Tonelli's theorem (functional analysis)

Last updated

In mathematics, Tonelli's theorem in functional analysis is a fundamental result on the weak lower semicontinuity of nonlinear functionals on Lp spaces. As such, it has major implications for functional analysis and the calculus of variations. Roughly, it shows that weak lower semicontinuity for integral functionals is equivalent to convexity of the integral kernel. The result is attributed to the Italian mathematician Leonida Tonelli.

Statement of the theorem

Let Ω be a bounded domain in n-dimensional Euclidean space Rn and let f : Rm  R  {±} be a continuous extended real-valued function. Define a nonlinear functional F on functions u : Ω  Rm by

Then F is sequentially weakly lower semicontinuous on the Lp space Lp(Ω; Rm) for 1 < p < + and weakly- lower semicontinuous on L(Ω; Rm) if and only if the function f

is convex.

Related Research Articles

In mathematical analysis, semi-continuity is a property of extended real-valued functions that is weaker than continuity. An extended real-valued function f is uppersemi-continuous at a point x0 if, roughly speaking, the function values for arguments near x0 are not much higher than f(x0).

In mathematical analysis, a function of bounded variation, also known as BV function, is a real-valued function whose total variation is bounded (finite): the graph of a function having this property is well behaved in a precise sense. For a continuous function of a single variable, being of bounded variation means that the distance along the direction of the y-axis, neglecting the contribution of motion along x-axis, traveled by a point moving along the graph has a finite value. For a continuous function of several variables, the meaning of the definition is the same, except for the fact that the continuous path to be considered cannot be the whole graph of the given function, but can be every intersection of the graph itself with a hyperplane parallel to a fixed x-axis and to the y-axis.

In mathematics, a Radon measure, named after Johann Radon, is a measure on the σ-algebra of Borel sets of a Hausdorff topological space X that is finite on all compact sets, outer regular on all Borel sets, and inner regular on open sets. These conditions guarantee that the measure is "compatible" with the topology of the space, and most measures used in mathematical analysis and in number theory are indeed Radon measures.

In mathematics and in signal processing, the Hilbert transform is a specific linear operator that takes a function, u(t) of a real variable and produces another function of a real variable H(u)(t). This linear operator is given by convolution with the function :

In mathematics, a Sobolev space is a vector space of functions equipped with a norm that is a combination of Lp-norms of the function together with its derivatives up to a given order. The derivatives are understood in a suitable weak sense to make the space complete, i.e. a Banach space. Intuitively, a Sobolev space is a space of functions possessing sufficiently many derivatives for some application domain, such as partial differential equations, and equipped with a norm that measures both the size and regularity of a function.

Total variation Measure of the local oscillation behavior of a function

In mathematics, the total variation identifies several slightly different concepts, related to the structure of the codomain of a function or a measure. For a real-valued continuous function f, defined on an interval [a, b] ⊂ ℝ, its total variation on the interval of definition is a measure of the one-dimensional arclength of the curve with parametric equation xf(x), for x ∈ [a, b].

In functional analysis, a branch of mathematics, the Borel functional calculus is a functional calculus, which has particularly broad scope. Thus for instance if T is an operator, applying the squaring function ss2 to T yields the operator T2. Using the functional calculus for larger classes of functions, we can for example define rigorously the "square root" of the (negative) Laplacian operator −Δ or the exponential

In mathematics, the Gateaux differential or Gateaux derivative is a generalization of the concept of directional derivative in differential calculus. Named after René Gateaux, a French mathematician who died young in World War I, it is defined for functions between locally convex topological vector spaces such as Banach spaces. Like the Fréchet derivative on a Banach space, the Gateaux differential is often used to formalize the functional derivative commonly used in the calculus of variations and physics.

In mathematics, plurisubharmonic functions form an important class of functions used in complex analysis. On a Kähler manifold, plurisubharmonic functions form a subset of the subharmonic functions. However, unlike subharmonic functions plurisubharmonic functions can be defined in full generality on complex analytic spaces.

In mathematics, Tonelli's theorem may refer to

In mathematical analysis, Trudinger's theorem or the Trudinger inequality is a result of functional analysis on Sobolev spaces. It is named after Neil Trudinger.

In mathematics, a locally integrable function is a function which is integrable on every compact subset of its domain of definition. The importance of such functions lies in the fact that their function space is similar to Lp spaces, but its members are not required to satisfy any growth restriction on their behavior at the boundary of their domain : in other words, locally integrable functions can grow arbitrarily fast at the domain boundary, but are still manageable in a way similar to ordinary integrable functions.

In mathematics, Friedrichs's inequality is a theorem of functional analysis, due to Kurt Friedrichs. It places a bound on the Lp norm of a function using Lp bounds on the weak derivatives of the function and the geometry of the domain, and can be used to show that certain norms on Sobolev spaces are equivalent. Friedrichs's inequality is a general case of the Poincaré–Wirtinger inequality which deals with the case k = 1.

In mathematics, a Caccioppoli set is a set whose boundary is measurable and has a finite measure. A synonym is set of (locally) finite perimeter. Basically, a set is a Caccioppoli set if its characteristic function is a function of bounded variation.

In mathematics, the Hardy–Littlewood maximal operatorM is a significant non-linear operator used in real analysis and harmonic analysis. It takes a locally integrable function f : RdC and returns another function Mf that, at each point xRd, gives the maximum average value that f can have on balls centered at that point. More precisely,

In mathematics—specifically, in functional analysis—a weakly measurable function taking values in a Banach space is a function whose composition with any element of the dual space is a measurable function in the usual (strong) sense. For separable spaces, the notions of weak and strong measurability agree.

In mathematics, the Pettis integral or Gelfand–Pettis integral, named after Israel M. Gelfand and Billy James Pettis, extends the definition of the Lebesgue integral to vector-valued functions on a measure space, by exploiting duality. The integral was introduced by Gelfand for the case when the measure space is an interval with Lebesgue measure. The integral is also called the weak integral in contrast to the Bochner integral, which is the strong integral.

In mathematical analysis, Ekeland's variational principle, discovered by Ivar Ekeland, is a theorem that asserts that there exists nearly optimal solutions to some optimization problems.

Direct method in the calculus of variations Method for constructing existence proofs and calculating solutions in variational calculus

In mathematics, the direct method in the calculus of variations is a general method for constructing a proof of the existence of a minimizer for a given functional, introduced by Zaremba and David Hilbert around 1900. The method relies on methods of functional analysis and topology. As well as being used to prove the existence of a solution, direct methods may be used to compute the solution to desired accuracy.

The maximum theorem provides conditions for the continuity of an optimized function and the set of its maximizers with respect to its parameters. The statement was first proven by Claude Berge in 1959. The theorem is primarily used in mathematical economics and optimal control.