|History of the Turkic peoples pre–14th century
Below is the identified timeline of the History of the Turkic peoples between the 6th and 14th centuries.
|A Western Wei envoy to the Altai Mountains. First mention of Bumin, as the leader of the Ashina clan (the leaders of Turks).
|Bumin declares independence of the Turks around Altai mountains, conquers Ötüken in Mongolian Plateau and takes the title khagan (qaghan). His empire is known as Turkic Khaganate or more popularly Göktürk (Celestial Turk).
|Shortly after sending his brother Istemi to the Western Regions as his yabgu (vassal), Bumin Qaghan dies. His elder son Issık (Keluo) becomes the khagan.
|Bumin's second son Muqan Qaghan becomes the khagan. After a series of successful campaigns the Göktürks begin to control the silk road.
|In alliance with Sassanid Persia, Istemi defeats the Hephthalites and conquers Transoxiana.
|An alliance with the Byzantine Empire under Justin II is formed after a delegation of the Turks led by Sogdian Maniah arrive in Constantinople to trade silk with the Byzantines.
|Taspar Qaghan, the youngest son of Bumin becomes the khagan after the death of his brother.
|The alliance with the Byzantines ceases after the Byzantines (contrary to their agreement) accept a treaty with Avars, enemies of the Göktürks. The Göktürks seize a Byzantine stronghold in the Crimea.
|Agathias included within Hunnic circle these tribes: the Vurugunds, Ultizurs, as well as the Turkic tribes Cotrigurs and Utigurs.
|Tardush, the second yabgu in the west, lay siege to Tauric Chersonesus in Crimea.
|Two rival states in China begin to pay annual tribute to the Turkic Khaganate.
|Taspar Qaghan dies, civil war breaks out. (Ishbara Qaghan vs. Apa Qaghan) Tardush interferes.
|Tardush de facto ruler of the west. Period of dual khaganates. From now on the west khaganate is also called Onok.
|First Perso-Turkic War. An attempt of the Turkic Khaganate to invade Afghanistan. But Bahram Chobin of Persia defeats the Turkic Khaganate.
|End of Turkic interregnum.
|Shibi Khan becomes the khagan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.
|Shibi Khan's advisor is executed by Pei Ju at a negotiation in Mayi; the khan retaliates by invading Yanmen Commandery during a visit there by Emperor Yang, besieging him and his court at the commandery seat (present-day Daixian, Shanxi). He lifts the siege following a false report from his wife, the Sui princess Yicheng, that the khaganate is under attack from the north.
|Tong Yabghu Qaghan becomes the khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate. According to some accounts he is also known as Ziebel the founder of Khazar state (or Khazaria) in Caucasus as a part of Onok.
|Second Perso-Turkic War. Tong Yabghu Qaghan raids as far as to Isfahan; but is repelled.
|Alliance with the Byzantine Empire under Heraclius when the emperor requests military aid from the Turks under Tong Yabghu.
|Illig Qaghan takes advantage of the Incident at Xuanwu Gate and charges to Wei River.
|Third Perso-Turkic War. Böri Shad conquers Derbend in Caucasus and raids Azerbaijan.
|Xueyantuo (under the command of Yi'nan) and Toquz Oghuz defeats Yukuk Shad (shad of northern side) and Ashina She'er (shad of western side) of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.
|Tang China supports a revolt of vassals of eastern khaganate. Tang army under the command of Li Jing defeats the Eastern Turkic Khaganate at Battle of Yinshan. Emperor Taizong says It's enough for me to compensate my dishonor at Wei River (626). East khaganate becomes vassal of China.
|Kubrat unified and ruled Old Great Bulgaria.
|The two wings of the Western Turkic Kaganate (Nushibi and Tulo) split, with the Ili river as the boundary.
|Ashina Jiesheshuai's unsuccessful raid against Jiucheng Palace. (In popular Turkish culture, Ashina Jiesheshuai is identified as Kürşat )
|Yukuk Shad tries to unite the Onok tribes, but soon escapes to Kunduz in Afghanistan.
|Western Turkic soldiers retreat from Gaochang and the kingdom is captured by Tang dynasty forces. Military conflicts against the Tang dynasty continue for the next few decades.
|Western Turks defeated in a battle against the Tang dynasty in Karasahr.
|Western Turks lose a battle against the Tang dynasty in Kucha.
|Khazars defeat Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah of Rashidun Arabs in Caucasus.
|China dispatches a military campaign that defeats the western khaganate. Western khaganate becomes vassal of China. During power vacuum, Turgesh tribe emerges as the leading power of Onok.
|Peace treaty between Caucasian Albania King Javanshir (636-669) and Caucasian Huns Elteber Alp Ilitver with conditions of dynastic marriage union, Huns' takeover of all Albanian fortresses, annual tribute to the Huns, and Huns obligation to defend Albania from Arab aggression.
|Ashide Wenfu and Ashide Fengzhi who were Turkic leaders of Danyu Da Douhufu made Ashina Nishu Beg a Turkic qaghan and revolts against Tang dynasty.
|Pei Xingjian defeated Ashina Nishu Beg and his army. Ashina Nishu Beg was killed by his men.
|Ashide Wenfu made Ashina Funian a qaghan and revolted against Tang dynasty.
|Treaty of 681 was concluded between Bulgarian commander and later ruler Asparukh and Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV Pogonatus. The peace treaty recognized Asparukh's control over captured Byzantine territories southern of the Danube river.
|Ashide Wenfu and Ashina Funian surrendered to Pei Xingjian. 54 Turks (including Ashide Wenfu, Ashina Funian) were publicly executed in the Eastern Market of Chang'an.
|Ashina Kutlug revolts with the remnants of Ashina Funian's men.
|Ashina Kutlug becomes Ilterish Qaghan and establishes the Second Eastern Turkic Khaganate.
|Ilterish Qaghan defeats the Chinese in Hin Chu.[ citation needed ]
|Barsbek proclaims the creation of the Kyrgyz Khaganate.
|Death of Ilterish Qaghan. Qapaghan Qaghan becomes the second khagan.
|Qapagan recognises Barsbek as the Khagan of the Kyrgyz.
|Qapagan annexes Turkestan [ citation needed ] (On Oq territory). against Turgesh.
|Umayyad governor Qutayba ibn Muslim invades Transoxiana.
|Second Turkic Khaganate inflicted a crushing defeat on the Kyrgyz Khaganate. Barsbek, Khagan of the Kyrgyz, fell in battle, and his descendants were to remain vassals of the Göktürks for several generations.
|in the Battle of Bolchu Turkic army defeats Turgesh.
|Turco-Arab wars in Transoxiana. Arab victory leads to shift of power in Turkestan from Turkic Khaganate to their Turgesh vassals again.
|First treaty with known terms between Byzantine Emperor Theodosios III and Danube Bulgaria Khan Tervel delineating borders, fixing the size of Byzantine annual tribute to the Khan at 30 lb. of gold, exchange of prisoners, return of refugees, and unimpeded trade between the two countries
|Qapaghan Qaghan was killed in his campaign against Toquz Oghuz and his head was sent to Changan. Kul Tigin carried out a coup d'état. They killed Qapaghan's son and brothers and made Bilge Qaghan a Kaghan.
|The first written records in Old Turkic language. Bain Tsokto inscriptions of Tonyukuk. (These monuments have been erected by himself, a few years before his death.)
|Inel Qaghan gets overthrown by Kul Tigin. Bilge Kaghan ascends to the throne.
|Suluk becomes Turgesh Khaghan.
|A short period of stability in Turkic Empire. Bilge and his triumvirate (Kültiğin and Tonyukuk) suppress all revolts.
|Governor al-Harashi of Umayyad Arabs massacres Turks and Sogdian refugees for the second time in Khujand
|Turgesh Kaghan Suluk defeats superior Umayyad Arab armies by his hit and run tactics so called "The Day of Thirst" (Yawm al-'Atash)
|Turgesh Qaghan Suluk defeats Umayyad Arab armies for the second time.
|Khazars defeat Umayyad Arab armies in southern Caucasus. But victorious general Barjik dies in the battle.
|Death of Bilge Khagan.
|Khöshöö Tsaidam Monuments of Bilge Khagan and his brother Kül Tigin. (Bilge has already erected Kül Tigin's monument and Bilge's son erects Bilge's monument.) Together with Bain Tsokto monument of Tonyukuk, these monuments are called Orkhon monuments. (In 2004 the monuments are included in List of World Heritage Sites in Asia and Australasia)
|Umayyad Arabs defeat Khazars and capture Khazar capital Balanjar. Khazars soon after drive Arabs back. But the capital is shifted to Atil.
|Suluk is assassinated.
|Khazar khan Bulan embraces Judaism. But the subjects are free to choose their religion.
|Turkic subjects like Basmyl, Uyghur and Karluk who are not the members of Ashina clan stage a coup. End of Ashina clan. (except in Khazaria)
|First Uyghur khan Kutluk Bilge. Uygurs replace Turkic Khaganate in the east and their vassal Karluks begin to conquer the former On Oq territory in the west.
|Second Uyghur khan Bayanchur Khan who begins the construction of a big capital city Ordu Baliq
|Arab empire Umayyad dynasty ends. Abbasid policy more tolerant to Turks.
|Arabs defeat Chinese in the Battle of Talas during which 20,000 Karluk mercenaries switch to the Arab side in the middle of the battle.
|Tariat inscriptions of Bayanchor Khan of Uyghurs. (probable date)
|After the battle of Talas civil war in China. Bayanchor supports Chinese emperor against rebellious general An Lushan.
|Peace treaty between Byzantine Emperor Constantine V and Danube Bulgaria Khan Kormisosh ending long period of military conflict
|Third Uyghur khan Bogu embraces Manicheism.
|Karluks defeat Turgesh. Most of Turkestan (former Onak territory) under Karluk rule. But in the west of Lake Aral a loose confederation named Oghuz Yabgu State emerges.
|Ediz house replaces Yaglakar house in Uighur Kaganate.
|Thirty Years’ Peace Treaty of 815 was signed in Constantinople between the Bulgarian khan Omurtag and the Byzantine Emperor Leo V the Armenian about 30-years peace.
|Kyrgyz start war with Uyghurs.
|Uyghurs repulse Tibetans.
|The capital of the caliphate (Arabian empire) is moved from Baghdad to the new city of Samarra by Caliph Al-Mu'tasim because of unrest caused by Turkic slave soldiers (named Mameluk). (Mameluk practice has begun shortly after Battle of Talas)
|Kyrgyz (north) defeat Uyghurs. Re-establishment of the Kyrgyz Khaganate. Supported by Uyghur refugees, Karluks establish the state of Karakhanids in Transoxiana.
|Some Uyghur refugees establish a small state in Gansu, north China.
|A third group of Uyghur refugees establish another state in Turpan, present day Xinjiang, west China.
|Ahmad ibn Tulun, a Turkic mameluk general in Arab army founds Tulunid dynasty in Egypt.
|Three Khazar tribes collectively named Kabar diverge from the main body and move westwards together with the seven tribes of Magyars.
|Khazars force Pechenegs to west who in turn force Magyars to Hungary.
|Treaty of 898 between the Bulgarian Tsar Simeon and the Byzantine Emperor Leo Choerosphactus after a devastating unprovoked war on Bulgaria from two sides and final Bulgarian victory resumes Byzantine payment of annual tribute to Danube Bulgaria
|Treaty of 914 was a peace treaty concluded between Pechenegs and a prince of Rus principality Igor.
|Mongols of Khitan drive Kyrgyz out of Mongolia. Some Kyrgyz return to Yenisei region and some flee to present-day Kyrgyzstan.
|Saltuk Buğra Khan of Karakhanids embrace Islam. The first Turkic monarch to do so.
|Byzantine-Kievan Rus' alliance against Khazars. Khazar Khanate loses Crimea.
|Gansu state (Sari Uyghurs) becomes vassal of China.
|Khazar Correspondence between Hasdai ibn Shaprut (of Córdoba) and Khagan Joseph of Khazars.
|Alp Tigin, a Turkic general, establishes Ghaznavids as a vassal state of Samanids
|Rus-Kyiv capture Khazar capital Atil.
|Under Sebük Tekin Ghaznavids become a Muslim sultanate (empire).
|A big Turkic tribe (Kinik) under the leadership of Seljuk migrates from Khazar (Oguz?) territory to suburbs of the city Jend (which is now in South Kazakhstan).
|Dissolution of Oguz confederation by Kipchaks.
|Khazar Kaganate dissolves under pressure from Rus-Kyiv and Kipchaks.
|Rus-Kyiv defeat Pechenegs.
|Seljuk's grandsons Tugrul and Chaghri conquer the historical city of Merv in present-day Turkmenistan and declare independence. Beginning of the Great Seljuk Empire.
|Tugrul and Chagri of Seljuk Turks defeat a Ghaznavid army at the battle of Dandanaqan and begin to settle in eastern Persia.
|Civil war in Karakhanid territory. East and west Karakhanids.
|Ibrahim Yinal (Tugrul's uterine brother) of Seljuk Turks defeat a Byzantine-Georgian army at Battle of Pasinler (also called battle of Kapetrou). Turks in East Anatolia.
|Pechenegs raid Byzantine territories.
|After a series of victories Tughrul is declared sultan (of Great Seljuk Sultanate) by the caliph.
|Uzes paid hommage to Byzantine Empire
|Alp Arslan of Seljuk Turks defeat Romanos Diogenes of Byzantine in the battle of Manzikert.
|Death of Alp Arslan. Malik Shah becomes the sultan.
|Danishmend Gazi who is the hero of epic tales Danishmendname founds a principality around Sivas, central Anatolia (i.e., Asiatic side of present Turkey).
|Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk was written by Mahmud al-Kashgari of Karakhanids to be presented to Abbasid Caliphate.
|Süleyman I (a cousin of Melik Shah) founds a state in what is now west Turkey. Although a vassal of Great Seljuk Empire it soon becomes totally independent. (Seljuks of Rum, Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, Sultanate of Rum, Seljuks of Turkey, Seljuks of Anatolia, Sultanate of Iconium are among the many names used for this state)
|Emergence of Khwarezm dynasty as a vassal of Great Seljuk Empire.
|Tzachas of Smyrna founds a beylik (principality) in İzmir, Western Anatolia and emerges as the first sea power in Turkish history.
|Tutush I, Malik Shah's brother founds a short lived principality in Syria.
|Hungarians defeat the Kipchaks.
|Kipchacks defeat the Pechenegs.
|Kipchacks defeat Sviatopolk II of Kyivian Rus in the Battle of the Stugna River,
|Kılıç Arslan I of Seljuks defeats People's Crusade.
|During First Crusade Crusades defeat Seljuks at the Battle of Dorylaeum. Capital İznik captured by Crusades (New capital Konya)
|Kılıç Arslan I of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm defeats Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois, of the second wave of First Crusades.
|Tuğtekin, atabeg of Damascus founds a short lived principality in Syria. First example of a series of Seljukid atabeg dynasties.
|A Seljuq army led by the Artuqid Ilghazi of Mardin is defeated by the Georgians near Tiflis.
|Zangi, atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo founds Zengid dynasty.
|Mongols of Khitan defeat Great Seljuk Sultan Sanjar in the Battle of Qatwan.
|Ildeniz, atabeg of Azerbaijan founds a dynasty, being the first independent Turkic dynasty of Azerbaijan.
|During Second Crusade, Mesud I of Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm defeats Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III in the second battle of Dorylaeum and French king Louis VII at battle of Laodicea.
|Great Seljuk sultan Sanjar is defeated by his Oguz vassals.
|Oghuz Turks destroy Library of Nishapur
|Kılıç Arslan II of Seljuks defeats Manuel I Komnenos of Byzantine Empire in the battle of Myriokephalon.
|End of Danishmends. Their territory is annexed by Kılıç Arslan II.
|German Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and a contingent of the Third Crusade defeat the Turks at the Battle of Konya (Iconium) in Southern Anatolia. He subsequently drowns whilst crossing the Göksu River, near Silifke.
|Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm defeat Saltukid principality and annex north eastern Anatolia.
|After the disintegration of Great Seljuk Sultanate, Kharzem shahs declare independence and conquer most of former Seljuk territory.
|Slave dynasty of Delhi established by Qutb ud-Din Aibak in India.
|Turpan Uyghurs become vassals of the Mongols.
|Birth of Nasreddin a satirical Sufi figure in Akşehir, Western Anatolia. His anecdotes and jokes, especially those involving Mongol overlords after 1243, are always very popular in all Turkish-speaking countries.
|Mongolic Khitans end East Karakhanids.
|Khwarezm shahs end West Karakhanids.
|Alaaddin Keykubat I becomes the Seljuk Sultan of Rûm.
|Mongols end Khwarezm Shāh.
|The Qarlughids of Bamyan and Kurraman establish their kingdom.
|Alaaddin Keykubat I of Seljuks defeats Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu in the battle of Yassıçemen
|Razia Sultana of Delhi Sultanate, the first female ruler in Islamic countries.
|Revolt of Baba Ishak. A revolt of Turkmen (Oguz) and Khwarezm refugees who have recently arrived in Anatolia. (The revolt is bloodily suppressed. But the sultanate loses power.)
|Mongols defeat Kipchacks.
|Mongols defeat the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in the battle of Kösedağ
|Aybek, a member of a cast of Kıpchack soldiers establishes Mamluk dynasty in Egypt
|Mameluk general (later sultan) Baybars defeats Ilkhanate leader Hulagu in Battle of Ayn Jalut.
|Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey a semi independent bey (prince) in Anatolia (also a short term vizier of Seljuks) declares Turkish as the official language in his reign.
|Another Kyrgyz uprising is defeated by the Mongols. Most Kyrgyz tribes migrate to present day Kyrgyzstan.
|Codex Cumanicus A Kipchak dictionary written for Latins.
|Ottoman beylik was founded by Osman I
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area that was part of Scythia at the time; the Huns' arrival in Europe is associated with the migration westward of an Iranian people, the Alans. By 370 AD, the Huns had arrived on the Volga, and by 430, they had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe, conquering the Goths and many other Germanic peoples living outside of Roman borders and causing many others to flee into Roman territory.
The Bulgars were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic–Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 5th-7th century. They became known as nomadic equestrians in the Volga-Ural region, but some researchers believe that their ethnic roots can be traced to Central Asia.
The Hunnic language, or Hunnish, was the language spoken by Huns in the Hunnic Empire, a heterogeneous, multi-ethnic tribal confederation which invaded Eastern and Central Europe, and ruled most of Pannonian Eastern Europe, during the 4th and 5th centuries CE. A variety of languages were spoken within the Hun Empire. A contemporary report by Priscus has that Hunnish was spoken alongside Gothic and the languages of other tribes subjugated by the Huns.
The Sciri, or Scirians, were a Germanic people. They are believed to have spoken an East Germanic language. Their name probably means "the pure ones".
The Dulo clan was a ruling dynasty of the Bulgars, who were of Turkic origin. It is generally considered that their elite was related to the Huns and the Western Turkic Khaganate. Particularly, it is said that the Dulo descended from the rulers of Old Great Bulgaria. This state was a centralized monarchy from its inception, unlike previous Hunno-Turkic political entities, which were tribal confederations.
Ernak was the last known ruler of the Huns, and the third son of Attila. After Attila's death in 453 AD, his Empire crumbled and its remains were ruled by his three sons, Ellac, Dengizich and Ernak. He succeeded his older brother Ellac in 454 AD, and probably ruled simultaneously over Huns in dual kingship with his brother Dengizich, but in separate divisions in separate lands.
Rugila or Ruga, was a ruler who was a major factor in the Huns' early victories over the Roman Empire. He served as an important forerunner with his brother Octar, with whom he initially ruled in dual kingship, possibly a geographical division where Rugila ruled over Eastern Huns while Octar over Western Huns, during the 5th century AD.
Dengizich, was a Hunnic ruler and son of Attila. After Attila's death in 453 AD, his Empire crumbled and its remains were ruled by his three sons, Ellac, Dengizich and Ernak. He succeeded his older brother Ellac in 454 AD, and probably ruled simultaneously over the Huns in dual kingship with his brother Ernak, but separate divisions in separate lands.
Charaton was one of the first kings of the Huns.
Uldin, also spelled Huldin is the first ruler of the Huns whose historicity is undisputed.
Ellac was the oldest son of Attila (434–453) and Kreka. After Attila's death in 453 AD, his Empire crumbled and its remains were ruled by his three sons, Ellac, Dengizich and Ernak. He ruled shortly, and died at the Battle of Nedao in 454 AD. Ellac was succeeded by two of the three brothers, Dengizich and Ernak.
Otto John Maenchen-Helfen was an Austrian academic, sinologist, historian, author, and traveler.
By the name Edeko are considered three contemporaneous historical figures, whom many scholars identify as one:
Mugel succeeded his brother Grod, a Hunnic ruler in Patria Onoguria. Grod converted to Christianity on a visit to Constantinople and was established as a Byzantine puppet ruler, but when he began to melt down idols for the silver and electrum of which they were made, he was killed and replaced with Mugel. A Byzantine military expedition expelled the Huns from the city of Bosporus and after a rule of only 2 years, from AD 528 to 530, Mugel was succeeded by a civil war between Sandilch and Khinialon.
Balamber was ostensibly a chieftain of the Huns, mentioned by Jordanes in his Getica. Jordanes simply called him "king of the Huns" and writes the story of Balamber crushing the tribes of the Ostrogoths in the 370s; somewhere between 370 and more probably 376 AD.
The history of the Huns spans the time from before their first secure recorded appearance in Europe around 370 AD to after the disintegration of their empire around 469. The Huns likely entered Western Asia shortly before 370 from Central Asia: they first conquered the Goths and the Alans, pushing a number of tribes to seek refuge within the Roman Empire. In the following years, the Huns conquered most of the Germanic and Scythian tribes outside of the borders of the Roman Empire. They also launched invasions of both the Asian provinces of Rome and the Sasanian Empire in 375. Under Uldin, the first Hunnic ruler named in contemporary sources, the Huns launched a first unsuccessful large-scale raid into the Eastern Roman Empire in Europe in 408. From the 420s, the Huns were led by the brothers Octar and Ruga, who both cooperated with and threatened the Romans. Upon Ruga's death in 435, his nephews Bleda and Attila became the new rulers of the Huns, and launched a successful raid into the Eastern Roman Empire before making peace and securing an annual tribute and trading raids under the Treaty of Margus. Attila appears to have killed his brother and became sole ruler of the Huns in 445. He would go on to rule for the next eight years, launching a devastating raid on the Eastern Roman Empire in 447, followed by an invasion of Gaul in 451. Attila is traditionally held to have been defeated in Gaul at the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields, however some scholars hold the battle to have been a draw or Hunnic victory. The following year, the Huns invaded Italy and encountered no serious resistance before turning back.
The origin of the Huns and their relationship to other peoples identified in ancient sources as Iranian Huns such as the Xionites, the Alchon Huns, the Kidarites, the Hephthalites, the Nezaks, and the Huna, has been the subject of long-term scholarly controversy. Ancient Greek and Roman sources do not provide any information on where the Huns came from, besides that they suddenly appeared in 370 CE. However, there are some possible mentions of the Huns or tribes related to them that pre-date 370. In 1757, Joseph de Guignes first proposed that the Huns were identical to the Xiongnu. The thesis was then popularized by Edward Gibbon. Since that time scholars have debated the proposal on its linguistic, historical, and archaeological merits. In the mid-twentieth century, the connection was attacked by the Sinologist Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen and largely fell out of favor. Some recent scholarship has argued in favor of some form of link, and the theory returned to the mainstream, but there is no consensus on the issue.
Kursich was a Hun general and royal family member. He led a Hunnish army in the Hunnic invasion of Persia in 395 AD.
There are two sources for the material culture and art of the Huns: ancient descriptions and archaeology. Unfortunately, the nomadic nature of Hun society means that they have left very little in the archaeological record. Indeed, although a great amount of archaeological material has been unearthed since 1945, as of 2005 there were only 200 positively identified Hunnic burials producing Hunnic material culture. It can be difficult to distinguish Hunnic archaeological finds from those of the Sarmatians, as both peoples lived in close proximity and seem to have had very similar material cultures. Kim thus cautions that it is difficult to assign any artifact to the Huns ethnically. It is also possible that the Huns in Europe adopted the material culture of their Germanic subjects. Roman descriptions of the Huns, meanwhile, are often highly biased, stressing their supposed primitiveness.