This article needs to be updated. The reason given is: Multiple rule changes have been made since this article was last updated.April 2021)(
|First played||17 May 1890, at St Leonards School in Scotland|
|Team members||12 at a time, 1 goalie and 11 players|
|Equipment||Lacrosse ball, lacrosse stick, goggles, mouthguard|
Women's lacrosse (or girls' lacrosse), sometimes shortened to lax, is a sport with twelve players on the field at a time (including the goalkeeper). Originally played by indigenous peoples of the Americas, the modern women's game was introduced in 1890 at the St Leonard's School in St Andrews, Scotland. The rules of women's lacrosse differ significantly from men's field lacrosse. The two are often considered to be different sports with a common root.
The object of the game is to use a long-handled stick (known as a crosse or lacrosse stick) to catch, cradle, and pass a solid rubber lacrosse ball in an effort to score by hurling the ball into an opponent's goal. Cradling is when a player moves their wrists and arms in a semi-circular motion to keep the ball in the pocket of the stick's head using centripetal force.The head of the lacrosse stick has a mesh or leather net strung into it that allows the player to hold the ball. Defensively, the object is to keep the opposing team from scoring and to dispossess them of the ball through the use of stick checking and body positioning. The rules of women's lacrosse are different from the men's lacrosse game. Equipment required to play is also different from the men's. In the United States, women are only required to wear eyewear or lacrosse goggles and a mouth guard. Internationally, women are only required to wear a mouthguard, and have the option to play without protective goggles. The stick has restrictions too, as it must be a certain length and the pocket must be shallow enough to show the ball above the side when held at eye level.
At the collegiate level in the United States, lacrosse is represented by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), which conducts three NCAA Women's Lacrosse Championships, one for each of its competitive divisions, each spring. Internationally, women's lacrosse has a thirty-one-member governing body called the Federation of International Lacrosse, which sponsors the Women's Lacrosse World Cup once every four years.
Lacrosse is a traditional Native American game, which was first witnessed by Europeans when French Jesuit missionaries in the St. Lawrence Valley witnessed the game in the 1630s.The games were sometimes major events that could last several days. As many as 100 to 1,000 men from opposing villages or tribes would participate. Native American lacrosse describes a broad variety of stick-and-ball games played by them. Geography and tribal customs dictated the extent to which women participated in these early games:
"Lacrosse, as women play it, is an orderly pastime that has little in common with the men's tribal warfare version except the long-handled racket or crosse (stick) that gives the sport its name. It's true that the object in both the men's and women's lacrosse is to send a ball through a goal by means of the racket, but whereas men resort to brute strength the women depend solely on skill." Rosabelle Sinclair
The first modern women's lacrosse game was played in 1890 at the St Leonards School in Scotland, where women's lacrosse had been introduced by Louisa Lumsden. Lumsden brought the game to Scotland after watching a men's lacrosse game between the Canghuwaya (probably Caughnawaga) Indians and the Montreal Lacrosse Club.A British school teacher, Cara Gascoigne, at Sweet Briar College, started club lacrosse at that college in 1914. One of Lumsden's students, Rosabelle Sinclair, established the first women's lacrosse team in the United States at the Bryn Mawr School in Baltimore, Maryland in 1926. The first women's intercollegiate game was held between Sweet Briar College and The College of William and Mary in 1941.
Until the mid-1930s, women's and men's field lacrosse were played under virtually the same rules, with no protective equipment. In the United States, the formation of the U.S. Women's Lacrosse Association led to a change in these rules.
Women's lacrosse is played with a team of 12 players, including the goalkeeper during usual play. The ball used is typically yellow, unless both teams agree to use a different colored ball. It is usually yellow because it makes it easier for people to see the ball in the air and in another player's stick. The duration of the game is 60 minutes, (50 under NFHS/US Lacrosse rules) with two halves. Halftime is ten minutes unless both the coaches agree on less than ten minutes prior to the start of the game. Each team is allowed two 90-second team time-outs per game (two 2-minute timeouts in the USA). In the US, a time-out may be requested by the head coach or any player on the field after a goal is scored or any time the requestor's team is in clear possession of the ball. With the addition of free-movement to both US Lacrosse and NCAA rule sets, players are no longer required to drop their sticks in place during a timeout.
Before a game can begin, every stick that each player is planning on using the game must be approved by the referee based on a set of standards created by the U.S. Lacrosse and NCAA.These standards are constantly changing as new sticks are being created by different lacrosse companies. Often a standard lacrosse ball is placed into the head of the stick and viewed by the referee at his/her eye level. If the ball cannot be seen over the top of either side of the head, then the pocket is most likely too deep for play. A pocket that is deeper than regulation causes an unfair advantage to that individual with the stick. If the stick pocket is too deep, this can often be fixed by tightening the stringing. If a stick is strung incorrectly by the manufacturer, the stick cannot be used in the game. An example of stick stringing regulation is that the shooting string attachment must be 3.5 inches from the top of the head. After someone scores a goal, the referee has the right to ask to check her stick. If the stick's pocket is to deep or the stick does not follow the standards now for some reason, the goal will be called back. Also, on a winning shot the other team is allowed to challenge the player's stick.
The rules of women's lacrosse differ significantly from men's lacrosse. The details that follow are the USA college rules. International women's lacrosse rules are slightly different.
The women's lacrosse game saw numerous rule changes in 2000.Modifications included limiting the number of players allowed between the two restraining lines on the draw to five players per team. Stick modifications have led to offset heads, which allow the women's game to move faster and makes stick moves and tricks easier. The stick is now more similar to the men's stick, with a deeper pocket and more rounded head. In 2002, goggles became mandatory equipment in the United States (but not a requirement in international rules). In 2006, hard boundaries were adopted. Prior to hard boundaries, umpires stopped play when the action moved too far away. Passes that were thrown out of bounds would be awarded to the team closest to the ball. After this rule change, balls lost out of bounds became turnovers, except on a shot. There are calls, such as shooting space which is when a defender runs directly up to the player about to shoot. To avoid this call, the defender must run up at an angle to the player about to shoot. This rule is to keep the players safe.
In 2013 women's NCAA lacrosse included a changed rule on defending. When their team does not possess the ball, players in their defending end of the field may run through any portion of the goal circle (8 meter circle around the goal) for as long as three seconds. Only the defensive player who is directly marking the ball carrier within a stick's length may remain in the goal circle while defending.Players that are on attack are allowed to run through the goal circle, but only in collegiate games; high school players are not allowed through the goal circle.
In 2015, for the 2016 season, there were a few other major rule changes. Players are now allowed to kick the ball in order to get it out of traffic. In the past, kicking the ball would result in a change of possession. Also, players are now allowed to self-start after an opposing player commits a minor foul against them. Before moving forward, one must stand still in an athletic stance before self-starting to let the referee know the player is ready to continue with game play.
In 2016, for the 2017 season, Division I implemented a 90-second possession shot clock, which was added to Divisions II and III in the following year.
In the summer of 2017, the NCAA added more major changes. Prior to the newest addition, all players needed to stop play upon whistle of the referee. Play was resumed upon another whistle or continuation by self-start. Now, free movement has been implemented, meaning upon the whistle for a foul, play does not stop unless for halftime or the end of the game–this is similar to soccer. Also, the defense is now allowed to run through the crease of the lacrosse goal. For the draw now only 3 players, instead of 5 players, will be allowed into the midfield area until possession has been established. Lastly, you have to move out of the eight diagonally after a penalty has been called.
Traditionally, women played with three attackers (starting with the position closest to the net that a team is shooting at, the attack positions are called "first home", "second home", and "third home"), five midfielders (a "right attack wing", a "left attack wing", a "right defensive wing", a "left defensive wing", and a "center"), three defenders (starting from the position closest to the net a team is defending, these positions are called "point", "cover point", and "third man"), and one goalie.The positions used to be pinned on the players, and the players used to be required to be marked on defense by their opposite number (third man or "3M" covering the opposing third home "3H").
Today, under North American rules, seven players play attack at one time and seven defenders are present.Generally, a team has four attackers, four close defenders, and three midfielders. There is a restraining line that keeps the four defensive players (plus the goalie) from going into the attack, or four attackers from going into the defensive zone. If those players cross the line and participate in the play, they are considered offside and a major foul is called.
Women's lacrosse rules are specifically designed to limit physical contact between players. As a result of the lack of contact, the only protective equipment required are a mouth guard and face guard/goggles. Although headgear is not required (except for the U.S. state of Florida, where it is mandatory for girls lacrosse players), it is considered for lacrosse players due to the risk of head injury. In 2017 Brown University purchased headgear for its team and was the first NCAA program to make helmets available to the whole team.
Players must wear eye protection according to U.S. Lacrosse rules. All field players must properly wear eye protection that meets ASTM specification standard F803 for women's adult/ youth lacrosse for the appropriate level of play.All players must wear a professionally manufactured intra-oral mouthpiece that fully covers the teeth. The mouthguard must include portions protecting and separating the biting surfaces and protecting the teeth and supporting structures and has to cover the posterior teeth with adequate thickness. Most referees do not allow mouth guards to be white or clear colored as it is too difficult for them to distinguish between the mouth guard and the player's teeth. Mouth pieces must be worn at all times and cannot be taken out in the middle of play. No protruding tabs are allowed for field players.
In addition, players may choose to wear gloves, and jewelry is not allowed to be worn. Although the rules specify these types of protection, injuries still occur from accidental checks to the head and the overall nature of the sport.
Players must wear composition or rubber soled shoes. No spikes are allowed. Plastic, leather, or rubber cleats-studs may be worn. Shoes and socks are not required to be identical for team members.
The pockets of women's sticks are shallower than those of the men, making the ball more difficult to catch and to shoot at high speed. The pockets also make it harder to cradle without dropping the ball. The crosse of a women's stick may be 35.5 inches and no longer than 43.25 according to the NCAA girls lacrosse committee.
The crosse (lacrosse stick) is divided into two parts, the shaft and the head. The shaft can be made of a variety of materials such as wood, aluminum and composite materials depending on what position the player prefers. Women's lacrosse rules mandate that only composite and aluminum shafts can be used, due to accidental checks and hitting that can happen during the duration of the games. The top of the stick is where the head joins the shaft to make the whole stick. The head is made of compact plastic where the mesh, sidewall and pocket form.
There are different mesh types made from materials which affect the shot accuracy and handling of the ball. The sidewall is the siding of the head that affects the depth of the pocket and stiffness the feel when handling the ball. More stiff sidewalls and heads are better to use for defense players who want to check harder. More flexible sidewalls are better use of picking up groundballs, movement and face-offs. The pocket is made from mesh, and with these different meshes they can have different capabilities; a wide pocket allows and easier time catching balls, but will also cause less ball control, while a smaller head will allow the user a more hard time catching the ball but lends greater accuracy.The pocket of the lacrosse stick can often be easily adjusted to ensure the depth of the pocket is legal and meets the players preference before the start of a game.
The lacrosse ball is made of solid rubber and can be yellow, orange, blue or green. All lacrosse balls must meet NOCSAE (National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment) standards.
The size of the playing field depends on the players' age group. For U15 and U13 players, they must play on a regulation sized field with all appropriate markings. For U11, they must play on a regulation sized field with all appropriate markings whenever possible. Otherwise, they may play on a modified field with reduced players. For U9 players the fields must be rectangular, between 60–70 yards in length and 30–40 yards in width to accommodate play on existing fields.
There are two different areas around the goal on both sides of the field; the 8-meter arc and the 12-meter fan. When committing a major foul inside either of these areas, the offense regains the ball and has a direct opportunity to shoot at the goal. If outside the 8-meter arc, but inside the fan, a "lane" to goal is cleared of all other players and the person who committed the foul is relocated 4 meters behind the offender. If inside the 8-meter-arc and a defensive foul occurs, all players that were previously inside the penalty area (defined as the area inside the 8 meter arc, the two pie shaped areas on either side of the arc, and the space within and between the restart dots that are behind the goal). must move to a location outside of the penalty area. The player who was fouled, now moves to the nearest hash mark that is located around the edges of the arc and has a direct lane to goal. The defender who committed the foul is relocated on the 12-meter fan directly behind the shooter. If a player fouled another player not in the arc, the victim receives the ball and the player who fouled must back away at least 4 meters. All other players standing closer than 4 meters to the ball holder must also back away to give the player room to move with the ball.
The shooting space rule in women's lacrosse is very important in keeping the players safe. It occurs when a defender moves into the offender's shooting lane to goal, while not marking an opponent at an angle that makes the defender at risk of being hit by the ball if the offender were to shoot.
Should a tie remain after regulation, the teams will then play 3-minute golden goal periods until one team scores, which wins the game.
The "draw" is what starts the game and keeps the game going after a goal is scored. The draw is when two players, one from each team, stand in the center circle with the backs of their sticks facing each other. Then the referee places the ball between the two sticks. Each player has to push their sticks together parallel to the ground to contain the ball. There are allowed two players to stand along the circle surrounding the center circle during the draw. The players’ sticks around the circle cannot break the line until the whistle is blown. The centers must lift and pull their sticks over their heads releasing the ball. If one player taking the draw moves or lifts their stick before the other player, it is penalized as an illegal draw.
When the referee blows the whistle during play, everyone must stop exactly where they are. If the ball goes out of bounds on a shot, then the player closest to the ball receives the possession. If the ball goes out of bounds not on a shot then the other team is awarded with the possession. For example, if a player threw a bad pass to her teammate and the ball went out of bounds then the other team would receive the ball. If the ball goes out of bounds on a shot, it is common for the player to reach out her stick in an attempt to be ruled closest to the ball and gain possession.
Protecting one's stick from being checked is a very important key in the game of women's lacrosse.In order to protect the stick from being checked, the player must cradle the ball. If the player has a strong "cradle", it would make it much more difficult to recover the ball for the opposing team. "Cradling" is the back and forth movement and twisting of the head of the stick, which keeps the ball in the pocket with centripetal force.
Allowable checking is based on what age level of the game is being played. Rules for U15 and above allow lacrosse players full checking above the head. However, this requires that at least one of the two umpires have a USL Local Rating so that they can judge the appropriate amount of contact. In most cases, a check into the head area is a mandatory yellow card. If a sufficiently experienced umpire is not available, then U13 checking rules must be used where modified checking only below the shoulder is allowed. In U11 and U9 no checking is allowed. US Lacrosse rules recommend that Middle School/Junior High players play with U13 checking rules.
In women's lacrosse, players may only check if the check is directed away from the ball carrier's head.Also, players may only check using the side of their stick. If caught by one of the referees using the flat of the head, it will be called as a "held check" and the opposing team will get the ball.
There are two types of fouls in women's lacrosse, major and minor.When a minor foul is committed anywhere on the field, the player who committed the foul is set four meters to whichever side she was last guarding the person she obstructed. If a major foul occurs outside of the twelve meter fan or eight meter arc, the fouler must stand four meters behind the player she fouled.
Penalties for women's lacrosse are assessed with the following cards:
Penalties assessed include:
Beginning in 1972, the sport was governed internationally by the International Federation of Women's Lacrosse Associations (IFWLA). The formation of the IFWLA actually predated that of the corresponding body for men's lacrosse, the International Lacrosse Federation (ILF), by two years.
In August 2008, after negotiations lasting four years, the IFWLA and ILF agreed to merge into a single governing body, the Federation of International Lacrosse (FIL). All tournaments operated by the IFWLA have been taken over by the FIL.
Every four years, the Women's Lacrosse World Cup is held. It was organized by the IFWLA before its merger with the IFL, and is now organized by the FIL. In Oshawa, Canada, in 2013, the United States defeated Canada in the final. The most recent edition was held in Surrey, England in 2017.
Women's Professional Lacrosse League Four team league started in 2018.
United Women's Lacrosse League Four team league founded in 2015.
Field hockey is a widely played team sport of the hockey family. The game can be played on grass, watered turf, artificial turf or synthetic field, as well as an indoor boarded surface. Each team plays with ten field players and a goalkeeper. Players use sticks made of wood, carbon fibre, fibreglass, or a combination of carbon fibre and fibreglass in different quantities, to hit a round, hard, plastic hockey ball. The length of the hockey stick is based on the player's individual height: the top of the stick usually comes to the players hip, and taller players typically have longer sticks. The sticks have a round side and a flat side, and only the flat face of the stick is allowed to be used. Use of the other side results in a foul. Goalies often have a different design of stick, although they can also use an ordinary field hockey stick. The specific goal-keeping sticks have another curve at the end of the stick, which is to give it more surface area to block the ball. The uniform consists of shin guards, shoes, shorts or a skirt, a mouthguard and a jersey.
Floorball is a type of floor hockey with five players and a goalkeeper in each team. Men and women play indoors with 96–115.5 cm-long (37.8–45.5 in) sticks and a 70–72 mm-circumference (2.76–2.83 in) plastic ball with holes. Matches are played in three twenty-minute periods. Floorball was included in the World Games for the first time in 2017 in Wrocław, Poland. Sweden were the first World Games gold medal winners.
Lacrosse is a team sport played with a lacrosse stick and a lacrosse ball. It is the oldest organized sport in North America, with its origins in a tribal game played by the indigenous peoples of the Eastern Woodlands and by various other indigenous peoples of North America. The game was extensively modified reducing the violence by European colonizers to create its current collegiate and professional form.
In many team sports which involve scoring goals, the goalkeeper is a designated player charged with directly preventing the opposing team from scoring by blocking or intercepting opposing shots on goal that kicks the ball from the other player.
"Power play" is a sporting term used to describe a period of play where one team has a numerical advantage in players usually due to a rule violation by the opposing team.
Box lacrosse, also known as boxla, box, or indoor lacrosse, is an indoor version of lacrosse played mostly in North America. The game originated in Canada in the 1930s, where it is more popular than field lacrosse and is the national summer sport. Box lacrosse is played between two teams of five players and one goalie each, and is traditionally played on an ice hockey rink once the ice has been removed or covered. The playing area is called a box, in contrast to the open playing field of field lacrosse. The object of the game is to use a lacrosse stick to catch, carry, and pass the ball in an effort to score by shooting a solid rubber lacrosse ball into the opponent's goal. The highest level of box lacrosse is the National Lacrosse League.
A face-off is the method used to begin and restart play after goals in some sports using sticks, primarily ice hockey, bandy and lacrosse. The two teams line up in opposition to each other, and the opposing players attempt to gain control of the puck or ball after it is dropped or otherwise placed between their sticks by an official.
Field lacrosse is a full contact outdoor men's sport played with ten players on each team. The sport originated among Native Americans, and the modern rules of field lacrosse were initially codified by Canadian William George Beers in 1867. Field lacrosse is one of three major versions of lacrosse played internationally. The rules of men's lacrosse differ significantly from women's field lacrosse. The two are often considered to be different sports with a common root. Another version, box lacrosse is also played under different rules.
Polocrosse is a team sport that is a combination of polo and lacrosse. It is played outside, on a field, on horseback. Each rider uses a cane or fibreglass stick to which is attached a racquet head with a loose, thread net, in which the ball is carried. The ball is made of sponge rubber and is approximately four inches across. The objective is to score goals by throwing the ball between the opposing team's goal posts.
The rules of basketball are the rules and regulations that govern the play, officiating, equipment and procedures of basketball. While many of the basic rules are uniform throughout the world, variations do exist. Most leagues or governing bodies in North America, the most important of which are the National Basketball Association and NCAA, formulate their own rules. In addition, the Technical Commission of the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) determines rules for international play; most leagues outside North America use the complete FIBA ruleset.
Lacrosse has its origins in a tribal game played by eastern Woodlands Native Americans and by some Plains Indians tribes in what is now the United States of America and Canada. The game was extensively modified by European colonizers to North America to create its current collegiate and professional form. There were hundreds of native men playing a ball game with sticks. The game began with the ball being tossed into the air and the two sides rushing to catch it. Because of the large number of players involved, these games generally tended to involve a huge mob of players swarming the ball and slowly moving across the field. Passing the ball was thought of as a trick, and it was seen as cowardly to dodge an opponent. Years later lacrosse is still a popular sport played all over the world.
In sports, an ejection is the removal of a participant from a contest due to a violation of the sport's rules. The exact violations that lead to an ejection vary depending upon the sport, but common causes for ejection include unsportsmanlike conduct, violent acts against another participant that are beyond the sport's generally accepted standards for such acts, abuse against officials, violations of the sport's rules that the contest official deems to be egregious, or the use of an illegal substance to better a player's game. Most sports have provisions that allow players to be ejected, and many allow for the ejection of coaches, managers, or other non-playing personnel.
Intercrosse is a non-contact form of lacrosse using modified lacrosse equipment. An intercrosse stick is different from a normal lacrosse stick: the head is completely plastic while the head of a traditional stick has a pocket of synthetic mesh or leather and nylon string. The ball is larger, softer, and hollow, unlike a lacrosse ball, which is solid rubber.
A lacrosse stick or crosse is used to play the sport of lacrosse. Players use the lacrosse stick to handle the ball and to strike or "check" opposing players' sticks, causing them to drop the ball. The head of a lacrosse stick is roughly triangular in shape and is strung with loose netting that allows the ball to be caught, carried, passed, or shot.
The following terms are used in water polo. Rules below reflect the latest FINA Water Polo Rules.
In field lacrosse, the goaltender is the last line of defense between the opposing offense and the goal. The goaltender's primary roles are to defend the opposing team's shots on goal and to direct the defense.
Indigenous North American stickball is considered to be one of the oldest team sports in North America. Stickball and lacrosse are similar to one another, the game of lacrosse is a tradition belonging to tribes of the Northern United States and Canada; stickball, on the other hand, continues in Oklahoma and parts of the Southeastern U.S. where the game originated. Although the first recorded writing on the topic of stickball was not until the mid-17th century, there is evidence that the game had been developed and played hundreds of years before that.
The goaltender or goalie is a playing position in indoor or box lacrosse. More heavily armoured than a field lacrosse goaltender, since the invent of indoor lacrosse in 1931, the box lacrosse goalie has evolved into a much different position than its field lacrosse cousin.
The rules of water polo are the rules and regulations which cover the play, procedure, equipment and officiating of water polo. These rules are similar throughout the world, although slight variations do occur regionally and depending on the governing body. Governing bodies of water polo include FINA, the international governing organization for the rules; the NCAA, which govern the rules for collegiate matches in the United States; the NFHS, which govern the rules in high schools in the USA; and the IOC, which govern the rules at Olympic events.
The sport of lacrosse has been played in the United States by Native Americans long before European exploration. The sport is most popular in the north-east and mid-Atlantic areas of the country. However, the game has recently developed into a popular team sport for both men and women in all regions of the United States.