Timeline of the Turkic peoples (500–1300)

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Below is the identified timeline of the History of the Turkic peoples between the 6th and 14th centuries.

Contents

6th century

YearEvent
545A Western Wei envoy to the Altai Mountains. First mention of Bumin, as the leader of the Ashina clan (the leaders of Turks).
551Bumin declares independence of the Turks around Altai mountains, conquers Ötüken in Mongolian Plateau and takes the title khagan (qaghan). His empire is known as Turkic Khaganate or more popularly Göktürk (Celestial Turk).
552Shortly after sending his brother Istemi to the Western Regions as his yabgu (vassal), Bumin Qaghan dies. His elder son Issık (Keluo) becomes the khagan.
554Bumin's second son Muqan Qaghan becomes the khagan. After a series of successful campaigns the Göktürks begin to control the silk road.
558In alliance with Sassanid Persia, Istemi defeats the Hephthalites and conquers Transoxiana.
568An alliance with the Byzantine Empire under Justin II is formed after a delegation of the Turks led by Sogdian Maniah arrive in Constantinople to trade silk with the Byzantines.
572 Taspar Qaghan, the youngest son of Bumin becomes the khagan after the death of his brother.
576The alliance with the Byzantines ceases after the Byzantines (contrary to their agreement) accept a treaty with Avars, enemies of the Göktürks. The Göktürks seize a Byzantine stronghold in the Crimea.
580 Agathias included within Hunnic circle these tribes: the Vurugunds, [lower-alpha 1] Ultizurs, as well as the Turkic tribes Cotrigurs and Utigurs. [2] [3]
581 Tardush, the second yabgu in the west, lay siege to Tauric Chersonesus in Crimea.
581Two rival states in China begin to pay annual tribute to the Turkic Khaganate.
584Taspar Qaghan dies, civil war breaks out. (Ishbara Qaghan vs. Apa Qaghan) Tardush interferes.
587Tardush de facto ruler of the west. Period of dual khaganates. From now on the west khaganate is also called Onok.
588 First Perso-Turkic War. An attempt of the Turkic Khaganate to invade Afghanistan. But Bahram Chobin of Persia defeats the Turkic Khaganate.
593End of Turkic interregnum.

7th century

YearEvent
609 Shibi Khan becomes the khagan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.
615Shibi Khan's advisor is executed by Pei Ju at a negotiation in Mayi; the khan retaliates by invading Yanmen Commandery during a visit there by Emperor Yang, besieging him and his court at the commandery seat (present-day Daixian, Shanxi). He lifts the siege following a false report from his wife, the Sui princess Yicheng, that the khaganate is under attack from the north.
618 Tong Yabghu Qaghan becomes the khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate. According to some accounts he is also known as Ziebel the founder of Khazar state (or Khazaria) in Caucasus as a part of Onok.
619 Second Perso-Turkic War. Tong Yabghu Qaghan raids as far as to Isfahan; but is repelled.
625Alliance with the Byzantine Empire under Heraclius when the emperor requests military aid from the Turks under Tong Yabghu.
626 Illig Qaghan takes advantage of the Incident at Xuanwu Gate and charges to Wei River.
627 Third Perso-Turkic War. Böri Shad conquers Derbend in Caucasus and raids Azerbaijan.
628 Xueyantuo (under the command of Yi'nan) and Toquz Oghuz defeats Yukuk Shad (shad of northern side) and Ashina She'er (shad of western side) of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.
630Tang China supports a revolt of vassals of eastern khaganate. Tang army under the command of Li Jing defeats the Eastern Turkic Khaganate at Battle of Yinshan. Emperor Taizong says It's enough for me to compensate my dishonor at Wei River (626). [4] East khaganate becomes vassal of China.
632 Kubrat unified and ruled Old Great Bulgaria.
638The two wings of the Western Turkic Kaganate (Nushibi and Tulo) split, with the Ili river as the boundary.
639 Ashina Jiesheshuai's unsuccessful raid against Jiucheng Palace. (In popular Turkish culture, Ashina Jiesheshuai is identified as Kürşat )
640Yukuk Shad tries to unite the Onok tribes, but soon escapes to Kunduz in Afghanistan.
642Western Turkic soldiers retreat from Gaochang and the kingdom is captured by Tang dynasty forces. Military conflicts against the Tang dynasty continue for the next few decades.
644Western Turks defeated in a battle against the Tang dynasty in Karasahr.
648Western Turks lose a battle against the Tang dynasty in Kucha.
650 Khazars defeat Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah of Rashidun Arabs in Caucasus.
657China dispatches a military campaign that defeats the western khaganate. Western khaganate becomes vassal of China. During power vacuum, Turgesh tribe emerges as the leading power of Onok.
664Peace treaty between Caucasian Albania King Javanshir (636-669) and Caucasian Huns Elteber Alp Ilitver with conditions of dynastic marriage union, Huns' takeover of all Albanian fortresses, annual tribute to the Huns, and Huns obligation to defend Albania from Arab aggression. [5]
679 Ashide Wenfu and Ashide Fengzhi who were Turkic leaders of Danyu Da Douhufu made Ashina Nishu Beg a Turkic qaghan and revolts against Tang dynasty. [6]
680 Pei Xingjian defeated Ashina Nishu Beg and his army. Ashina Nishu Beg was killed by his men. [6]
680 Ashide Wenfu made Ashina Funian a qaghan and revolted against Tang dynasty. [6]
681 Treaty of 681 was concluded between Bulgarian commander and later ruler Asparukh and Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV Pogonatus. The peace treaty recognized Asparukh's control over captured Byzantine territories southern of the Danube river.
681Ashide Wenfu and Ashina Funian surrendered to Pei Xingjian. 54 Turks (including Ashide Wenfu, Ashina Funian) were publicly executed in the Eastern Market of Chang'an. [6]
681 Ashina Kutlug revolts with the remnants of Ashina Funian's men.
682Ashina Kutlug becomes Ilterish Qaghan and establishes the Second Eastern Turkic Khaganate.
685Ilterish Qaghan defeats the Chinese in Hin Chu.[ citation needed ]
693 Barsbek proclaims the creation of the Kyrgyz Khaganate.
694Death of Ilterish Qaghan. Qapaghan Qaghan becomes the second khagan.
695Qapagan recognises Barsbek as the Khagan of the Kyrgyz.
698Qapagan annexes Turkestan [ citation needed ] (On Oq territory). [7] against Turgesh.

8th century

YearEvent
704 Umayyad governor Qutayba ibn Muslim invades Transoxiana.
710 Second Turkic Khaganate inflicted a crushing defeat on the Kyrgyz Khaganate. Barsbek, Khagan of the Kyrgyz, fell in battle, and his descendants were to remain vassals of the Göktürks for several generations.
711in the Battle of Bolchu Turkic army defeats Turgesh.
713 Turco-Arab wars in Transoxiana. Arab victory leads to shift of power in Turkestan from Turkic Khaganate to their Turgesh vassals again.
716First treaty with known terms between Byzantine Emperor Theodosios III and Danube Bulgaria Khan Tervel delineating borders, fixing the size of Byzantine annual tribute to the Khan at 30 lb. of gold, exchange of prisoners, return of refugees, and unimpeded trade between the two countries [8]
716 Qapaghan Qaghan was killed in his campaign against Toquz Oghuz and his head was sent to Changan. [9] Kul Tigin carried out a coup d'état. They killed Qapaghan's son and brothers and made Bilge Qaghan a Kaghan. [9]
716 (?)The first written records in Old Turkic language. Bain Tsokto inscriptions of Tonyukuk. (These monuments have been erected by himself, a few years before his death.)
717 Inel Qaghan gets overthrown by Kul Tigin. Bilge Kaghan ascends to the throne.
717 Suluk becomes Turgesh Khaghan.
718A short period of stability in Turkic Empire. Bilge and his triumvirate (Kültiğin and Tonyukuk) suppress all revolts.
723Governor al-Harashi of Umayyad Arabs massacres Turks and Sogdian refugees for the second time in Khujand
724Turgesh Kaghan Suluk defeats superior Umayyad Arab armies by his hit and run tactics so called "The Day of Thirst" (Yawm al-'Atash) [10]
728Turgesh Qaghan Suluk defeats Umayyad Arab armies for the second time.
730Khazars defeat Umayyad Arab armies in southern Caucasus. But victorious general Barjik dies in the battle.
734Death of Bilge Khagan.
735 Khöshöö Tsaidam Monuments of Bilge Khagan and his brother Kül Tigin. (Bilge has already erected Kül Tigin's monument and Bilge's son erects Bilge's monument.) Together with Bain Tsokto monument of Tonyukuk, these monuments are called Orkhon monuments. (In 2004 the monuments are included in List of World Heritage Sites in Asia and Australasia)
737Umayyad Arabs defeat Khazars and capture Khazar capital Balanjar. Khazars soon after drive Arabs back. But the capital is shifted to Atil.
738 Suluk is assassinated.
740Khazar khan Bulan embraces Judaism. But the subjects are free to choose their religion.
744Turkic subjects like Basmyl, Uyghur and Karluk who are not the members of Ashina clan stage a coup. End of Ashina clan. (except in Khazaria)
744First Uyghur khan Kutluk Bilge. Uygurs replace Turkic Khaganate in the east and their vassal Karluks begin to conquer the former On Oq territory in the west.
747Second Uyghur khan Bayanchur Khan who begins the construction of a big capital city Ordu Baliq
750Arab empire Umayyad dynasty ends. Abbasid policy more tolerant to Turks.
751Arabs defeat Chinese in the Battle of Talas during which 20,000 Karluk mercenaries switch to the Arab side in the middle of the battle.
753 Tariat inscriptions of Bayanchor Khan of Uyghurs. (probable date)
755After the battle of Talas civil war in China. Bayanchor supports Chinese emperor against rebellious general An Lushan.
756Peace treaty between Byzantine Emperor Constantine V and Danube Bulgaria Khan Kormisosh ending long period of military conflict [11]
765Third Uyghur khan Bogu embraces Manicheism.
766Karluks defeat Turgesh. Most of Turkestan (former Onak territory) under Karluk rule. But in the west of Lake Aral a loose confederation named Oghuz Yabgu State emerges.
789 Ediz house replaces Yaglakar house in Uighur Kaganate.

9th century

YearEvent
815 Thirty Years’ Peace Treaty of 815 was signed in Constantinople between the Bulgarian khan Omurtag and the Byzantine Emperor Leo V the Armenian about 30-years peace.
820Kyrgyz start war with Uyghurs.
821Uyghurs repulse Tibetans.
836The capital of the caliphate (Arabian empire) is moved from Baghdad to the new city of Samarra by Caliph Al-Mu'tasim because of unrest caused by Turkic slave soldiers (named Mameluk). (Mameluk practice has begun shortly after Battle of Talas)
840Kyrgyz (north) defeat Uyghurs. Re-establishment of the Kyrgyz Khaganate. Supported by Uyghur refugees, Karluks establish the state of Karakhanids in Transoxiana.
848Some Uyghur refugees establish a small state in Gansu, north China.
856A third group of Uyghur refugees establish another state in Turpan, present day Xinjiang, west China.
868 Ahmad ibn Tulun, a Turkic mameluk general in Arab army founds Tulunid dynasty in Egypt.
881Three Khazar tribes collectively named Kabar diverge from the main body and move westwards together with the seven tribes of Magyars.
892Khazars force Pechenegs to west who in turn force Magyars to Hungary.
898 Treaty of 898 between the Bulgarian Tsar Simeon and the Byzantine Emperor Leo Choerosphactus after a devastating unprovoked war on Bulgaria from two sides and final Bulgarian victory resumes Byzantine payment of annual tribute to Danube Bulgaria [12] [13]

10th century

YearEvent
914 Treaty of 914 was a peace treaty concluded between Pechenegs and a prince of Rus principality Igor.
924 Mongols of Khitan drive Kyrgyz out of Mongolia. Some Kyrgyz return to Yenisei region and some flee to present-day Kyrgyzstan.
932 Saltuk Buğra Khan of Karakhanids embrace Islam. The first Turkic monarch to do so.
940 Byzantine-Kievan Rus' alliance against Khazars. Khazar Khanate loses Crimea.
941Gansu state (Sari Uyghurs) becomes vassal of China.
960 Khazar Correspondence between Hasdai ibn Shaprut (of Córdoba) and Khagan Joseph of Khazars.
963 Alp Tigin, a Turkic general, establishes Ghaznavids as a vassal state of Samanids
969Rus-Kyiv capture Khazar capital Atil.
977Under Sebük Tekin Ghaznavids become a Muslim sultanate (empire).
985A big Turkic tribe (Kinik) under the leadership of Seljuk migrates from Khazar (Oguz?) territory to suburbs of the city Jend (which is now in South Kazakhstan).
999Dissolution of Oguz confederation by Kipchaks.

11th century

YearEvent
1016Khazar Kaganate dissolves under pressure from Rus-Kyiv and Kipchaks.
1037Rus-Kyiv defeat Pechenegs.
1038Seljuk's grandsons Tugrul and Chaghri conquer the historical city of Merv in present-day Turkmenistan and declare independence. Beginning of the Great Seljuk Empire.
1040Tugrul and Chagri of Seljuk Turks defeat a Ghaznavid army at the battle of Dandanaqan and begin to settle in eastern Persia.
1042Civil war in Karakhanid territory. East and west Karakhanids.
1048 Ibrahim Yinal (Tugrul's uterine brother) of Seljuk Turks defeat a Byzantine-Georgian army at Battle of Pasinler (also called battle of Kapetrou). Turks in East Anatolia.
1050Pechenegs raid Byzantine territories.
1055After a series of victories Tughrul is declared sultan (of Great Seljuk Sultanate) by the caliph.
1065 Uzes paid hommage to Byzantine Empire
1071 Alp Arslan of Seljuk Turks defeat Romanos Diogenes of Byzantine in the battle of Manzikert.
1072Death of Alp Arslan. Malik Shah becomes the sultan.
1072 Danishmend Gazi who is the hero of epic tales Danishmendname founds a principality around Sivas, central Anatolia (i.e., Asiatic side of present Turkey).
1072 Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk was written by Mahmud al-Kashgari of Karakhanids to be presented to Abbasid Caliphate.
1077 Süleyman I (a cousin of Melik Shah) founds a state in what is now west Turkey. Although a vassal of Great Seljuk Empire it soon becomes totally independent. (Seljuks of Rum, Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, Sultanate of Rum, Seljuks of Turkey, Seljuks of Anatolia, Sultanate of Iconium are among the many names used for this state)
1077Emergence of Khwarezm dynasty as a vassal of Great Seljuk Empire.
1081 Tzachas of Smyrna founds a beylik (principality) in İzmir, Western Anatolia and emerges as the first sea power in Turkish history.
1085 Tutush I, Malik Shah's brother founds a short lived principality in Syria.
1089Hungarians defeat the Kipchaks.
1091Kipchacks defeat the Pechenegs.
1093Kipchacks defeat Sviatopolk II of Kyivian Rus in the Battle of the Stugna River,
1096 Kılıç Arslan I of Seljuks defeats People's Crusade.
1097During First Crusade Crusades defeat Seljuks at the Battle of Dorylaeum. Capital İznik captured by Crusades (New capital Konya)

12th century

YearEvent
1101Kılıç Arslan I of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm defeats Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois, of the second wave of First Crusades.
1104 Tuğtekin, atabeg of Damascus founds a short lived principality in Syria. First example of a series of Seljukid atabeg dynasties.
1121A Seljuq army led by the Artuqid Ilghazi of Mardin is defeated by the Georgians near Tiflis.
1128 Zangi, atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo founds Zengid dynasty.
1141Mongols of Khitan defeat Great Seljuk Sultan Sanjar in the Battle of Qatwan.
1146 Ildeniz, atabeg of Azerbaijan founds a dynasty, being the first independent Turkic dynasty of Azerbaijan.
1147During Second Crusade, Mesud I of Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm defeats Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III in the second battle of Dorylaeum and French king Louis VII at battle of Laodicea.
1153Great Seljuk sultan Sanjar is defeated by his Oguz vassals.
1154 Oghuz Turks destroy Library of Nishapur [14]
1176 Kılıç Arslan II of Seljuks defeats Manuel I Komnenos of Byzantine Empire in the battle of Myriokephalon.
1178End of Danishmends. Their territory is annexed by Kılıç Arslan II.
1190German Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and a contingent of the Third Crusade defeat the Turks at the Battle of Konya (Iconium) in Southern Anatolia. He subsequently drowns whilst crossing the Göksu River, near Silifke.

13th century

YearEvent
1202Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm defeat Saltukid principality and annex north eastern Anatolia.
1205After the disintegration of Great Seljuk Sultanate, Kharzem shahs declare independence and conquer most of former Seljuk territory.
1206 Slave dynasty of Delhi established by Qutb ud-Din Aibak in India.
1209Turpan Uyghurs become vassals of the Mongols.
1209Birth of Nasreddin a satirical Sufi figure in Akşehir, Western Anatolia. His anecdotes and jokes, especially those involving Mongol overlords after 1243, are always very popular in all Turkish-speaking countries.
1211Mongolic Khitans end East Karakhanids.
1212 Khwarezm shahs end West Karakhanids.
1220 Alaaddin Keykubat I becomes the Seljuk Sultan of Rûm.
1220Mongols end Khwarezm Shāh.
1224The Qarlughids of Bamyan and Kurraman establish their kingdom.
1230Alaaddin Keykubat I of Seljuks defeats Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu in the battle of Yassıçemen
1236 Razia Sultana of Delhi Sultanate, the first female ruler in Islamic countries.
1239Revolt of Baba Ishak. A revolt of Turkmen (Oguz) and Khwarezm refugees who have recently arrived in Anatolia. (The revolt is bloodily suppressed. But the sultanate loses power.)
1241Mongols defeat Kipchacks.
1243Mongols defeat the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in the battle of Kösedağ
1250 Aybek, a member of a cast of Kıpchack soldiers establishes Mamluk dynasty in Egypt
1260Mameluk general (later sultan) Baybars defeats Ilkhanate leader Hulagu in Battle of Ayn Jalut.
1277 Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey a semi independent bey (prince) in Anatolia (also a short term vizier of Seljuks) declares Turkish as the official language in his reign.
1293Another Kyrgyz uprising is defeated by the Mongols. Most Kyrgyz tribes migrate to present day Kyrgyzstan.
1293 Codex Cumanicus A Kipchak dictionary written for Latins.
1299 Ottoman beylik was founded by Osman I

See also

Notes

  1. Βουρούγουνδοι. Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen rejects attempts to identify them with the Germanic tribe Burgundi. [1]

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References

  1. Maenchen-Helfen, Otto (1973). The World of the Huns (1 ed.). UC Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 452-453
  2. Agathias, Historiae, V,11,3-4
  3. Runciman S., A history of the First Bulgarian empire, London, G.Bell & Sons, 1930, p.7, & notes
  4. New Book of Tang , Vol. 93
  5. Gmyrya L. Hun Country At The Caspian Gate, Dagestan, Makhachkala 1995, pp. 29, 199, ISBN 5-297-01099-3 (Strana Gunnov u Kaspiyskix vorot, Dagestan, Makhachkala, 1995)
  6. 1 2 3 4 Sima Guang, Zizhi Tongjian , Vol. 202
  7. S.G. Klyashtorny-T.İ.Sultanov: Türkün Üçbin Yılı (trans:D.Ahsen batur), Selenge yayınları, İstanbul, 2003, ISBN   975-8839-03-9, p.108
  8. Runciman S., A history of the First Bulgarian empire, London, G.Bell & Sons, 1930, pp. 32-33
  9. 1 2 Old Book of Tang , Vol. 194-I
  10. Al-Tabarī, Tārīkh al-rusul wa-al-mulūk, The History of al-Tabari, Vol. XXVI: The waning of the Umayyad caliphate, SUNY Press, 1989, ISBN   978-0-88706-810-2, p. 27.
  11. Runciman S., A history of the First Bulgarian empire, London, G.Bell & Sons, 1930, pp. 37, 289
  12. Runciman S., A history of the First Bulgarian empire, London, G.Bell & Sons, 1930, p. 149
  13. Treadgold, Warren A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997, p. 464, ISBN   0-8047-2630-2
  14. The Tomb of Omar Khayyâm, George Sarton, Isis, Vol. 29, No. 1 (July , 1938):16.