Timeline of First Nations history

Last updated

The history of the First Nations is the prehistory and history of present-day Canada's peoples from the earliest times to the present day with a focus on First Nations. The pre-history settlement of the Americas is a subject of ongoing debate. First Nation's oral histories and traditional knowledge, combined with new methodologies and technologies used by archaeologists, linguists, and other researchersproduce new—and sometimes conflicting—evidence.

Contents

Many First Nations myths refer to the habitation of North America from time immemorial. There are a number of myths about the world in general and the place of First Nations within that history. [1]

Pre-contact

The 1996 Report by the Royal Commission on Aboriginal People described four stages in Canadian history that overlap and occur at different times in different regions: 1) Pre-contact – Different Worlds – Contact; 2) Early Colonies (1500–1763); 3) Displacement and Assimilation (1764–1969); and 4) Renewal to Constitutional Entrenchment (2018). [2] [3]

50,900 to 50,000 BP

40,900 to 40,000 BP

30,000 to 20,000 BP

The Mammut americanum (American mastodon) became extinct around 12,000-9,000 years ago due to human-related activities, climate change, or a combination of both. See Quaternary extinction event and Holocene extinction. High res mastodon rendering.jpg
The Mammut americanum (American mastodon) became extinct around 12,000–9,000 years ago due to human-related activities, climate change, or a combination of both. See Quaternary extinction event and Holocene extinction.

Paleo-Indians period

14,900 to 14,000 BP

12,900 BP to 12, 000 BP

11,900 BP to 11,000 BP

Canada relief map 2.svg
Red pog.svg
Charlie Lake Caves
Charlie Lake Caves

10,90010, 000 BP

10,000 BP

9,900 to 9,000 BP

8,900 to 8,000 BP

6,900 to 6,000 BP

5,900 to 5,000 BP

4,900 to 4,000 BP

3,900 to 3,000 BP

2,900 to 2,000 BP

1,900 to 1,000 BP

0 to 1000 AD

1000 to 1500 AD

1400s

Early Colonies (1500–1763)

Displacement and Assimilation (1764–1969)

The new Canadian government compensated the Hudson's Bay Company £300,000 ($1.5 million)(£27 million in 2010) [119] for dissolving it HBC's charter with the British Crown. The HBC had exclusive commercial domain over Rupert's Land—a vast continental expanse—a third of what is now Canada. [120] By order-in-council dated 23 June 1870, [121] the British government admitted Rupert's Land to Canada through the Constitution Act, 1867, [122] effective 15 July 1870, conditional on the making of treaties with the sovereign indigenous nations providing consent to the Queen.

Renewal to Constitutional Entrenchment (1969+)

Saganash was "among the original architects" of UNDRIP. [276]

See also

Notes

  1. According to Busch (2008), William W. Warren "described a copper plate kept by an Ojibwe chief that as of 1842 recorded eight generations since the chief's family had arrived on Madeline Island." "By estimating forty years as the duration of a generation, Warren calculated that the Ojibwe arrived on Madeline Island 360 years earlier or ca. 1490. (Warren wrote his history between 1849 and 1852.) Warren went on to describe the great village on Madeline Island that the Ojibwe occupied for three generations, or 120 years by Warren's calculation. At the end of this time the Ojibwe abandoned Madeline Island."
  2. This well-documented article discusses conflicting theories on the pre-history of settlement.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Indigenous peoples in Canada</span> Indigenous groups of Canada

In Canada, Indigenous peoples comprise the First Nations, Inuit, and Métis. Although Indian is a term still commonly used in legal documents, the descriptors Indian and Eskimo have fallen into disuse in Canada, and many consider them to be pejorative. Aboriginal peoples as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act, 1982, though in most Indigenous circles Aboriginal has also fallen into disfavour.

First Nations is a term used to identify Indigenous peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis. Traditionally, First Nations in Canada were peoples who lived south of the tree line, and mainly south of the Arctic Circle. There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands across Canada. Roughly half are located in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia.

In Canada, an Indian reserve is defined by the Indian Act as a "tract of land, the legal title to which is vested in His Majesty, that has been set apart by His Majesty for the use and benefit of a band." Reserves are areas set aside for First Nations, one of the major groupings of Indigenous peoples in Canada, after a contract with the Canadian state, and are not to be confused with indigenous peoples' claims to ancestral lands under Aboriginal title.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Canadian Indian residential school system</span> Schools to assimilate Indigenous children

The CanadianIndian residential school system was a network of boarding schools for Indigenous peoples. The network was funded by the Canadian government's Department of Indian Affairs and administered by Christian churches. The school system was created to isolate Indigenous children from the influence of their own culture and religion in order to assimilate them into the dominant Canadian culture. Over the course of the system's more than hundred-year existence, around 150,000 children were placed in residential schools nationally. By the 1930s, about 30 percent of Indigenous children were attending residential schools. The number of school-related deaths remains unknown due to incomplete records. Estimates range from 3,200 to over 30,000, mostly from disease.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Métis</span> Mixed Indigenous ethnic group of Canada and the US

The Métis are an Indigenous people whose historical homelands include Canada's three Prairie Provinces, as well as parts of British Columbia, the Northwest Territories, Northwest Ontario and the northern United States. They have a shared history and culture, deriving from specific mixed European and Indigenous ancestry, which became distinct through ethnogenesis by the mid-18th century, during the early years of the North American fur trade.

A tribal council is an association of First Nations bands in Canada, generally along regional, ethnic or linguistic lines.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Indigenous police in Canada</span>

Indigenous police services in Canada are police forces under the control of a First Nation or Inuit government.

The Congress of Aboriginal Peoples (CAP), founded in 1971, is a national Canadian aboriginal organization that represents Aboriginal peoples who live off Indian reserves in either urban or rural areas across Canada. As of 2011 more than 70% of Aboriginal people live off-reserve.

The association between the monarchy of Canada and Indigenous peoples in Canada stretches back to the first interactions between North American Indigenous peoples and European colonialists and, over centuries of interface, treaties were established concerning the monarch and Indigenous nations. First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples in Canada have a unique relationship with the reigning monarch and, like the Māori and the Treaty of Waitangi in New Zealand, generally view the affiliation as being not between them and the ever-changing Cabinet, but instead with the continuous Crown of Canada, as embodied in the reigning sovereign.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Murray Sinclair</span> Indigenous-Canadian lawyer and former Senator

Calvin Murray Sinclair is a former member of the Canadian Senate and First Nations lawyer who served as chairman of the Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission from 2009 to 2015. He previously served as a judge in Manitoba from 1988 to 2009, being the first Indigenous judge appointed in the province. Sinclair was appointed to the Senate of Canada on April 2, 2016. In November 2020, he announced his retirement from the Senate effective January 31, 2021.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada</span> Investigated harm to indigenous students

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada was a truth and reconciliation commission active in Canada from 2008 to 2015, organized by the parties of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement.

The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to Indigenous peoples in Canada, comprising the First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples.

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The First Nations nutrition experiments were a series of experiments run in Canada by Department of Pensions and National Health in the 1940s and 1950s. The experiments were conducted on at least 1,300 Indigenous people across Canada, approximately 1,000 of whom were children. The deaths connected with the experiments have been described as part of Canada's genocide of Indigenous peoples.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Janice Forsyth</span> Canadian sociologist

Janice Forsyth is a Canadian associate professor of Sociology and the director of the Indigenous Studies program at Western University in London, Ontario. A former varsity athlete Forsyth was awarded the Tom Longboat Regional Award for Ontario in 2002.

Criminal sentencing in Canada is governed by the Canadian Criminal Code. The Criminal Code, along with the Supreme Court of Canada, have distinguished the treatment of Indigenous individuals within the Canadian Criminal Sentencing Regime.

The Canadian Indian residential school system were a network of boarding schools for Indigenous peoples. Directed and funded by the Department of Indian Affairs, and administered mainly by Christian churches, the residential school system removed and isolated Indigenous children from the influence of their own native culture and religion in order to forcefully assimilate them into the dominant Canadian culture. Given that most of them were established by Christian missionaries with the express purpose of converting Indigenous children to Christianity, schools often had nearby mission churches with community cemeteries. Students were often buried in these cemeteries rather than being sent back to their home communities, since the school was expected by the Department of Indian Affairs to keep costs as low as possible. Additionally, occasional outbreaks of disease led to the creation of mass graves when the school had insufficient staff to bury students individually.

Cassidy Caron is a Métis politician. She was elected as the president of the Métis National Council on 30 September 2021. As the chairperson of the Métis Youth British Columbia, she served as the Minister of Youth for the Métis Nation British Columbia from September 2016 to September 2020.

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