening to in-country due to music licensing and advertising issues.[ citation needed ]

Internet radio is also suited to listeners with special interests, allowing users to pick from a multitude of different stations and genres less commonly represented on traditional radio. [4]


An early Kerbango Internet radio receiver A Kerbango.jpg
An early Kerbango Internet radio receiver

Internet radio is typically listened to on a standard home PC or similar device, through an embedded player program located on the respective station's website or on a smartphone app. In recent years, dedicated devices that resemble and offer the listener a similar experience to a traditional radio receiver have arrived on the market. [5]


Streaming technology is used to distribute Internet radio, typically using a lossy audio codec. Streaming audio formats include MP3, Ogg Vorbis, Ogg Opus, Windows Media Audio, RealAudio, AAC and HE-AAC (or aacPlus). [6] Audio data is continuously transmitted serially (streamed) over the local network or internet in TCP or UDP packets, then reassembled at the receiver and played a second or two later. The delay is called lag, and is introduced at several stages of digital audio broadcasting. [7]


A local tuner simulation program includes all the online radios that can also be heard in the air in the city.[ citation needed ]


In 2003, revenue from online streaming music radio was US$49 million. By 2006, that figure rose to US$500 million. [8] A February 21, 2007 "survey of 3,000 Americans released by consultancy Bridge Ratings & Research" found that "[a]s much as 19% of U.S. consumers 12 and older listen to Web-based radio stations." In other words, there were "some 57 million weekly listeners of Internet radio programs. More people listen to online radio than to satellite radio, high-definition radio, podcasts, or cell-phone-based radio combined." [8] [9] An April 2008 Arbitron survey [10] showed that, in the US, more than one in seven persons aged 25–54 years old listen to online radio each week. [11] In 2008, 13 percent of the American population listened to the radio online, compared to 11 percent in 2007. Internet radio functionality is also built into many dedicated Internet radio devices, which give an FM like receiver user experience.

In the fourth quarter (Q4) of 2012, Pandora, TuneIn Radio, iHeart Radio, and other subscription-based and free Internet radio services accounted for nearly one quarter (23 percent) of the average weekly music listening time among consumers between the ages of 13 and 35, an increase from a share of 17 percent the previous year. [12]

As Internet-radio listening rose among the 13-to-35 age group, listening to AM/FM radio, which now accounts for 24 percent of music-listening time, declined 2 percentage points. In the 36-and-older age group, by contrast, Internet radio accounted for just 13 percent of music listening, while AM/FM radio dominated listening methods with a 41 percent share. [12]

As of 2014, 47% of all Americans ages 12 and older—an estimated 124 million people—said they have listened to online radio in the last month, while 36% (94 million people) have listened in the last week. These figures are up from 45% and 33%, respectively, in 2013. The average amount of time spent listening increased from 11 hours, 56 minutes per week in 2013 to 13 hours 19 minutes in 2014. As might be expected, usage numbers are much higher for teens and younger adults, with 75% of Americans ages 12–24 listening to online radio in the last month, compared to 50% of Americans ages 25–54 and 21% of Americans 55+. The weekly figures for the same age groups were 64%, 37% and 13%, respectively. [13] In 2015, it was recorded that 53% of Americans, or 143 million people, ages 12 and up currently listen to internet radio. [14]

Broadcasting freedoms

Some stations, such as Primordial Radio, use Internet radio as a platform as opposed to other means such as FM or DAB, as it gives greater freedom to broadcast as they see fit, without being subject to regulatory bodies such as Ofcom in the UK. For example, Ofcom has very strict rules about presenters endorsing products and product placement; [15] being an Internet radio station they are free of this constraint. One of the large controversies regarding internet radio revolved around a dispute between regulators over the amount of royalties Internet radio stations had to pay out. The Copyright Royalty Board initially wanted internet radio stations to pay out 100% royalties to the musicians whose songs were played compared to the 15% that satellite radio stations had to pay. This disagreement was temporarily postponed when the webmaster act of 2008 and 2009 was passed. [16]


Internet radio was pioneered by Carl Malamud. In 1993, Malamud launched "Internet Talk Radio", which was the "first computer-radio talk show, each week interviewing a computer expert". [17] [18] The first Internet concert was broadcast on June 24, 1993, by the band Severe Tire Damage. [19] [20] In March 1994, an unofficial automated rebroadcast of Irish radio news was setup as the RTE To Everywhere Project, [21] allowing Irish people across the world daily access to radio news from home until it was rendered obsolete in 1998. In November 1994, a Rolling Stones concert was the "first major cyberspace multicast concert." Mick Jagger opened the concert by saying, "I want to say a special welcome to everyone that's, uh, climbed into the Internet tonight and, uh, has got into the M-bone. And I hope it doesn't all collapse." [22]

On November 7, 1994, WXYC (89.3 FM Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA) became the first traditional radio station to announce broadcasting on the Internet. WXYC used an FM radio connected to a system at SunSite, later known as Ibiblio, running Cornell's CU-SeeMe software. WXYC had begun test broadcasts and bandwidth testing as early as August 1994. [23] WREK (91.1 FM, Atlanta, GA USA) started streaming on the same day using their own custom software called CyberRadio1. However, unlike WXYC, this was WREK's beta launch and the stream was not advertised until a later date. [24]

On December 3, 1994, KJHK 90.7 FM, a campus radio station located in Lawrence, Kansas, at the University of Kansas, became one of the first radio stations in the world to broadcast a live and continuous stream over Internet radio. [25] Time magazine said that RealAudio took "advantage of the latest advances in digital compression" and delivered "AM radio-quality sound in so-called real time." [26] Eventually, companies such as Nullsoft and Microsoft released streaming audio players as free downloads. [27] As the software audio players became available, "many Web-based radio stations began springing up." [27]

In 1995, Scott Bourne founded as the world's first Internet-only radio network. was a pioneer in Internet radio. It was the first Internet-only network to be licensed by ASCAP. NetRadio eventually went on to an IPO in October 1999. Most of the current Internet radio providers followed the path that carved out in digital media. [28] In mid December 1995, Vancouver-based AM radio station CKNW became the first commercial radio station in Canada to stream 24/7 over the internet. [29] In March 1996, Virgin Radio – London became the first European radio station to broadcast its full program live on the Internet. [30] It broadcast its FM signal, live from the source, simultaneously on the Internet 24 hours a day. [31] On May 1, 1997, (now Pure Rock Radio) launched in Saskatoon, Canada. The internet-only station celebrated 20 years on air in 2017 as the longest-running Canadian internet station.

Internet radio also provided new opportunities to mix music with advocacy messages. In February 1999, Zero24-7 Web Radio was launched. [32] It was the first Internet radio station to be crowdsourced and programmed by professional broadcasters and crowdfunded by a unique partnership of people, charities and businesses. Out of Washington DC, the station mixed progressive music and green messages. [33] It was created by BBC and WHFS veteran Mark Daley.

Internet radio attracted significant media and investor attention in the late 1990s. In 1998, the initial public stock offering for set a record at the time for the largest jump in price in stock offerings in the United States. The offering price was US$18 and the company's shares opened at US$68 on the first day of trading. [34] The company was losing money at the time and indicated in a prospectus filed with the Securities Exchange Commission that they expected the losses to continue indefinitely. [34] Yahoo! purchased on July 20, 1999, [35] for US$5.7 billion. [36]

With the advent of streaming RealAudio over HTTP, streaming became more accessible to a number of radio shows. One such show, TechEdge Radio in 1997, was broadcast in three formats – live on the radio, live from a RealAudio server and streamed from the web over HTTP. In 1998, the longest running internet radio show, [37] The Vinyl Lounge, began netcasting from Sydney, Australia, from Australia's first Internet radio station, NetFM ( In 1999, Australian telco "Telstra" launched The Basement Internet Radio Station but it was later shut down in 2003 as it was not a viable business for the company.

From 2000 onwards, most Internet radio stations increased their stream quality as bandwidth became more economical. Today[ when? ], most stations stream between 64 kbit/s and 128 kbit/s providing near CD quality audio.[ citation needed ] As of 2017 the mobile app Radio Garden, a research project of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, was streaming approximately 8,000 radio stations to a global audience. [38]

US royalty controversy

In October 1998, the US Congress passed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), one result of which is that performance royalties are to be paid for satellite radio and Internet radio broadcasts in addition to publishing royalties. In contrast, traditional radio broadcasters pay only publishing royalties and no performance royalties. [39] [40]

A rancorous dispute ensued over how performance royalties should be assessed for Internet broadcasters. [8] [36] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] Some observers said that royalty rates that were being proposed were overly burdensome and intended to disadvantage independent Internet-only stations [40] that "while Internet giants like AOL may be able to afford the new rates, many smaller Internet radio stations will have to shut down." [43] The Digital Media Association (DiMA) said that even large companies, like Yahoo! Music, might fail due to the proposed rates. [8] Some observers said that some U.S.-based Internet broadcasts might be moved to foreign jurisdictions where US royalties do not apply. [42]

Many of these critics organized, "a coalition of listeners, artists, labels and webcasters" [41] that opposed the proposed royalty rates. To focus attention on the consequences of the impending rate hike, many US Internet broadcasters participated in a "Day of Silence" on June 26, 2007. On that day, they shut off their audio streams or streamed ambient sound, sometimes interspersed with brief public service announcements voiced, written and produced by popular voiceover artist Dave Solomon. [45] Notable participants included Rhapsody, Live365, MTV, Pandora, Digitally Imported and SHOUTcast. [16]

Some broadcasters did not participate, such as, which had just been purchased for US$280 million by CBS Music Group. [46] According to a employee, they were unable to participate because participation "may compromise ongoing license negotiations." [47]

SoundExchange, representing supporters of the increase in royalty rates, pointed out that the rates were flat from 1998 through 2005 (see above), without being increased to reflect cost-of-living increases. They also declared that if Internet radio is to build businesses from the product of recordings, the performers and owners of those recordings should receive fair compensation.

On May 1, 2007, SoundExchange came to an agreement with certain large webcasters regarding the minimum fees that were modified by the determination of the Copyright Royalty Board. While the CRB decision imposed a $500 per station or channel minimum fee for all webcasters, certain webcasters represented through DiMA negotiated a $50,000 "cap" on those fees with SoundExchange. [48] However, DiMA and SoundExchange continue to negotiate over the per song, per listener fees.[ citation needed ]

SoundExchange has also offered alternative rates and terms to certain eligible small webcasters, that allow them to calculate their royalties as a percentage of their revenue or expenses, instead of at a per performance rate. [49] To be eligible, a webcaster had to have revenues of less than US$1.25 million a year and stream less than 5 million "listener hours" a month (or an average of 6830 concurrent listeners). [50] These restrictions would disqualify independent webcasters like AccuRadio, Digitally Imported, Club977 and others from participating in the offer, and therefore many small commercial webcasters continue to negotiate a settlement with SoundExchange. [51]

An August 16, 2008 Washington Post article reported that although Pandora was "one of the nation's most popular Web radio services, with about 1 million listeners daily...the burgeoning company may be on the verge of collapse" due to the structuring of performance royalty payment for webcasters. "Traditional radio, by contrast, pays no such fee. Satellite radio pays a fee but at a less onerous rate, at least by some measures." The article indicated that "other Web radio outfits" may be "doomed" for the same reasons. [52]

On September 30, 2008, the United States Congress passed "a bill that would put into effect any changes to the royalty rate to which [record labels and web casters] agree while lawmakers are out of session." [53] Although royalty rates are expected to decrease, many webcasters nevertheless predict difficulties generating sufficient revenue to cover their royalty payments. [53]

In January 2009, the US Copyright Royalty Board announced that "it will apply royalties to streaming net services based on revenue." [54] Since then, websites like Pandora Radio, AccuRadio, Mog, 8tracks and recently[ when? ] Google Music have changed the way people discover and listen to music.

The Webcaster Settlement Act of 2009 expired in January 2016, ending a 10-year period in which smaller online radio stations, Live365 among them, could pay reduced royalties to labels. On January 31, 2016, webcasters who are governed by rules adopted by the Copyright Royalty Board were required to pay to SoundExchange an annual, nonrefundable minimum fee of $500 for each channel and station, [55] the fee for services with greater than 100 stations or channels being $50,000 annually. [56] [57]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Digital Audio Broadcasting</span> Digital radio standard

Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) is a digital radio standard for broadcasting digital audio radio services in many countries around the world, defined, supported, marketed and promoted by the WorldDAB organisation. The standard is dominant in Europe and is also used in Australia, and in parts of Africa and Asia; as of 2022, 55 countries are actively running DAB broadcasts.

Digital radio is the use of digital technology to transmit or receive across the radio spectrum. Digital transmission by radio waves includes digital broadcasting, and especially digital audio radio services.

A webcast is a media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media technology to distribute a single content source to many simultaneous listeners/viewers. A webcast may either be distributed live or on demand. Essentially, webcasting is "broadcasting" over the Internet.

WCPE in Raleigh, North Carolina, is a listener supported non-commercial, non-profit radio station, and the program contributor for The Classical Station, a classical music network. The station went on the air July 17, 1978, and switched to a 24-hour classical music format in 1984. Both are owned by the Educational Information Corporation, a nonprofit community organization.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">HD Radio</span> Digital radio broadcast technology

HD Radio (HDR) is a trademark for an in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio broadcast technology. HD radio generally simulcasts an existing analog radio station in digital format with less noise and with additional text information. HD Radio is used primarily by AM and FM radio stations in the United States, U.S. Virgin Islands, Canada, Mexico and the Philippines, with a few implementations outside North America.

LIVE365 is an Internet radio network which enables users to create their own online radio stations and listen to thousands of human curated stations. Online radio stations on the Live365 network were created and managed by music and talk enthusiasts, including both hobbyists and professional broadcasters. Live365 also has many well established AM and FM stations that use Live365 broadcasting platform to simulcast their terrestrial radio streams. The Live365 network also features radio stations from artists such as Johnny Cash, David Byrne, Pat Metheny, Jethro Tull, and Frank Zappa. Live365 was created in 1999, and remains one of the longest running internet radio websites for listeners and broadcasters.

WXYC is an American radio station broadcasting a college radio format. Licensed to Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States, the station is run by students of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The station is owned by Student Educational Broadcasting, Inc. The station operates with an effective radiated power of 1,100 Watts from an antenna height above average terrain of 147 meters.

Pandora is a subscription-based music streaming service owned by the broadcasting corporation Sirius XM Holdings that is presently based in Oakland, California inside of the United States. The service carries a focus on recommendations based on the "Music Genome Project", which is a means of classifying individual songs by musical traits such as genres and shared instrumentation. The service originally launched in the consumer market as an internet radio service that would generate personalized channels based on these traits as well as specific tracks liked by the user; this service is available in an advertising-supported tier and additionally a subscription-based version. In 2017, the service launched Pandora Premium, which is an on-demand version of the service more in line with contemporary competitors.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jazz FM (UK)</span> Radio station in London

Jazz FM is a radio station broadcasting on digital radio in the United Kingdom and Malta which predominantly plays jazz music, jazz standards as well as blues and soul music. The station, in this incarnation set up by Richard Wheatley, traces its roots back to 102.2 Jazz FM, which first launched in 1990. The current station commenced broadcasting on 6 October 2008.

AOL Radio powered by Slacker was an online radio service available in the United States only. It had over 200 free internet radio stations.

The Copyright Royalty Board (CRB) is a U.S. system of three copyright royalty judges who determine rates and terms for copyright statutory licenses and make determinations on distribution of statutory license royalties collected by the U.S. Copyright Office of the Library of Congress. The board, made up of three permanent copyright royalty judges, was created under the Copyright Royalty and Distribution Reform Act of 2004, which became effective on May 31, 2005, when the Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel system was phased out. These administrative judges are appointed by the Librarian of Congress.

SoundExchange is an American non-profit collective rights management organization founded in 2003. It is the sole organization designated by the U.S. Congress to collect and distribute digital performance royalties for sound recordings. It pays featured and non-featured artists and master rights owners for the non-interactive use of sound recordings under the statutory licenses set forth in 17 U.S.C. § 112 and 17 U.S.C. § 114. As of 2023, the company serves a community of over 650,000 creators worldwide, offering various products and services.

The Internet Radio Equality Act (IREA), originally introduced as H.R. 2060, is proposed legislation by Rep Jay Inslee (D) WA to nullify the May 1, 2007, determination of the Copyright Royalty Board (CRB) modifying the current webcast radio royalties and fees retroactively to January 1, 2006. The previous system charged radio stations a per performance rate of $0.000768, and it was that same rate from 1998-2005. The new system, effective May 1, 2007, increased that per-performance rate to the following levels: 2006=$0.0008, 2007=$0.0011, 2008=$0.0014, 2009=$0.0018, and 2010=$0.0019. This bill was introduced on April 26, 2007 by Rep. Jay Inslee (D-WA) and Rep. Donald Manzullo (R-IL) and has been cosponsored by over 100 members of the Congress. It was introduced in the Senate as S. 1353 on May 10 by Ron Wyden (D-OR) and Sam Brownback (R-KS). The bill's proponents claim that "the majority of webcasters will go bankrupt and silent" when the Copyright Royalty Board's decision takes effect unless the bill passes.

An Internet radio license is a specific type of broadcast license that allows the licensee to operate an Internet radio station. The licensing authority and number of licenses required varies from country to country, with some countries requiring multiple to cover various areas of a station's operation, and other countries not having stringent licensing procedures in place. Licensing costs also vary, based on the number of listeners that a station has, as well as other factors such as the number of songs played, the number of broadcast hours, and whether tracks are dubbed to a digital playout system.

SomaFM is an independent Internet-only streaming multi-channel radio station, supported entirely with donations from listeners. SomaFM originally started broadcasting out of founder Rusty Hodge's basement garage in the Bernal Heights neighborhood of San Francisco, as a micropower radio station broadcast at the Burning Man festival in 1999. The response to the project was sufficiently positive that Rusty Hodge launched it as a full-time internet radio station in February 2000.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">DI.FM</span>

DI.FM is an Internet radio broadcaster consisting of over 90 channels dedicated to electronic music, such as house, trance, techno, drum and bass, and dubstep. DI.FM broadcasts handpicked selections consisting of classic, new and up-and-coming hits, as well as weekly and monthly mixed shows from professional DJs. It was founded in December 1999 as a hobby project by Ari Shohat in his Binghamton University dorm room and was one of the first Internet radio stations. It has often been listed as one of the top internet radio stations.

RadioIO is a New York–based internet radio and streaming media service owned by RadioIO, Inc. (RAIO) started in 1998. It was the first Internet radio company to be publicly traded.

Music royalties are royalty payments for the writing and performing of music. Unlike other forms of intellectual property, have a strong linkage to individuals – composers (score), songwriters (lyrics) and writers of musical plays – in that they can own the exclusive copyright to created music and can license it for performance independent of corporates. Recording companies and the performing artists that create a "sound recording" of the music enjoy a separate set of copyrights and royalties from the sale of recordings and from their digital transmission.

Raditaz was an internet radio streaming music service for the web, iOS, and Android. Raditaz was a free product, and users could create stations, listen to over 200 customised stations, and utilize a tagging system to personalize their own stations. Users could find stations not just based on artists, songs, and genres, but also based on metadata tags, such as @work, @gym, #happy, or @driving. Raditaz had a location layer that enables users to listen to and share stations that trending throughout the US. The "explore" feature let a user discover the latest music trends by location. Users could also share songs or stations by email, Facebook, Twitter or Pinterest. Raditaz had more than 23 million songs and used The Echo Nest music intelligence platform for creating stations. When a user input the name of a specific band, artist or song, Raditaz could create a station based on that musician along with similar artists. Users also had the option to add an additional nine artists to customize a station further. Listeners could adjust the popularity level of the artists and songs found within the station. The site went offline in 2012 to undergo a complete makeover, with new features expected. The Raditaz revenue model is location-based advertising, but no target date for ads has been set.

WRTH-LP is an oldies/beach music radio station licensed to Greenville, South Carolina, and serving the entire Greenville County region. It is licensed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to broadcast on 101.5 MHz with an FCC authorized ERP of 100 watts. The station goes by the name "Oldies Radio Kool-FM"


  1. US 6249810,Kiraly, Jozsef,"Method and system for implementing an internet radio device for receiving and/or transmitting media information",published June 19, 2001
  2. US 6418138,Cerf, Vinton&Huddle, Scott,"Internet radio communication system",published July 9, 2002
  3. Fries, Bruce; Fries, Marty (2005). Digital Audio Essentials. O'Reilly Media. pp.  98–99. ISBN   9780596008567.
  4. Sanghoon, Jun (Spring 2013). "SmartRadio: Cloning Internet Radio Broadcasting Stations". International Information Institute (Tokyo). Information. 16: 2701–2709 via School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University.
  5. McKerrell, Kashfia KabirContributions from Harry; Walker, Ainsley; updated, Ruben Circelli last (October 5, 2022). "Best internet radios 2023: modern radios with streaming smarts". whathifi. Retrieved November 26, 2023.
  6. Hoeg, Wolfgang; Lauterbach, Thomas (2009). Digital audio broadcasting: principles and applications of DAB, DAB+ and DMB. Wiley. p. 26. ISBN   978-0-470-51037-7.
  7. Hoeg, p 43.
  8. 1 2 3 4 Olga Kharif, The Last Days of Internet Radio?, March 7, 2007. Retrieved on March 7, 2007.
  9. The "HD" in "HD radio" actually stands for hybrid digital, not high-definition. It's hybrid because analog and digital signals are broadcast together.
  10. Joe Lensky; Bill Rose (June 24, 2008). "The Infinite Dial 2008: Radio's Digital Platforms" (PDF). Digital Radio Study 2008. Arbitron and Edison Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 14, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
  11. "Weekly online radio audience increases from 11 percent to 13 percent of Americans in last year, according to the latest Arbitron/Edison media research study". Arbitron & Edison Research. Red Orbit. April 9, 2008.
  12. 1 2 Streaming Music is Gaining on Traditional Radio Among Younger Music Listeners by The NPD Group
  13. "Half Of U.S. Listeners Tune Into Online Radio". Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  14. "Monthly Online Radio Listeners Now Exceed Half The Population 12+ – Edison Research". Edison Research. February 26, 2015. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
  15. "Radio Sponsorship Rules" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 22, 2017.
  16. 1 2 Stockment, Andrew (2009). "Internet Radio: The Case for a Technology Neutral Royalty Standard". Virginia Law Review. 95 (8): 2129–2179. ISSN   0042-6601. JSTOR   27759978.
  17. "Internet Talk Radio". Archived from the original on April 26, 2010. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
  18. "Cable company is set to plug into Internet". The Wall Street Journal. August 24, 1993. ProQuest   398478408.
  19. Randy Alfred (June 24, 2009). "This day in Tech". Wired. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
  20. Savetz, K., Randall, N., and Lepage, Y., "MBONE: Multicasting Tomorrow's Internet" (in the Musical Events section: "Severe Tire Damage was the first live band on the Internet. On June 24, 1993"), John Wiley, 1996, ISBN   1-56884-723-8
  21. "RTE to Everywhere Home Page".
  22. Peter H. Lewis (February 8, 1995). "Peering Out a 'Real Time' Window". The New York Times . Retrieved February 9, 2009.
  23. WXYC's groundbreaking internet simulcast is now 10 years old Archived February 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine November 12, 2004. WXYC Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 89.3 FM.
  24. "We got here first. Sort of". WREK Atlanta, 91.1 FM. August 22, 2006. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
  25. "KJHK turns 30 years as the Sound Alternative". Archived from the original (English) on March 3, 2006. Retrieved March 26, 2007.
  26. Josh Quittner (May 1, 1995). "Radio Free Cyberspace". Time. Archived from the original on September 4, 2009. Retrieved March 5, 2009.
  27. 1 2 Richard D. Rose (May 8, 2002). "Connecting the Dots: Navigating the Laws and Licensing Requirements of the Internet Music Revolution" (PDF). IDEA: The Intellectual Property Law Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 26, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2009.
  28. ", AudioNet & ASCAP sign licensing agreement. – Free Online Library". Archived from the original on October 6, 2017. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  29. "First live RealAudio streaming of commercial radio in Canada – INSINC" . Retrieved May 25, 2022.
  30. Adam Bowie (September 26, 2008). "A brief history of Virgin Radio". One Golden Square. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved March 30, 2009.
  31. "An Introduction to Internet Radio" (PDF). European Broadcasting Union (EBU). October 26, 2005. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  32. "Power to the pirates". The Washington Post . February 9, 1999.
  33. "TV, radio, Internet sing same Earth Day theme". CNN . April 14, 2000.
  34. 1 2 Saul Hansell (July 20, 1998). " Faces Risks After Strong Initial Offering". The New York Times . Retrieved November 23, 2008.
  35. "Yahoo! Completes Acquisition". Yahoo! Media Relations. July 20, 1999. Archived from the original on June 9, 2007. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
  36. 1 2 Doc Searls, (July 17, 2002) "Why Are So Many Internet Radio Stations Still on the Air?" Linux Journal . Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  37. National Film & Sound Archive (September 20, 2010). "National Film & Sound Archive". National Film & Sound Archive. Archived from the original on November 25, 2010. Retrieved February 27, 2011.
  38. Visnjic, Filip (July 9, 2017). "Radio Garden – Radio in the age of globalisation and digitisation". Creative Applications Network.
  39. Stockment, Andrew (December 2009). "Internet Radio: The Case for a Technology Neutral Royalty Standard". Virginia Law Review. Archived from the original on December 6, 2014. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
  40. 1 2 3 Michael Roberts (May 2, 2002). "Digital Dilemma: Will new royalty fees kill Web radio?" Archived October 27, 2010, at the Wayback Machine . Westword. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  41. 1 2 Carlos Militante (April 26, 2007). "Stagnant royalty rates may bring end to Internet radio". Spartan Daily (San Jose State U.). The Daily Collegian. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  42. 1 2 Michael Geist (April 9, 2007). Web radio may stream north to Canada. The Toronto Star .
  43. 1 2 Gray, Hiawatha (March 14, 2007). Royalty hike could mute Internet radio: Smaller stations say rise will be too much, The Boston Globe .
  44. Broache, Anne (April 26, 2007). "Lawmakers propose reversal of Net radio fee increases". CNet News. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  45. Official SaveNetRadio PSAs & Day Of Silence Network Audio. The Toronto Star .
  46. Duncan Riley (May 30, 2007). CBS Acquires Europe’s Last.FM for $280 million Techcrunch. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  47. Russ Garrett (June 25, 2007). Post by Russ on Forum – Day of Silence, June 25, 2007 Archived April 1, 2015, at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved June 24, 2012.
  48. Olga Kharif (August 23, 2007). "Webcasters and SoundExchange Shake Hands". Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2007.
  49. Mark Hefflinger (August 22, 2007). "SoundExchange Offers Discounted Music Rates To Small Webcasters". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2007.
  50. Rusty Hodge, (August 1, 2007) SoundExchange extends (not very good) offer to small webcasters. SomaFM. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  51. David Oxenford (September 19, 2007) SoundExchange Announces 24 Agreements – But Not One a Settlement With Small Webcasters Archived June 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . Broadcast Law Blog.
  52. Peter Whoriskey (August 16, 2008) Giant Of Internet Nears Its 'Last Stand'. The Washington Post . Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  53. 1 2 Miller, Cain Claire (Oct.27, 2008) Even If Royalties for Web Radio Fall, Revenue Remains Elusive, The New York Times .
  54. Scott M. Fulton, III (January 29, 2009) Copyright Board begrudgingly adopts revenue-based streaming royalties. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  55. "2016 Broadcasters Calendar" (PDF). Wilkinson Barker Knauer LLP. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
  56. "commercial webcaster 2016 rates". soundexchange. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
  57. Kelly, Caitlin (November 1, 2020). "Listen to the Globe". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 12, 2023.

Further reading