Thursday Island

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Thursday Island
Queensland
ThursdayIsland.JPG
View of the township of Thursday Island
Australia Queensland location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Thursday Island
Coordinates 10°34′44″S142°13′12″E / 10.57889°S 142.22000°E / -10.57889; 142.22000 Coordinates: 10°34′44″S142°13′12″E / 10.57889°S 142.22000°E / -10.57889; 142.22000
Population2,610 (2011 census) [1]
 • Density746/km2 (1,931/sq mi)
Postcode(s) 4875
Elevation8.0 m (26 ft)
Area3.5 km2 (1.4 sq mi)
Location
LGA(s) Shire of Torres
State electorate(s) Cook
Federal Division(s) Leichhardt
Mean max tempMean min tempAnnual rainfall
30.5 °C
87 °F
24.7 °C
76 °F
1,791.6 mm
70.5 in
Localities around Thursday Island:
Keriri Island Keriri Island Torres Strait
Torres Strait Thursday Island Horn
Prince of Wales Prince of Wales Horn
Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap  
Download coordinates as: KML  ·  GPX
Thursday Island
Native name:
Waiben

Nickname: TI
TorresStraitIslandsMap.png
A map of the Torres Strait Islands showing 'Waiben' in the south-western waters of Torres Strait
Geography
Location Northern Australia
Archipelago Torres Strait Islands
Adjacent bodies of water Torres Strait
Area3.5 km2 (1.4 sq mi)
Highest elevation104 m (341 ft)
Administration
State Queensland

Thursday Island, colloquially known as TI, or in the Kawrareg dialect, [2] Waiben or Waibene, [3] is an island of the Torres Strait Islands, an archipelago of at least 274 small islands in the Torres Strait. TI is located approximately 39 kilometres (24 miles) north of Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland, Australia. [4] Thursday Island is also the name of the town in the south and west of the island and also the name of the locality which contains the island within the Shire of Torres. [5] [6] The town of Rose Hill (known as Abednego until 7 September 1991) is located on the north-eastern tip of the island ( 10°34′11″S142°13′30″E / 10.5698°S 142.2250°E / -10.5698; 142.2250 (Rose Hill, Queensland) ). [7]

Contents

In the 2016 census, Thursday Island had a population of 2,938 people. [8]

Geography

Thursday Island has an area of about 3.5 square kilometres (1.4 square miles). The highest point on Thursday Island, standing at 104 metres (341 feet) above sea level, is Milman Hill, a World War II defence facility.

While Thursday Island is within the Shire of Torres and is the administrative centre for that shire, it is also the administrative and commercial centre of the local government area of Torres Strait Island Region despite not being part of that local government area.

History

The island has been populated for thousands of years by the Torres Strait Islanders, though archeological evidence on Badu, further north in Torres Strait, suggests that the area has been inhabited from before the end of the last Ice Age. The archaeology from Badu, Pulu, Saibai and Mer shows that Melanesian occupation started around 2,600 years ago (see Kalaw Lagaw Ya).

In 1848 a hydrographic survey of the area was conducted by Captain Owen Stanley of the Royal Navy, the commander of HMS Rattlesnake. He named this island Friday Island and another island Thursday Island (presumably reflecting the day of the week on which he named them). However, in June 1855 Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort of the Royal Navy (the Admiralty Hydrographer ) decided to switch the names around so the present-day Thursday Island would appear on the left of present-day Friday Island on a map. [4]

The original place of permanent European settlement in Torres Strait was Somerset, south-east of the tip of Cape York Peninsula, established in 1864. However, the channel between Albany Island and Somerset proved to be hazardous for a port and in 1875 it was jointly decided by the Queensland and British governments to transfer the port to the deep anchorage on the south side of Thursday Island. The new port was called Port Kennedy, after Edmund Kennedy, the explorer of Cape York Peninsula, was established in 1867. [9] [10] The town that developed on the island was also called Port Kennedy, but on 1 June 1962 the town was renamed Thursday Island. [5]

In 1877, an administrative centre for the Torres Strait Islands was set up on the island by the Queensland Government and by 1883 over 200 pearling vessels were based on the island. [11]

Pearl trade

A lucrative pearling industry was founded on the island in 1884, attracting workers from around Asia, including Japan, Malaya and India, seeking their fortune. [12] The Japanese community was in part indentured divers and boat hands who returned to Japan after a period of service and some longer term residents who were active in boat building and in the ownership of luggers for hire - which was illegal but bypassed by leases through third parties back to other Japanese, a practice called "dummying". [13] Additionally, many south Pacific Islanders worked in the industry, with some originally imported against their will, in a practice known as blackbirding. While the pearling industry has declined in importance, the mix of cultures is evident to this day. The pearling industry centred on the harvesting of pearl shell, which was used mainly to make shirt buttons. The local pearl oyster is Golden Lip Oyster, Pinctada maxima .

Shell trade

Trochus shell was also gathered using specialized boats. Most shell was exported as the raw material - to a London-based market. Pearls themselves were rare and a bonus for the owner or crew. [14] The boats used were very graceful two-masted luggers. In shallow water free diving was used while in deeper water diver's dress, or an abbreviated form of it, with a surface air supply was used. In good times there were three divers to a lugger, a stern diver, one midships, and one diver off the bow. A manual air compressor was used. It looked like a yard-wide cube with two large wheels mounted one on each side.

For part of the fleet that operated further from Thursday Island, larger vessels, typically schooners were used as mother ships to the luggers. [15] Shell was usually opened on the mother vessels rather than on the luggers, in order to secure any pearls found. The waters of the Straits are murky and visibility was generally very poor. Even though dive depths were not great, except at the Darnley Deep (near Darnley or Erub Island), which was 40 fathoms (240 feet), attacks of the bends were common and deaths frequent.

Telegraph, trade, and cyclone

The Thursday Island Parish of the Roman Catholic Vicariate Apostolic of Cooktown (now the Roman Catholic Diocese of Cairns) was established in 1884. [16]

On 25 August 1887, The Paterson (Cape York) Telegraph Station on the West Coast of Cape York was opened. It connected the Cape York Telegraph Line [17] with Thursday Island, via an undersea cable.

In the late-19th and early-20th centuries Thursday Island was a regular stop for vessels trading between the east coast of Australia and Southeast Asia. A shipping disaster to a vessel in this service occurred in 1890 when RMS Quetta struck an uncharted reef in the Strait and sank in five minutes with the loss of over 130 lives. The Anglican Church on Thursday Island built shortly afterwards was named the Quetta All Souls Memorial Cathedral in memory of the event. [18] Today the church is called All Souls and St Bartholomew Church.

Cyclone Mahina, which hit Bathurst Bay, southeast of Thursday Island in 1899, wrecked the pearling fleet sheltering there, with huge losses of vessels and lives. [15]

Fort

The fear of Russian invasion as a result of the deterioration of relations between the Russian Empire and the British Empire led to a fort on Battery Point being built in 1892 to protect the island. [11] [18] The fort has not been in operation since 1927, but is today a heritage feature of the island. [19]

Twentieth century

Customs House on Thursday Island. ThursdayIsland-Customs.jpg
Customs House on Thursday Island.

Local pearling declined steadily up to the World War II, partly through competition from a Japanese-based fleet which did not use local resources or personnel. In the 1950s plastic buttons imitating pearl supplanted much of the demand for shell. [18] Before the decline, pearl fishing was taken by the island-based fleet to the Aru Islands in what was then the Dutch East Indies. [20]

During World War II, Thursday Island became the military headquarters for the Torres Strait and was a base for Australian and United States forces. January 1942 saw the evacuation of civilians from the island. [18] Residents of Japanese origin or descent were interned. The residents did not return until after the end of the war and many ethnic Japanese were forcibly repatriated. The island was spared from bombing in World War II, due, it was thought, to it being the burial place of many Japanese pearl shell divers, or possibly the Japanese thinking there were still Japanese residents on the island. However, neighboring Horn Island was extensively bombed. There was an airbase there, used by the Allies to attack parts of New Guinea. At the end of the war, the island tradition of a no-footwear policy was reinstated in respect for the ancient spirits believed to reside on the island. After the war, an airline service was set up by Ansett Airlines from Cairns to TI twice a week, using de Havilland Dragon Rapides and later DC3s. [ citation needed ] Passengers disembarked on Horn Island and caught a ferry-boat over to TI, as they still do. The island was also served by a ship, the Elsana, which made the journey once a month. For a short period after the war Okinawan divers were used on the luggers but this was not a great success. [ citation needed ]

In the 1950s, the CSIRO attempted to establish cultured pearl farms, but many were devastated by disease in the 1970s. The trigger is considered by some to be the use of dispersants on the 1970 oil spill from the tanker Oceanic Grandeur. This industry still exists around the island today. In the 1970s, there was also an attempt to farm green turtles. [11]

The Melanesian background of the Thursday Islanders became an issue in the 1970s, when Papua New Guinea sought to include some of the Torres Strait Islands within its borders. The Torres Strait Islanders insisted that they were Australians, however, and after considerable diplomatic discussion and political disputation between the Queensland and the Federal Governments, all of the Torres Strait islands, including Thursday Island, remained part of Australia. [21]

From 1900 to 1996 the Quetta Memorial Church on the island was the cathedral church of the large Diocese of Carpentaria which included North Queensland, the Islands of the Torres Strait and, to 1968, Northern Territory.

Twenty-first century

At the 2011 census, Thursday Island had a population of 2,610. [1]

Our Lady of the Sacred Heart, TI. Thursday-island-our-lady-of-the-sacred-heart-church.JPG
Our Lady of the Sacred Heart, TI.

Heritage listings

Thursday Island has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:

The Gab Titui Cultural Centre (2004) on Thursday Island showcases both heritage and contemporary Islander artworks. [27]

Economy

The Island is one of the two bases for the Torres Straits Pilots, a cooperative owned and run by qualified Master Mariners who pilot ships through the Straits and down to Cairns. This is a necessary service because navigation through the area is tricky due to the extensive reef systems. [28]

The island has the area hospital and courts, is the regional centre for higher education, a centre for some research organisations and is the administrative base for the local, state and federal governments. Banking and phones are available.

Thursday Island is only in part self-sufficient for water, some being piped from the adjacent island. It has two wind turbines which generate some of its electricity requirement.

The economy of the island is dependent on its role as an administrative centre and is supported by pearling and fishing, as well as a fast-developing tourism industry, with perhaps the most famous tourists being novelist Somerset Maugham and Banjo Paterson, and the most numerous being day-trippers from the cruise ships that call into the island each year. [29]

Climate

Thursday Island has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification: Aw) with hot temperatures year round. The wet season typically runs from December through April and is very rainy.

Climate data for Thursday Island (1995-Present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)36.7
(98.1)
35.4
(95.7)
34.8
(94.6)
33.9
(93.0)
32.2
(90.0)
32.4
(90.3)
30.9
(87.6)
31.7
(89.1)
35.8
(96.4)
35.2
(95.4)
35.1
(95.2)
37.9
(100.2)
37.9
(100.2)
Average high °C (°F)30.9
(87.6)
30.6
(87.1)
30.5
(86.9)
30.6
(87.1)
30.1
(86.2)
29.4
(84.9)
28.9
(84.0)
29.1
(84.4)
30.2
(86.4)
31.1
(88.0)
32.0
(89.6)
32.0
(89.6)
30.5
(86.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)28.1
(82.6)
27.9
(82.2)
27.8
(82.0)
28.0
(82.4)
27.5
(81.5)
26.7
(80.1)
26.1
(79.0)
26.1
(79.0)
27.1
(80.8)
28.0
(82.4)
28.9
(84.0)
28.9
(84.0)
27.6
(81.7)
Average low °C (°F)25.2
(77.4)
25.1
(77.2)
25.1
(77.2)
25.3
(77.5)
24.9
(76.8)
23.9
(75.0)
23.2
(73.8)
23.1
(73.6)
23.9
(75.0)
24.8
(76.6)
25.8
(78.4)
25.8
(78.4)
24.7
(76.4)
Record low °C (°F)21.8
(71.2)
21.1
(70.0)
21.1
(70.0)
21.1
(70.0)
17.7
(63.9)
18.1
(64.6)
16.0
(60.8)
15.3
(59.5)
16.1
(61.0)
18.4
(65.1)
19.9
(67.8)
20.3
(68.5)
15.3
(59.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches)404.8
(15.94)
438.3
(17.26)
351.3
(13.83)
230.2
(9.06)
66.7
(2.63)
14.9
(0.59)
9.0
(0.35)
5.7
(0.22)
5.2
(0.20)
13.8
(0.54)
39.2
(1.54)
181.2
(7.13)
1,791.6
(70.54)
Source: Bureau of Meteorology (NB: Temperature data from the period 1995-present, Rainfall data from the period 1995-present) [30]

Language

Torres Strait Creole is the dominant language spoken on Thursday Island by the Islanders, followed by Kalaw Lagaw Ya, commonly called Mabuiag (pronounced Mobyag) by many, although English is also spoken. [31] [32] The indigenous language is Kaiwaligau Ya, another dialect of Kalaw Lagaw Ya, otherwise known as Kowrareg, (or more correctly Kauraraigau Ya, the name used by the people in the mid to late 1800s).

Amenities

Thursday Island has number of services open to the community, including a sporting complex, gym, public library as well as ANZAC park and Ken Brown Oval.

There is a community pharmacy, general store, butcher, bank and many other essential services.

The Shire of Torres operates Ngulaig Meta Municipal public library at 121 Douglas Street. [33] The current library facility opened in 2015. [34]

Sacred Heart Catholic Church is in Douglas Street. It is within the Thursday Island Parish of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Cairns. [16]

Education

Tagai State College is a government primary and secondary (Early Childhood-12) school for boys and girls that operates 17 campuses throughout the Torres Strait, including two on Thursday Island. The Thursday Island primary school campus (Early Childhood-6) is at 31 Hargrave Street ( 10°34′54″S142°13′16″E / 10.5817°S 142.2212°E / -10.5817; 142.2212 (Tagai State College - Thursday Island Primary Campus) ). The Thursday Island secondary school campus (7-12) is at 21 Aplin Road ( 10°34′39″S142°12′50″E / 10.5774°S 142.2138°E / -10.5774; 142.2138 (Tagai State College - Thursday Island Secondary) ) [35] [36] In 2017, the school across all location had a total enrolment of 1,554 students with 168 teachers (165 full-time equivalent) and 198 non-teaching staff (142 full-time equivalent). [37] The school includes a special education program at Summers Street ( 10°34′48″S142°13′20″E / 10.5800°S 142.2222°E / -10.5800; 142.2222 (Tagai State College - Special Education Program) ). [35]

Our Lady of the Sacred Heart School is a Catholic primary (Prep-6) school for boys and girls at Normanby Street ( 10°34′59″S142°12′57″E / 10.5830°S 142.2157°E / -10.5830; 142.2157 (Our Lady of the Sacred Heart School) ). [35] [38] In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 103 students with 12 teachers (9 full-time equivalent) and 13 non-teaching staff (9 full-time equivalent). [37]

The Torres Strait Campus of the Tropical North Queensland TAFE Institute is located on the island next to the Tagai State College.

Notable people

Notable people who are from or who have lived on Thursday Island include:

See also

Related Research Articles

Torres Strait

The Torres Strait is a strait between Australia and the Melanesian island of New Guinea. It is 151 km (94 mi) wide at its narrowest extent. To the south is Cape York Peninsula, the northernmost extremity of the Australian mainland. To the north is the Western Province of Papua New Guinea. It is named after the Spanish navigator Luís Vaz de Torres, who sailed through the strait in 1606.

Torres Strait Islands

The Torres Strait Islands are a group of at least 274 small islands in Torres Strait, the waterway separating far northern continental Australia's Cape York Peninsula and the island of New Guinea. They span an area of 48,000 km2 (19,000 sq mi), but their total land area is 566 km2 (219 sq mi).

Torres Strait Islanders Ethnic group

Torres Strait Islanders are the Indigenous peoples of the Torres Strait Islands, which are part of the state of Queensland, Australia. Ethnically distinct from the Aboriginal people of the rest of Australia, they are often grouped with them as Indigenous Australians. Today there are many more Torres Strait Islander people living in mainland Australia than on the Islands.

Horn Island, Queensland Suburb of Shire of Torres, Queensland, Australia

Horn Island, or Ngurupai/Narupai in the local language, is an island of the Torres Strait Islands archipelago located in the Torres Strait, in Queensland in Northern Australia between the Australian mainland and Papua New Guinea. It is within the locality of Horn within the Shire of Torres. The town of Wasaga is on the north-western coast of the island. In the 2016 census, the locality of Horn had a population of 531 people.

Mabuiag Island Town in Queensland, Australia

Mabuiag is one of the Torres Strait Islands in Queensland, Australia. Mabuiag Island is also a town and locality in the Torres Strait Island Region local government area. In the 2016 census, Mabuiag Island had a population of 210 people.

Saibai Island Suburb of Torres Strait Island Region, Queensland, Australia

Saibai Island is an island of the Torres Strait Islands archipelago, located in the Torres Strait of Queensland, Australia. The island is situated north of the Australian mainland and south of the island of New Guinea. The island is a locality within the Torres Strait Island Region local government area. The town of Saibai is located on the north-west coast of the island. In the 2016 census, Saibai Island had a population of 465 people.

Somerset, Queensland Suburb of Shire of Torres, Queensland, Australia

Somerset is a coastal locality split between the Shire of Torres and the Northern Peninsula Area Region, Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Somerset had a population of 0 people.

Prince of Wales Island (Queensland) Island in Australia

The Prince of Wales Island, or Muralag, is an island of the Torres Strait Islands archipelago at the tip of Cape York Peninsula within the Endeavour Strait of Torres Strait in Queensland, Australia. The island is situated approximately 20 km (12 mi) north of Muttee Heads which is adjacent to Bamaga and south of Thursday Island. It is within the locality of Prince Of Wales within the Shire of Torres.

Hammond Island (Queensland) Town in Queensland, Australia

Hammond Island is an island with a town of the same name, in the Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. It is the only island within the locality of Keriri Island within the local government area of Torres Strait Island Region.

Moa Island (Queensland) Suburb of Torres Strait Island Region, Queensland, Australia

Moa Island, also called Banks Island, is an island of the Torres Strait Islands archipelago that is located 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of Thursday Island in the Banks Channel of Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. It is also a locality within the Torres Strait Island Region local government area. This island is the largest within the "Near Western" group. It has two towns, Kubin on the south-west coast and St Pauls on the east coast, which are connected by bitumen and a gravel road. In the 2016 census, Moa Island had a population of 448 people.

Badu Island island in the Torres Strait, part of Queensland, Australia

Badu or Badu Island, pronounced ['ba:du:] in English, in Kala Lagaw Ya Badhu [bad̪u], is an island in the Torres Strait 60 kilometres (37 mi) north of Thursday Island, Queensland, Australia. Badu Island is also a locality in the Torres Strait Island Region, and Wakaid is the only town, located on the south-east coast. This island is one of the Torres Strait Islands. The language of Badu is Kala Lagaw Ya.

Coconut Island (Queensland) Town in Queensland, Australia

Coconut Island, Poruma Island, or Puruma in the local language, is an island in the Great North East Channel near Cumberland Passage, Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. One of the Torres Strait Islands, Coconut Island is 130 kilometres (81 mi) northeast of Thursday Island. Administratively, Coconut Island is a town and Poruma Island is the locality within the Shire of Torres.

Yam Island Suburb of Torres Strait Island Region, Queensland, Australia

Yam Island, called Yama or Iama in the Kulkalgau Ya language or Turtle-backed Island in English, is an island of the Bourke Isles group of the Torres Strait Islands, located in the Tancred Passage of the Torres Strait in Queensland, Australia. The island is situated approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast of Thursday Island and measures about 2 square kilometres (0.77 sq mi). The island is also the locality of Iama Island within the Torres Strait Island Region local government area. In the 2016 census, Iama Island had a population of 319 people.

Yorke Island (Queensland) Island in Torres Strait in Queensland, Australia, known as Masig in the indigenous language

Yorke Island, or Masig in the Kalau Lagau Ya language, is a coral cay island of the Torres Strait Islands archipelago, situated in the eastern area of the central island group in the Torres Strait, at the top end of the Great Barrier Reef and northeast of the tip of Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, Australia.

Darnley Island (Queensland) Town in Queensland, Australia

Darnley Island or Erub in the native Papuan language, Meriam Mir, is an island formed by volcanic action and situated in the eastern section of the Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. It is one of the Torres Strait Islands and is located near the Great Barrier Reef and just south of the Bligh entrance. The town on the island is also called Darnley, but the locality is called Erub Island, both being within the local government area of Torres Strait Island Region. In the 2016 census, Erub Island had a population of 328 people.

Stephens Island (Torres Strait)

Stephen Island, called Ugar in the native language, is an island in an easter island group of the Torres Strait Islands archipelago, located in the eastern section of Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. The island is within the locality of Ugar Island within the local government area of the Torres Strait Island Region.

Shire of Torres Local government area in Queensland, Australia

The Shire of Torres is a local government area located in Far North Queensland, Australia, covering large sections of the Torres Strait Islands and the northern tip of Cape York Peninsula north of 11°S latitude. It holds two distinctions—it is the northernmost Local Government Area in Australia, and is the only one to abut an international border – it is at one point just 73 kilometres (45 mi) from Papua New Guinea. It is administered from Thursday Island.

Quetta Memorial Precinct

The Quetta Memorial Precinct is a heritage-listed Anglican church precinct in Douglas Street, Thursday Island, Shire of Torres, Queensland, Australia. The precinct comprises the All Souls and St Bartholomew's Cathedral Church, the Bishop's House, and the Church Hall. The precinct was built as a memorial to the 134 lives lost in the shipwreck of the RMS Quetta on 28 February 1890. The church was designed in 1892–1893 by architect John H. Buckeridge. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 27 July 2001.

Thursday Island Cemetery

Thursday Island Cemetery is a heritage-listed cemetery at Summers Street, Thursday Island, Shire of Torres, Queensland, Australia. It was established c. 1887 and includes the Japanese Cemetery and grave of the Hon. John Douglas. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.

Dauan Island Town in Queensland, Australia

Dauan Island is an island in the Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia; it is also known as Cornwallis Island. Dauan is also gazetted as a town and a locality in the Torres Strait Island Region local government area.

References

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Further reading