Waterville, Maine

Last updated
Waterville, Maine
City Hall & Opera House, Waterville, ME.jpg
City Hall and Opera House in 1905
Seal of Waterville, Maine.png
Seal
Nickname(s): 
Elm City
Kennebec County Maine incorporated and unincorporated areas Waterville highlighted.svg
Location in Kennebec County and the state of Maine.
Usa edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Waterville, Maine
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 44°33′7″N69°38′45″W / 44.55194°N 69.64583°W / 44.55194; -69.64583 Coordinates: 44°33′7″N69°38′45″W / 44.55194°N 69.64583°W / 44.55194; -69.64583
CountryUnited States
State Maine
County Kennebec
Incorporated (town)June 23, 1802
IncorporatedJanuary 12, 1888
Government
  Type Mayor and council-manager
  BodyWaterville City Council
  MayorNick Isgro
  City ManagerMike Roy
Area
[1]
  Total14.05 sq mi (36.39 km2)
  Land13.58 sq mi (35.17 km2)
  Water0.47 sq mi (1.22 km2)
Elevation
108 ft (33 m)
Population
 (2010) [2]
15,722
  Density1,222/sq mi (471.9/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern (EST))
  Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Code
04901
Area code(s) 207
FIPS code 23-80740
GNIS feature ID0577893
Website www.waterville-me.gov
One Post Office Square, a multiple-use facility, in downtown Waterville One Post Office Square in Waterville, ME IMG 2630.JPG
One Post Office Square, a multiple-use facility, in downtown Waterville
View of downtown Waterville (2014) Downtown Waterville, ME IMG 2639.JPG
View of downtown Waterville (2014)

Waterville is a city in Kennebec County, Maine, United States, on the west bank of the Kennebec River. The city is home to Colby College and Thomas College. As of the 2010 census the population was 15,722, [3] and in 2017 the estimated population was 16,600. [4] Along with Augusta, Waterville is one of the principal cities of the Augusta-Waterville, ME Micropolitan Statistical Area.

Kennebec County, Maine U.S. county in Maine

Kennebec County is a county in the U.S. state of Maine, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 121,581. Its county seat is Augusta, the state capital. The county was established on February 20, 1799 from portions of Cumberland and Lincoln Counties. The name Kennebec comes from the Eastern Abenaki /kínipekʷ/, meaning "large body of still water, large bay."

Maine state of the United States of America

Maine is the northernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 12th smallest by area, the 9th least populous, and the 38th most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Québec to the northeast and northwest, respectively. Maine is the only state to border just one other state, is the easternmost among the contiguous United States, and is the northernmost state east of the Great Lakes.

Kennebec River river in Maine, United States

The Kennebec River is a 170-mile-long (270 km) river within the U.S. state of Maine.

Contents

History

The area now known as Waterville was once inhabited by the Canibas tribe of the Abenaki people. Called "Taconnet" after Chief Taconnet, the main village was located on the east bank of the Kennebec River at its confluence with the Sebasticook River at what is now Winslow. Known as "Ticonic" by English settlers, it was burned in 1692 during King William's War, after which the Canibas tribe abandoned the area. Fort Halifax was built by General John Winslow in 1754, and the last skirmish with indigenous peoples occurred on May 18, 1757. [5]

The Abenaki are a Native American tribe and First Nation. They are one of the Algonquian-speaking peoples of northeastern North America. The Abenaki originate in Quebec and the Maritimes of Canada and in the New England region of the United States, a region called Wabanahkik in the Eastern Algonquian languages. The Abenaki are one of the five members of the Wabanaki Confederacy.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas Pre-Columbian inhabitants of North, Central and South America and their descendants

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of North, Central and South America and their descendants.

Sebasticook River river in the United States of America

The Sebasticook River is a 76-mile-long (122 km) river in the central part of Maine, in the United States. From its source in Dexter, the upper "Main Stream" section flows generally west and south 30 miles (48 km) to Great Moose Lake. From the outlet of the lake in Hartland, the Sebasticook flows 41 miles (66 km) south to the Kennebec River in Winslow.

The township would be organized as Kingfield Plantation, then incorporated as Winslow in 1771. When residents on the west side of the Kennebec found themselves unable to cross the river to attend town meetings, Waterville was founded from the western parts of Winslow and incorporated on June 23, 1802. In 1824 a bridge was built joining the communities. Early industries included fishing, lumbering, agriculture and ship building, with larger boats launched in spring during freshets. By the early 1900s, there were five shipyards in the community. [6]

Winslow, Maine Town in Maine, United States

Winslow is a town and census-designated place in Kennebec County, Maine, United States, along the Kennebec River. The population was 7,794 at the 2010 census.

Town meeting

A town meeting is a form of direct democratic rule in which most or all the members of a community come together to legislate policy and budgets for local government. This is a town- or city-level meeting where decisions are made, in contrast with town hall meetings held by state and national politicians to answer questions from their constituents, which have no decision-making power.

Fishing Activity of trying to catch fish

Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping. “Fishing” may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods, crustaceans, and echinoderms. The term is not normally applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. In addition to being caught to be eaten, fish are caught as recreational pastimes. Fishing tournaments are held, and caught fish are sometimes kept as preserved or living trophies. When bioblitzes occur, fish are typically caught, identified, and then released.

Ticonic Falls blocked navigation farther upriver, so Waterville developed as the terminus for trade and shipping. The Kennebec River and Messalonskee Stream provided water power for mills, including several sawmills, a gristmill, a sash and blind factory, a furniture factory, and a shovel handle factory. There was also a carriage and sleigh factory, boot shop, brickyard, and tannery. On September 27, 1849, the Androscoggin and Kennebec Railroad opened to Waterville. It would become part of the Maine Central Railroad, which in 1870 established locomotive and car repair shops in the thriving mill town. West Waterville (renamed Oakland) was set off as a town in 1873. Waterville was incorporated as a city on January 12, 1888. [7]

Sawmill facility where logs are cut into timber

A sawmill or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber. Modern saw mills use a motorized saw to cut logs lengthwise to make long pieces, and crosswise to length depending on standard or custom sizes. The "portable" saw mill is iconic and of simple operation—the logs lay flat on a steel bed and the motorized saw cuts the log horizontally along the length of the bed, by the operator manually pushing the saw. The most basic kind of saw mill consists of a chainsaw and a customized jig, with similar horizontal operation.

Gristmill Mill; grinds grain into flour

A gristmill grinds cereal grain into flour and middlings. The term can refer to both the grinding mechanism and the building that holds it.

Window shutter window screen formed by either a solid panel or a louvered scheme

A window shutter is a solid and stable window covering usually consisting of a frame of vertical stiles and horizontal rails. Set within this frame can be louvers, solid panels, fabric, glass and almost any other item that can be mounted within a frame. Shutters may be employed for a variety of reasons, including controlling the amount of sunlight that enters a room, to provide privacy, security, to protect against weather or unwanted intrusion or damage and to enhance the aesthetics of a building.

The Ticonic Water Power & Manufacturing Company was formed in 1866 and soon built a dam across the Kennebec. After a change of ownership in 1873, the company began construction on what would become the Lockwood Manufacturing Company, a cotton textile plant. A second mill was added, and by 1900 the firm dominated the riverfront and employed 1,300 workers. Lockwood Mills survived until the mid-1950s. The iron Waterville-Winslow Footbridge opened in 1901, as a means for Waterville residents to commute to Winslow for work in the Hollingsworth & Whitney Co. and Wyandotte Worsted Co. mills, but in less than a year was carried away by the highest river level since 1832. Rebuilt in 1903, it would be called the Two Cent Bridge because of its toll. [8] In 1902, the Beaux-Arts style City Hall and Opera House designed by George Gilman Adams was dedicated. In 2002, the C.F. Hathaway Company, one of the last remaining factories in the United States producing high-end dress shirts, was purchased by Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway company and was closed after over 160 years of operation in the city. [8]

Cotton Plant fiber from the genus Gossypium

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds.

Two Cent Bridge

The Ticonic Footbridge, popularly known as the Two Cent Bridge, is a suspension bridge that spans the Kennebec River between the city of Waterville and the town of Winslow in Kennebec County, Maine. It is one of the oldest surviving wire-cable steel suspension bridges and also is considered to be the last known extant toll footbridge in the United States.

The Hollingsworth & Whitney Company was a pulp and paper company that owned one or more pulp and paper mills in Winslow, Maine. The company opened in 1892, providing work for Waterville residents who lived on the far bank of the Kennebec River. A footbridge was constructed in 1901 so the citizens of Waterville could commute to Winslow. The bridge became known as the Two Cent Bridge due to the price of its toll.

Waterville also developed as an educational center. In 1813, the Maine Literary and Theological Institution was established. It would be renamed Waterville College in 1821, then Colby College in 1867. Thomas College was established in 1894. The Latin School was founded in 1820 to prepare students to attend Colby and other colleges, and was subsequently named Waterville Academy, Waterville Classical Institute, and Coburn Classical Institute; the Institute merged with the Oak Grove School in Vassalboro in 1970, and remained open until the 1980s. The first public high school was built in 1877, while the current Waterville Senior High School was built in 1961. [5]

Colby College private liberal arts college located on Mayflower Hill in Waterville, Maine, USA

Colby College is a private liberal arts college in Waterville, Maine. Approximately 1,800 students from more than 60 countries are enrolled annually. The college offers 54 major fields of study and 30 minors. It was founded in 1813 as the Maine Literary and Theological Institution until it was renamed after the city it resides in with Waterville College. The donations of Christian philanthropist Gardner Colby saw the institution renamed again to Colby University before concluding on its final and current title, reflecting its liberal arts college curriculum.

Thomas College

Thomas College is a private business college in Waterville, Maine. Thomas College specializes in business, education, and technology. Thomas offers undergraduate and graduate degrees and is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges.

Vassalboro, Maine Town in Maine, United States

Vassalboro is a town in Kennebec County, Maine, United States. The population was 4,340 at the 2010 census. Vassalboro includes the villages of Riverside, Getchell's Corner, North Vassalboro, and East Vassalboro, home to the town library and sports field. Vassalboro is included in the Augusta, Maine, micropolitan New England City and Town Area.

Geography

Waterville is located in northern Kennebec County at 44°33′07″N69°38′45″W / 44.552051°N 69.645839°W / 44.552051; -69.645839 . [9] Its northern boundary is the Somerset County line.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.05 square miles (36.39 km2), of which 13.58 square miles (35.17 km2) are land and 0.47 square miles (1.22 km2), or 3.36%, are water. [1] Situated beside the Kennebec River, Waterville is drained by the Messalonskee Stream.

Waterville is served by Interstate 95, U.S. Route 201, and Maine State Routes 137 and 104. It is bordered by Fairfield on the north in Somerset County, Winslow on the east, Sidney on the south and Oakland on the west.

Climate

This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Waterville has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps. [10]

Climate data for Waterville, Maine
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)58
(14)
61
(16)
84
(29)
91
(33)
98
(37)
96
(36)
96
(36)
101
(38)
96
(36)
84
(29)
73
(23)
67
(19)
101
(38)
Average high °F (°C)29.8
(−1.2)
33.5
(0.8)
42.5
(5.8)
55.2
(12.9)
67.9
(19.9)
76.4
(24.7)
81.3
(27.4)
80.1
(26.7)
71.8
(22.1)
59.8
(15.4)
46.7
(8.2)
34.3
(1.3)
56.6
(13.7)
Average low °F (°C)7.8
(−13.4)
9.7
(−12.4)
20.8
(−6.2)
31.7
(−0.2)
42.3
(5.7)
52.1
(11.2)
57.6
(14.2)
56.1
(13.4)
47.9
(8.8)
37.5
(3.1)
28.7
(−1.8)
15.2
(−9.3)
33.9
(1.1)
Record low °F (°C)−32
(−36)
−31
(−35)
−17
(−27)
8
(−13)
21
(−6)
34
(1)
39
(4)
35
(2)
23
(−5)
17
(−8)
−1
(−18)
−27
(−33)
−32
(−36)
Average precipitation inches (mm)2.87
(73)
2.54
(65)
3.23
(82)
3.49
(89)
3.51
(89)
3.65
(93)
3.45
(88)
3.53
(90)
3.57
(91)
4.21
(107)
4.17
(106)
3.58
(91)
41.8
(1,064)
Source: [11]

Redevelopment

Like many other towns in Maine and in the United States, Waterville has seen development in the suburbs and the decline of the downtown area. [12] There have been new businesses and new facilities built by Inland Hospital on Kennedy Memorial Drive. Walmart, Home Depot, and a small strip mall of other stores have been built in the northern part of the city as part of an open-air shopping center. Because of this growth, the existing and now-neighboring Elm Plaza shopping center has recently had its exterior renovated and filled most or all of its previous vacancies.

In contrast, the downtown area has had its share of hardships due to chain store growth in the city. Stores that had a long history in the downtown area have closed in recent decades, including Levine's, Butlers, Sterns, Dunhams, Alvina and Delias, and LaVerdieres. The large vacancy in The Concourse shopping center that once housed the Ames, Zayre department store, as well as Brooks Pharmacy is struggling to find tenants; as is the now vacant Main Street location of a CVS pharmacy (it moved to a brand new building on Kennedy Memorial Drive). [13] Organizations like Waterville Main St continue their efforts to revitalize downtown.

Developer Paul Boghossian has converted the old Hathaway Mill to retail, office, and residential use. [14] MaineGeneral Health agreed at the end of June 2007 to become the first tenant. [15]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1810 1,314
1820 1,71930.8%
1830 2,21628.9%
1840 2,97134.1%
1850 3,96433.4%
1860 4,39010.7%
1870 4,85210.5%
1880 4,672−3.7%
1890 7,10752.1%
1900 9,47733.3%
1910 11,45820.9%
1920 13,35116.5%
1930 15,45415.8%
1940 16,6888.0%
1950 18,2879.6%
1960 18,6952.2%
1970 18,192−2.7%
1980 17,779−2.3%
1990 17,173−3.4%
2000 15,605−9.1%
2010 15,7220.7%
Est. 201816,646 [4] 5.9%
U.S. Decennial Census [16]
Silver and Elm streets (1910), showing the Universalist Church, which was established in 1832 Junction of Silver & Elm Streets, Waterville, ME.jpg
Silver and Elm streets (1910), showing the Universalist Church, which was established in 1832
Population of Waterville from 2000 to 2015 Waterville, ME population, since 2000.jpeg
Population of Waterville from 2000 to 2015

2010 census

As of the census [2] of 2010, there were 15,722 people, 6,370 households, and 3,274 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,157.7 inhabitants per square mile (447.0/km2). There were 7,065 housing units at an average density of 520.3 per square mile (200.9/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 93.9% White, 1.1% African American, 0.6% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races, and 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.4% of the population.

There were 6,370 households of which 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.9% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, and 48.6% were non-families. Of all households 38.9% were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.80.

The median age in the city was 36.8 years. 17.9% of residents were under the age of 18; 18.9% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 21.7% were from 25 to 44; 24.7% were from 45 to 64; and 16.7% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 46.8% male and 53.2% female.

2000 census

As of the census [17] of 2000, there were 15,605 people, 6,218 households, and 3,370 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,148.7 people per square mile (443.3/km²). There were 6,819 housing units at an average density of 501.9 per square mile (193.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 95.81% White, 0.78% African American, 0.56% Native American, 1.03% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.42% from other races, and 1.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.10% of the population. 32% reported French and French Canadian ancestry, 18% English, 11% Irish, and 6% German.

There are 6,218 households out of which 26.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 45.8% were non-families. Of all households 38.6% were made up of individuals and 16.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.84.

In the city, the population was spread out with 19.7% under the age of 18, 18.5% from 18 to 24, 24.1% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, and 18.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.7 males.

Coburn Classical Institute (c. 1910), burned in 1955 Coburn Classical Institute, Waterville, ME.jpg
Coburn Classical Institute (c. 1910), burned in 1955

The median income for a household in the city was $26,816, and the median income for a family was $38,052. Males had a median income of $30,086 versus $22,037 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,430. 19.2% of the population and 15.1% of families were below the federal poverty level. Statewide, 10.9% of the population was below the poverty level. [18] In Kennebec County, 11.1% of the population was below the federal poverty level. Thus, although the county poverty rate is close to the state poverty rate, the poverty rate for Waterville is higher—typical for a regional center whose suburbs have grown in population.

Out of the total population, 29.7% of those under the age of 18 and 14.7% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Government

Local government

Waterville City Hall (2014) Waterville, ME City Hall (2014) IMG 2652.JPG
Waterville City Hall (2014)

Waterville has a mayor and council-manager form of government, led by a mayor and a seven-member city council. The city council is the governing board, and the city manager is the chief administrative officer of the city, responsible for the management of all city affairs.

Waterville adopted a city charter in the 1970s. [19] For some 40 years, the city had a "strong mayor" system in which the mayor enjoyed broad executive powers, including the power to veto measures passed by the city council and to line-item veto budget items passed by the council. [20] In 2005, the charter was substantially revised, changing the city government to a "weak mayor" council-manager system. [20] [21] Under the present system, the city manager is the chief executive. [20] The charter revision was approved by city voters by a 4-1 margin. [20] The city is currently divided into seven geographic wards, each of which elects one member of the Waterville City Council and one member of the Waterville School Board. [19]

Since 1970, the following people have served as mayor of Waterville: Richard "Spike" Carey (1970-1978), Paul Laverdiere (Republican, 1978-1982); Ann Gilbride Hill (Democrat, 1982-1986); Thomas Nale (1986-1987); Judy C. Kany (Democrat, 1988-1989); David E. Bernier (1990-1993); Thomas J. Brazier (1994-1995); Nelson Megna (1995-1996); Ruth Joseph (Democrat, 1996-1998); Nelson Madore (Democrat, 1999-2004); Paul R. LePage (Republican, 2004-2011); Dana W. Sennett (Democrat, 2011); Karen Heck (independent, 2012-2014); Nicholas Isgro (Republican, 2015–present). [22]

In 2018, Isgro faced a recall election after he made a Twitter post mocking David Hogg, a survivor of the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting in Parkland, Florida. The recall effort was backed by former Mayor Karen Heck, a Democrat who had previously endorsed Isgro. Isgro later made his Twitter feed private and said that he had deleted the post. [23] [24] During the recall effort, Isgro asserted that outside interests and the City Council were plotting to oust him over disputes over the city budget and taxation. [25] [26] After an acrimonious recall campaign, [27] [28] Waterville voters narrowly defeated the recall attempt, with 1,563 "no" votes (51%) to 1,472 "yes" votes (49%). [29]

Political makeup

Waterville is considered a Democratic stronghold in Maine's 1st congressional district. [30] [31] Barack Obama received 70% of Waterville's votes in the 2008 presidential election. [32]

Voter registration

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of June 2014 [33]
PartyTotal VotersPercentage
Democratic 4,56241.25%
Unenrolled4,20037.98%
Republican 1,94017.54%
Green Independent 3563.21%
Total11,058100%

Transportation

Education

Waterville Public Schools serves the city.

It was a part of Kennebec Valley Consolidated Schools (AOS92) until July 1, 2018. [36]

Waterville is the set location of Camp Firewood in the Netflix show Wet Hot American Summer: First Day of Camp .

Media

Waterville is home to one daily newspaper, the Morning Sentinel and a weekly, The Colby Echo. [37] The city is also home to Fox affiliate WPFO and Daystar rebroadcaster WFYW-LP, both serving the Portland market, and to several radio stations, including Colby's WMHB, country WEBB, adult standards WTVL and MPBN on 91.3 FM.

Sister cities

Sites of interest

Monument to Union Army soldiers in Waterville Civil War Union Army monument, Waterville, ME IMG 2641.JPG
Monument to Union Army soldiers in Waterville
Waterville Country Club golf course Waterville CC 02.jpg
Waterville Country Club golf course

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. 1 2 "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2012-01-25. Retrieved 2012-11-23.
  2. 1 2 "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2012-11-23.
  3. "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (G001), Waterville city, Maine". American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  4. 1 2 "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Waterville city, Maine". Census Bureau QuickFacts. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
  5. 1 2 "History in Waterville, Maine -". Watervillemaine.net. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  6. Coolidge, Austin J.; John B. Mansfield (1859). A History and Description of New England. Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 344–345.
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  9. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
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  13. Marketing the Concourse
    Waterville's downtown center faces growing challenges
    Archived 2009-05-20 at the Wayback Machine
  14. Hathaway center plans to be unveiled tonight at council meeting Archived 2009-05-20 at the Wayback Machine
  15. Urban renewal spurred project Archived 2009-05-19 at the Wayback Machine
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  19. 1 2 Rachel Ohm, Waterville city manager responds to criticism about idea of eliminating wards, Morning Sentinel (December 13, 2018).
  20. 1 2 3 4 Kenneth T. Palmer, Maine Politics and Government (University of Nebraska Press, 2009), p. 205.
  21. Amy Calder, Waterville city political partisanship, ward system likely charter commission targets, Kennebec Journal (November 29, 2012).
  22. History of Mayors: Waterville, Maine, 1888 — Present, City of Waterville (revised June 2017).
  23. "Mayor faces recall vote over tweet mocking shooting survivor". Associated Press. 2018-05-04.
  24. Anapol, Avery (4 May 2018). "GOP Maine mayor facing recall vote over tweet mocking Parkland survivor". The Hill.
  25. Rachel Ohm (May 12, 2018). "Waterville mayor says council wants 13 percent tax hike". Morning Sentinel.
  26. Rachel Ohm & Amy Calder (June 8, 2018). "Mayor Isgro's promise to veto budget challenged by Waterville officials, councilors". Morning Sentinel.
  27. Rachel Ohm (May 5, 2018). "Waterville Mayor Nick Isgro questions integrity of recall petition". Morning Sentinel.
  28. Rachel Ohm (May 17, 2018). "Waterville mayor attempts to frame recall election as a tax issue". Central Maine Morning Sentinel.
  29. Rachel Ohm (June 14, 2018). "Waterville mayor asks for apology, reimbursement after surviving recall vote". Morning Sentinel.
  30. "National Republican, Democratic party leaders come to Maine". Central Maine.
  31. "New numbers, old story in 2nd District Congressional race". Central Maine.
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  36. Home. Kennebec Valley Consolidated Schools. Retrieved on September 5, 2018. "Waterville Central Office Office of the Superintendent 25 Messalonskee Avenue Waterville, Maine 04901-5437 [...] Winslow Central Office 20 Dean Street Winslow, Maine 04901-5437"
  37. The Colby Echo
  38. Colby College Museum of Art
  39. Thomas College
  40. Atlantic Music Festival
  41. Waterville Historical Society - Redington Museum
  42. Waterville Opera House
  43. Waterville Main Street