The National Anthem of Manchukuo was one of the many national symbols of independence and sovereignty created to foster a sense of legitimacy for Manchukuo in both an effort to secure international diplomatic recognition and to foster a sense of nationalism among its inhabitants.
During Manchukuo's short 13-year existence, two national anthems were used.
The National Anthem of Manchukuo was widely taught in schools and used in ceremonies in Manchukuo.
National anthem of
It is unclear when Manchuria began its first national anthem production, but it seems that preparations had already begun around the Manchuria National Declaration on March 1, 1932. On May 21, 1932, the Manchuria Sports Association formally applied to the Organizing Committee of the Olympics to dispatch players to the Los Angeles Olympics (held in July 1932). The Organizing Committee urges the Manchuria country to apply to the International Olympic Committee as “participation is approved by the International Olympic Committee (IOC)” and informs the Organizing Committee to send the national flag and national anthem, they have done it. On the other hand, there is still a record that the Manchuria Sports Association sent a document stating that “the national flag and national anthem were sent to the organizing committee” to the secretary general of the Olympic organizing committee. Before May, the song was completed.
|ti pi hsi tien kai||地闢兮天開|
|sung ohih ai hsi pai chih wei||松之涯兮白之隈|
|wo shan ta i hsi sheng yu tsu wu||我伸大義兮繩於祖武|
|wo hsing po ai hsi huai yu chiu kai||我行博愛兮懷於九垓|
|shang shou kuo hsi i jen||善守國兮以仁|
|pu shan shou hsi i ping||不善守兮以兵|
|tien pu ai tao ti pu ai pao||天不愛道地不愛寶|
|ho wu chi chi yu ti hsi hsien chu tsan hao||貨惡其於地兮獻諸蒼昊|
|shu fei heng muchih min hsi shin tzu hug tsao||孰非橫目之民兮視此洪造|
National anthem of
|Music||Takatsu Toshi, Sonoyama Minpei, Muraoka Gakudō|
|Adopted||March 1, 1933|
|Relinquished||September 5, 1942|
National Anthem of Manchukuo
The first national anthem was declared by State Council Decree No.4,dated 24 February Dàtóng 2 (1933) but publicized on March 1. The lyrics were written by Manchukuo's first Prime Minister Zheng Xiaoxu, who was a devout Confucianist and Qing loyalist in addition to being an accomplished poet and calligrapher.
|Traditional Chinese||Pinyin||English translation|
|天地內，有了新滿洲。||Tiān dì nèi, yǒu liǎo xīn mǎnzhōu.||(Now) there is the new Manchuria on Earth.|
|新滿洲，便是新天地。||Xīn mǎnzhōu, biàn shì xīn tiān dì.||The new Manchuria is our new land.|
|頂天立地，無苦無憂，造成我國家。||Dǐng tiān lì dì, wú kǔ wú yōu, zào chéng wǒ guójiā.||Let us make our country to be upright and free of sadness.|
|只有親愛並無怨仇，||Zhǐ yǒu qīn'ài bìng wú yuànchóu,||With only love and no hatred,|
|人民三千萬，人民三千萬，||Rénmín sān qiān wàn, rénmín sān qiān wàn,||Thirty million people, thirty million people,|
|縱加十倍也得自由。||Zòng jiā shí bèi yě dé zìyóu.||at ten times more we should still be free.|
|重仁義，尚禮讓，使我身修；||Zhòng rényì, shàng lǐràng, shǐ wǒ shēn xiū;||With virtue and li, rectified am I;|
|家已齊，國已治，此外何求。||Jiā yǐ qí, guó yǐ zhì, cǐwài hé qiú.||with family in order and with the state well-ruled, there are nothing I want.|
|近之則與世界同化，||Jìn zhī, zé yǔ shìjiè tónghuà,||For now, may we assimilate with the world;|
|遠之則與天地同流。||Yuǎn zhī, zé yǔ tiāndì tóng liú.||for the future, may we follow the ways of the Heaven and Earth.|
National anthem of
|Lyrics||The national anthem committee|
|Music||Kosaku Yamada, Kiyoshi Nobutoki|
|Adopted||September 5, 1942|
|Relinquished||August 9, 1945|
National Anthem of Manchukuo
The national anthem was changed on 5 September Kāngdé 9 (1942), by State Council Order No. 201.Prime Minister of Manchukuo Zhang Jinghui cited the 1933 version of the anthem was unsuitable for the current situations of the Empire as the reason for the change. The new anthem, with Manchurian (i.e. Mandarin Chinese) and Japanese lyrics, was written by a committee, according to Zhang. The 1933 anthem was renamed the Manchukuo Independence Song (滿洲國建國歌, pinyin: Mǎnzhōuguó jiàn guógē, Japanese Hepburn romanization: Manshukoku-kenkoku uta).
|Traditional Chinese||Pinyin||English translation|
|神光開宇宙 表裏山河壯皇猷||Shén guāng kāi yǔzhòu, biǎolǐ shānhé zhuàng huáng yóu||With the Universe created in God's Light, the vast land strengthens the Emperor's rule;|
|帝德之隆 巍巍蕩蕩莫與儔||Dì'dé zhī lóng wēiwēi dàngdàng mò yǔ chóu||So full is His virtue, so wide that it is beyond compare|
|永受天祐兮 萬壽無疆薄海謳||Yǒng shòu tiān yòu xī, wànshòuwújiāng bó hǎi ōu||May He always receive divine guidance, with his years surpassing the sea;|
|仰贊天業兮 輝煌日月侔||Yǎng zàn tiān yè xī, huīhuáng rì yuè móu||[Let us] worship the divine work, its glory equals the sun and moon.|
|Japanese||Hepburn romanization||English translation|
|大御光 天地に充ち||Ohomi-hikari ametsuchi ni michi||Filling the world with Divine light,|
|帝徳は 隆く 崇し||Teitoku wa takaku totoshi||The Emperor's virtue is noble and worshipped.|
|豊栄の 万寿ことほぎ||Toyosaka no banju kotohogi||Let us salute him with long life and prosperity|
|天っ御業 仰ぎまつらむ||Ameemiwaza ogimatsuramu||and we revere the Emperor's deeds|
According to the official interpretation of the anthem issued on the same day of its adoption, the "God" in the first line refers to Amaterasu ,the sun goddess in Shinto, referring to Manchukuo's adoption of State Shinto as its state religion in 1940. Also, God's Light is interpreted as Arahitogami , i.e. Emperor of Japan. The whole of the first line is interpreted as
with this Divine Light, the Universe is created, and the bright and peaceful (it used the kanji 昭和, cognate of Shōwa, for bright and peaceful.) Light fills and shines over our Manchurian land and rivers, and with that we have our independence and our successes after independence. His Majesty the Emperor (i.e. Kangde) received this Divine Light to rule our country and to love our citizens. The first line [...] is an ode to our state.
"The Divine Work" in the fourth line came from Kangde's Imperial Rescript on the Tenth Anniversary of the Nation on 1 March 1942, in which he mentioned,
We should sharpen our mind and spirits to sacrifice to the holy Greater East Asia War and help in the Divine Work of our Parent Nation...
and hence interpreted as:
This line describes the determination of our citizens. The Imperial Message on March 1 stated "[to] help in the Divine Work of the Parent Nation," and the Divine Work of Japan, our Parent Nation, is to revitalize East Asia and to create the Co-prosperity Sphere[...] Our country is the pioneer in the prosperity of East Asia[...] Our citizens should revere this Divine Work of our Parent Nation and to help it in all our endeavors, to finalize the goal of our independence, to rebuild the world, and that the Divine Work maybe as large and permanent as the sun and the moon.
The Stimson Doctrine is the policy of nonrecognition of states created as a result of aggression. The policy was implemented by the United States federal government, enunciated in a note of January 7, 1932, to the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China, of non-recognition of international territorial changes that were executed by force. The doctrine was an application of the principle of ex injuria jus non oritur. While some analysts have applied the doctrine in opposition to governments established by revolution, this usage is not widespread, and its invocation usually involves treaty violations.
Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded in 1932 after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, and in 1934 it became a constitutional monarchy. Under the de facto control of Japan, it had limited international recognition.
The "March of the Volunteers" is the national anthem of the People's Republic of China, including its special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. Unlike most previous Chinese state anthems, it is written entirely in the vernacular, rather than in Classical Chinese.
The South Manchuria Railway, officially South Manchuria Railway Company, or 滿鐵 for short, was a large National Policy Company of the Empire of Japan whose primary function was the operation of railways on the Dalian–Fengtian (Mukden)–Changchun corridor in northeastern China, as well as on several branch lines.
The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was an event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria.
Lytton Report are the findings of the Lytton Commission, entrusted in 1931 by the League of Nations in an attempt to evaluate the Mukden Incident, which led to the Empire of Japan's seizure of Manchuria.
Manchukuo was a puppet state set up by the Empire of Japan in Manchuria which existed from 1931 to 1945. The Manchukuo regime was established four months after the Japanese withdrawal from Shanghai with Puyi as the nominal but powerless head of state to add some semblance of legitimacy, as he was a former emperor and an ethnic Manchu.
The Tanggu Truce, sometimes called the Tangku Truce, was a ceasefire signed between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan in Tanggu District, Tianjin on May 31, 1933. It formally ended the Japanese invasion of Manchuria which had begun two years earlier.
Ma Zhanshan (Ma Chan-shan; simplified Chinese: 马占山; traditional Chinese: 馬占山; pinyin: Mǎ Zhànshān; Wade–Giles: Ma3 Chan4-shan1; November 30, 1885 – November 29, 1950) was a Chinese general who initially opposed the Imperial Japanese Army in the invasion of Manchuria, briefly defected to Manchukuo, and then rebelled and fought against the Japanese in Manchuria and other parts of China.
The Pacification of Manchukuo was a Japanese anti-insurgency campaign during the Second Sino-Japanese War to suppress any armed resistance to the newly established puppet state of Manchukuo from various anti-Japanese volunteer armies in occupied Manchuria and later the Communist Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army. The operations were carried out by the Imperial Japanese Kwantung Army and the collaborationist forces of the Manchukuo government from March 1932 until 1942, and resulted in a Japanese victory.
The Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army was the main anti-Japanese guerrilla army in Northeast China (Manchuria) after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Its predecessors were various anti-Japanese volunteer armies organized by locals and the Manchuria branches of the Communist Party of China (CPC). In February 1936, the CPC, in accordance with the instructions of the Communist International, issued The Declaration of the Unified Organization of Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army and marked the official formation of the organization.
Manchukuo Film Association Ltd., also known as the "Manchuria Film Production", was a Japanese film production company in Manchukuo in the 1930s and 1940s.
The Russian Fascist Party (RFP), sometimes called the All-Russian Fascist Party, was a minor Russian émigré movement that was based in Manchukuo during the 1930s and 1940s.
Zang Shiyi was a Chinese general and Governor of Liaoning Province at the time of the invasion of Manchuria in 1932.
The Greater East Asia Conference was an international summit held in Tokyo from 5 to 6 November 1943, in which the Empire of Japan hosted leading politicians of various component members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. The event was also referred to as the Tokyo Conference.
The Japanese colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies established by Imperial Japan in the Western Pacific and East Asia region from 1895. Victories over China and Russia expanded the Japanese sphere of influence, notably in Taiwan and Korea, and southern Sakhalin became a colony of Japan as the Karafuto Prefecture in 1905. At its apex, the Japanese colonial empire was one of the largest empires in history. Including the home islands, the total amount of land under Japanese sovereignty reached 8,510,000 km2 (3,300,000 sq mi) in 1942. By 1943, it accounted for more than 20% of the world's population at the time with 463 million people in its occupied regions and territories.
Lu Ronghuan, was a politician in the early Republic of China who subsequently served in a number of Cabinet posts of the Empire of Manchukuo.
Ding Jianxiu, was a politician in the early Republic of China who subsequently served in a number of Cabinet-level ministries of the Empire of Manchukuo.
The China Railways JF6 class steam locomotive was a class of 2-8-2 steam locomotives for freight trains operated by the China Railway. They were originally built in Japan and Manchukuo between 1934 and 1944 for the South Manchuria Railway (Mantetsu), the Manchukuo National Railway, and the North China Transportation Company.
The Manchukuo National Railway was the state-owned national railway company of Manchukuo. Generally called the "國線", it was controlled by the Manchukuo Ministry of Transportation and had its lines primarily in the central and northern parts of the country. In local newspapers it was simply referred to it as "國鉄"