Has local YouTube versionAccessible Currently blockedPreviously blocked
Video-sharing platform YouTube is the second-most popular website as of August 2019, according to Alexa Internet.According to the company's press page, YouTube has more than one billion users, and each day, those users watch more than one billion hours of video. Censorship of it has occurred and continues to occur in some countries throughout the world.
YouTube blocking occurs for a variety of reasons including:
In some countries YouTube is completely blocked, either through a long-term standing ban or for more limited periods of time such as during periods of unrest, the run-up to an election, or in response to upcoming political anniversaries. In other countries, access to the website as a whole remains open, but access to specific videos is blocked. In both cases, a VPN is usually deployed to bypass geographical restrictions. In cases where the entire site is banned due to one particular video, YouTube will often agree to remove or limit access to that video in order to restore service.
As of September 2012, countries with standing national bans on YouTube include China, Iran, Syria, and Turkmenistan. Due to disputes between GEMA and YouTube over royalties, many videos featuring copyrighted songs were inaccessible in Germany. After an agreement was made between the companies in November 2016, these videos became accessible.
YouTube's Terms of Service prohibit the posting of videos which violate copyrights or depict pornography, illegal acts, gratuitous violence, or hate speech. User-posted videos that violate such terms may be removed and replaced with a message stating: "This video is no longer available because its content violated YouTube's Terms of Service". [ non-primary source needed ] Additionally, Google reserves the right to terminate your account for any reason, with or without notice.
YouTube offers an opt-in feature known as "Restricted Mode", which filters videos that might contain mature content.
On September 12, 2012, YouTube was blocked in Afghanistan due to hosting the trailer to the controversial film about Muhammad, Innocence of Muslims , which the authorities considered to be blasphemous.YouTube was later unblocked in Afghanistan on December 1, 2012.
Following the disputed February 2008 presidential elections, the Armenian government blocked Internet users' access to YouTube for a month. The Armenian opposition had used the website to publicize video of alleged police brutality against anti-government protesters.
In March 2009, YouTube was blocked in Bangladesh after a recording of an alleged meeting between the prime minister and army officers was posted revealing anger by the military on how the government was handling a mutiny by border guards in Dhaka.The block was lifted on March 21.
On September 17, 2012, YouTube was banned for the second time following the controversies regarding the promotional videos for Innocence of Muslims.On June 5, 2013, the Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission lifted the ban.
In January 2007, YouTube was sued by Brazilian model and MTV VJ Daniella Cicarelli (the ex-fiancee of football player Ronaldo) and her boyfriend due to the fact that the website hosted a video recorded paparazzi in which she and her boyfriend were having sexual intercourse on a Spanish beach; the video did not contain explicit content. The lawsuit asked that YouTube be blocked in Brazil until all copies of the video were removed. On Saturday, January 6, 2007, a legal injunction ordered that filters be put in place to prevent users in Brazil from accessing the website.
The effectiveness of the measure was questioned, since the video was available not only on YouTube, but also on other sites as part of an Internet phenomenon. On Tuesday, January 9, 2007, the same court overturned its previous decision, allowing the filters to be removed. The video footage itself remained banned and was to be removed from the website.
In June 2007, a judge ordered Cicarelli and her boyfriend to pay all court and lawyer costs, as well as R$10,000 (roughly US$3,203) to the three defendants—YouTube, Globo, and iG, citing a lack of good faith in pushing the privacy case when their actions took place in public.
On November 30, 2017, most YouTube videos containing music seemed to be blocked by Finnish nonprofit performance rights organization Teosto in Finland. According to them, Google blocked the videos because they did not have an agreement to show music videos in Finland. According to Teosto, they and Google have made a temporary agreement to show the videos in the morning of November 30. The music videos started to return to YouTube in Finland later that day.
The blocking of YouTube videos in Germany on copyright grounds was part of a dispute between YouTube and the Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs- und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte (Society for Musical Performing and Mechanical Reproduction Rights – GEMA), a performance rights organization in Germany.
According to a German court in Hamburg, Google's subsidiary YouTube can be held liable for damages when it hosts copyrighted videos without the copyright holder's permission.As a result, music videos for major label artists on YouTube, as well as many videos containing background music, have been unavailable in Germany since the end of March 2009 after the previous agreement had expired and negotiations for a new license agreement were stopped. On October 31, 2016, YouTube and GEMA reached an agreement over royalties, ending a seven-year-long battle of blocking music videos in Germany.
On November 23, 2016,the German Kommission für Zulassung und Aufsicht (Commission for Authorization and Supervision), which is formed by representatives of German public broadcast stations, required PietSmiet & Co., a German let's-player operating his own YouTube channel to get a German broadcast license by April 30, 2017, or else be regarded as an illegal pirate radio broadcaster for livestreaming, even when no radio spectrum use is included. Some YouTubers, even non profit, might fail at the expensive fee for applying a license. On April 30, 2017, the livestreaming channel PietSmietTV went offline. The channel PietSmiet remained online due not providing 24/7 streaming. The channel was mentioned in a requirement of a license.
The Article 17 of the Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market is feared and criticized as censorship, mandatory for all countries of the European Union within two years if adopted.
On April 1, 2008, Indonesian information minister Muhammad Nuh asked YouTube to remove Fitna , a controversial film made by Dutch right-wing politician Geert Wilders. The government allowed two days for the removal of the video or YouTube would be blocked in the country. [ citation needed ]On April 4, following YouTube's failure to remove the video, Nuh asked all Internet service providers to block access to YouTube. On April 5, YouTube was briefly blocked for testing by one ISP. On April 8, YouTube, along with MySpace, Metacafe, RapidShare, Multiply, LiveLeak, and Fitna's official site, was blocked in Indonesia on all ISPs. The blocking of YouTube was subsequently lifted on April 10. There may still have been some blocking in May 2008 according to local inhabitants.
On January 24, 2010, Libya permanently blocked YouTube after it featured videos of demonstrations in the Libyan city of Benghazi by families of detainees who were killed in Abu Salim prison in 1996, as well as videos of family members of Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi at parties. The ban was condemned by Human Rights Watch.In November 2011, after the Libyan Civil War, YouTube was once again allowed in Libya, but did not launch a local version of the site until early 2015.
In May 2013, videos critical of the Malaysian government were blocked from YouTube in Malaysia despite the government's promises not to censor the internet. Analysis of the network traffic shows that the ISPs were scanning the headers of the users and actively blocking requests to the YouTube video according to the video key.
On May 25, 2007, the state-owned Maroc Telecom ISP blocked all access to YouTube.Officially, no reasons were given as to why YouTube was blocked, but speculations were that it may have been due to videos posted by the pro-separatist Polisario, Western Sahara's independence movement, or due to videos criticizing King Mohammed VI. The ban did not affect the other two ISPs in the country, Inwi and Orange S.A.. The blocking of YouTube on Maroc Telecom was lifted May 30, 2007, after Maroc Telecom unofficially announced that the denied access to the website was a mere "technical glitch".
In February 2008, the Pakistani Telecommunications Authority (PTA) blocked access to YouTube on Pakistani ISPs, allegedly because of "blasphemous" videos of conservative Dutch politician Geert Wilders. However, the PTA's block inadvertently knocked out access to YouTube worldwide for two hours on February 25, 2008.Pakistan Telecom had broadcast to other ISPs in the Pacific Rim the false claim that it was the correct route for the addresses in YouTube's IP space. It was suggested by some Pakistani websites, blogs, and by electoral process watchdog groups at the time that the block was imposed largely to distract viewers from videos alleging vote-rigging by the ruling MQM party in the February 2008 general elections. Allegations of suppressing vote-rigging videos by the Musharraf administration were also leveled by Pakistani bloggers, newspapers, media, and Pakistani anti-Musharraf opposition parties. YouTube was unblocked on February 27, 2008 after the allegedly blasphemous videos were removed.
On May 20, 2010, which was Everybody Draw Mohammed Day, Pakistan again blocked the website in a bid to contain "blasphemous" material.The ban was lifted on May 27, 2010, after the website removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government. However, individual videos deemed offensive to Muslims that are posted on YouTube will continue to be blocked.
On September 17, 2012, the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) ordered access to YouTube blocked, after the website failed to remove the trailer of the controversial Innocence of Muslims , and eventually resulting in a ban due to YouTube's noncompliance.
Bytes for All, a Pakistani non-profit organization, filed a constitutional challenge to the ban through their counsel Yasser Latif Hamdani in the Lahore High Court. This is an ongoing case and is commonly known as the YouTube case.
On December 11, 2013, it was announced by the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority that they had convinced Google's management to offer a local "https://www.youtube.com.pk" version to Pakistan, as it would be easy for the local authorities to remove "objectionable" material from a local version as compared to the global version of YouTube. However, it would only be offered after the Pakistani government fulfilled some of the undisclosed requirements.
During the ban a video was released called "Kholo BC" by rappers Adil Omar and Ali Gul Pir opposing the ban.The video went viral and thousands of people supported that the ban is due to political interest.
On April 21, 2014, Pakistan's Senate Standing Committee on Human Rights approved a resolution to lift the ban on YouTube.
On May 6, 2014, the National Assembly unanimously adopted a non-binding resolution to lift the ban, [ needs update ] The ban was lifted due to a technical glitch on December 6, 2015, according to ISPs in Pakistan.but as of August 2, 2014 it was still in effect.
As of January 18, 2016, the ban has been officially lifted, as YouTube has launched a local version of the site for Pakistan.
On November 25, 2017, the NetBlocks internet measurement platform and Digital Rights Foundation collected evidence of nation-wide blocking of YouTube alongside other social media services, imposed by the government in response to the violent Tehreek-e-Labaik protests.The technical investigation found that many, but not all, major Pakistani fixed-line and mobile service providers implemented the YouTube restriction which was lifted by the PTA the following day when protests abated after the resignation of Minister for Law and Justice Zahid Hamid.
The video claiming responsibility for the 2010 Moscow Metro bombings, which quickly gained 800,000 views in four days, was removed, along with all videos of Doku Umarov. Additionally, it turned out that over 300 videos from the Kavkaz Center were removed for having "inappropriate content." Russia was blamed for having pressured YouTube to take such measures.
On July 28, 2010, a court in the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur ordered a local ISP to block access to youtube.com, web.archive.org, and several other websites offering books for downloads, citing extremist materials as the reason. [ citation needed ]The order was not enforced and was later reversed. YouTube is now available in Russia.
On September 4, 2017, Roskomnadzor announced their intention to delete a video released by a popular YouTube channel Nemagia in which bloggers Alexey Pskovitin and Mikhail Pecherskiy described unscrupulous business strategies by Tinkoff Bank.
In February 2019 as a result of a complaint received by Roskomnadzor, YouTube has demanded that the Ukrainian Centre for Journalist Investigations remove a video about Emir-Usein Kuku, a Crimean Tatar human rights defender who has been arrested by Russian authorities in 2016.
In 2006, Thailand blocked access to YouTube for users with Thai IP addresses. Thai authorities identified 20 offensive videos and demanded that Google remove them before it would allow unblocking of all YouTube content.
During the week of March 8, 2007, YouTube was blocked in Thailand.Although no official explanation was given for the ban, many bloggers believed the reason for the blocking was a video of former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra's speech on CNN. YouTube was unblocked on March 10, 2007.
On the night of April 3, 2007, YouTube was again blocked in Thailand.The government cited a video on the site that it called "insulting" to King Bhumibol Adulyadej. However, the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology said that it would unblock YouTube in a few days, after websites containing references to this video are blocked as opposed to the entire website. Communications Minister Sitthichai Pokai-udom said, "When they decide to withdraw the clip, we will withdraw the ban." Shortly after this incident the Internet technology blog Mashable was blocked from Thailand over the reporting of the YouTube clips in question. YouTube was unblocked on August 30, 2007, after YouTube reportedly agreed to block videos deemed offensive by Thai authorities.
On September 21, 2007, Thai authorities announced they were seeking a court order to block videos that had appeared on YouTube accusing Privy Council president Prem Tinsulanonda of attempting to manipulate the royal succession to make himself Thailand's king.
YouTube was blocked in Tunisia for several years before the 2011 Tunisian Revolution.
Turkish courts have ordered blocks on access to the YouTube website.This first occurred when Türk Telekom blocked the site in compliance with decision 2007/384 issued by the Istanbul 1st Criminal Court of Peace (Sulh Ceza Mahkeme) on March 6, 2007. The court decision was based on videos insulting Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in an escalation of what the Turkish media referred to as a "virtual war" of insults between Greek, Armenian, and Turkish YouTube members. YouTube was sued for "insulting Turkishness" and access to the site was suspended pending the removal of the video. YouTube lawyers sent proof of the video's removal to the Istanbul public prosecutor and access was restored on March 9, 2007. However, other videos similarly deemed insulting were repeatedly posted, and several staggered bans followed, issued by different courts:
The block in accordance with court decision 2008/468 of the Ankara 11th Criminal Court of Peace issued on April 24, 2008, which cited that YouTube had not acquired a certificate of authorization in Turkey, was not implemented by Türk Telekom until May 5, 2008.
Although YouTube was officially banned in Turkey, the website was still accessible by modifying connection parameters to use alternative DNS servers, and it was the eighth most popular website in Turkey according to Alexa records.Responding to criticisms of the courts' bans, in November 2008 the Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan stated "I do access the site. Go ahead and do the same."
In June 2010, Turkey's president Abdullah Gül used his Twitter account to express disapproval of the country's blocking of YouTube, which also affected access from Turkey to many Google services. Gül said he had instructed officials to find legal ways of allowing access.
Turkey lifted the ban on October 30, 2010.In November 2010, a video of the Turkish politician Deniz Baykal caused the site to be blocked again briefly, and the site was threatened with a new shutdown if it did not remove the video.
On March 27, 2014, Turkey banned YouTube again. This time, they did so mere hours after a video was posted there claiming to depict Turkey's foreign minister, spy chief, and a top general discussing scenarios that could lead to their country's military attacking jihadist militants in Syria.The ban was ordered to be lifted by a series of court rulings, starting April 9, 2014, but Turkey defied the court orders and kept access to YouTube blocked. On May 29 the Constitutional Court of Turkey ruled that the block violated the constitutional right to freedom of expression and ordered that YouTube access be restored.
As of the morning of June 1, 2014, access to YouTube remained blocked in Turkey. [ citation needed ].But during the day, access appeared to have been restored
On April 6, 2015, YouTube was again briefly blocked, alongside Facebook and Twitter, due to the widespread posting of footage of a prosecutor killed during a hostage crisis.
On December 23, 2016, YouTube again became briefly inaccessible in Turkey according to reports validated by internet monitoring group Turkey Blocks after footage that allegedly showed the immolation of Turkish soldiers by jihadists was shared on the site. [ citation needed ].The site is now accessible again as of December 25
The UAE's Telecom Regulatory Authority (TRA) briefly blocked YouTube from August 2006 to October 2006 due to increasing concerns regarding the presence of adult content in the website. According to the TRA, the block was done due to YouTube not categorizing and separating adult pornographic content from normal content.The ban was lifted in October 2006.
YouTube access in Uzbekistan has been heavily censored for an unknown reason since October 15, 2018.
During the 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis, YouTube has been heavily censored regularly by Venezuela's state-owned internet service provider, CANTV. The blocking of YouTube and social media websites by the Venezuelan government were intended to suppress information relating to Juan Guaidó and the pro-opposition National Assembly. This mainly affects the access of streaming platforms like Periscope, YouTube, Bing, and other Google services.
On January 21, 2019, the day of a Bolivarian National Guard rebellion in the Cotiza neighborhood of Caracas, internet access to some social media websites, including YouTube was reported to be blocked for CANTV users. The Venezuelan government denied it had engaged in blocking.
During the Venezuela Aid Live concert on February 22, access to YouTube was blocked for CANTV users during the concert,alongside with National Geographic and Antena 3 that were removed from cable and satellite TV for broadcasting the concert.
Guaidó speech during the February 23 entry of the humanitarian aid, YouTube was blocked.
The longest block of YouTube to date started during a National Assembly session on March 6, lasting 20 hours.
The YouTube live stream of the press conference of US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and Colombian President Iván Duque Márquez on April 15, 2019 was disrupted for CANTV users.
The YouTube restrictions returned with the return of the protests on November 16.
YouTube was first blocked in China for over five months from October 16, 2007to March 22, 2008.
It was blocked again from March 24, 2009, although a Foreign Ministry spokesperson would neither confirm nor deny whether YouTube had been blocked.Since then, YouTube is not accessible from China. However, YouTube can still be accessed from Hong Kong and Macau. It could also be accessed in the Shanghai Free Trade Zone, and specific hotels. Since 2018, if the term "YouTube" was searched on Baidu, a text "According to local regulations and policies, some results cannot be shown" will be displayed. Even though YouTube is blocked under the Great Firewall, many Chinese media including CCTV have their official YouTube account. In spite of the ban, Alexa ranks YouTube as the 11th most visited website in China.
YouTube has been intermittently blocked in Eritrea since 2011 by some ISPs, although a spokesperson for Freedom House speculated this was due to bandwidth considerations.
Iran temporarily blocked access on December 3, 2006, to YouTube and several other sites, after declaring them as violating social and moral codes of conduct. The YouTube block came after a video was posted online that appeared to show an Iranian soap opera star having sex.The block was later lifted and then reinstated after Iran's 2009 presidential election. In 2012, Iran reblocked access, along with access to Google, after the controversial film Innocence of Muslims trailer was released on YouTube.
After the 2009 presidential election, the block was lifted to warm down the youth in the country,but in 2012, Iran reinstated the block of YouTube after the trailer to the film Innocence of Muslims was released. On January 17, 2016, some users reported that the website was unblocked, although the site was blocked again on January 20, 2016. Iran lifted the ban from Internet used in schools and universities in August 2017 for educational purposes. Some startups, television shows, celebrities, and moderate politicians such as Khatami use this website.
YouTube is blocked in North Korea because of the country's laws regarding the Internet and its accessibility. It has been fully blocked since April 2016, and the North Korean government has warned that anyone who tries to access it is subject to punishment.
The Sudanese authorities blocked YouTube on April 21, 2010, following the 2010 presidential election, and also blocked YouTube's owner Google. The block was in response to a YouTube video appearing to show National Electoral Commission workers in official uniforms and a child in the Hamashkoreib region filling out voting strips and putting them into ballot boxes, with one of them expressing relief that the voting period had been extended for them to finish their work. Sudan had previously blocked YouTube temporarily in 2008 for unknown reasons.
On September 17, 2012, YouTube was banned again by National Telecommunication Corporation for not removing Innocence of Muslims, a controversial anti-Islamic film. However, the block was later lifted.[ citation needed ]
YouTube was blocked in South Sudan because of controversy relating to Innocence of Muslims, a controversial anti-Islamic film.
In July 2012, the Tajik authorities blocked YouTube in response to uploaded videos showing protests against militant clashes. Eight days later, the ban was lifted.[ citation needed ]
In the same year, the Tajik government blocked the website again, this time because of videos depicting the president Emomali Rakhmon which were deemed to be offensive to the government.
In 2013, Tajikistan blocked YouTube for a third time because of a video which depicts President Rakhmon dancing and singing out of tune at his son's wedding party in 2007.
On December 25, 2009, for security reasons, YouTube was blocked in Turkmenistan by the only ISP in the country, Turkmentelecom. Other websites, such as LiveJournal were also blocked.
Internet censorship in Australia is enforced by both the country's criminal law as well as voluntarily enacted by internet service providers. The Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) has the power to enforce content restrictions on Internet content hosted within Australia, and maintain a blacklist of overseas websites which is then provided for use in filtering software. The restrictions focus primarily on child pornography, sexual violence, and other illegal activities, compiled as a result of a consumer complaints process.
Censorship in South Asia can apply to books, movies, the Internet and other media. Censorship occurs on religious, moral and political grounds, which is controversial in itself as the latter especially is seen as contrary to the tenets of democracy, in terms of freedom of speech and the right to freely criticise the government.
YouTube is an American video-sharing platform headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion; YouTube now operates as one of Google's subsidiaries.
Internet censorship in Pakistan is government control of information sent and received using the Internet in Pakistan.
Google and its subsidiary companies, such as YouTube, have removed or omitted information from its services to comply with its company policies, legal demands, and government censorship laws. Google's censorship varies between countries and their regulations, and ranges from advertisements to speeches. Over the years, the search engine's censorship policies and targets have also differed, and have been the source of internet censorship debates.
Internet censorship in India is done by both central and state governments. DNS filtering and educating service users in suggested usages is an active strategy and government policy to regulate and block access to Internet content on a large scale. Also measures for removing content at the request of content creators through court orders have become more common in recent years. Initiating a mass surveillance government project like Golden Shield Project is also an alternative discussed over the years by government bodies.
Censorship in Turkey is regulated by domestic and international legislation, the latter taking precedence over domestic law, according to Article 90 of the Constitution of Turkey.
YouPorn is a free pornographic video sharing website and one of the 100 most accessed websites in the world. Since launching in August 2006, it grew to become the most popular pornographic website on the internet, and, in November 2007, it was reported to be the largest free pornographic website as well. As of February 2013, it was the 83rd most popular website overall and the fifth most popular pornographic website. In the category of pornographic websites, it was surpassed in the rankings by competitor sites xHamster, XVideos, and Pornhub, as well as the adult webcam site LiveJasmin.
Most Internet censorship in Thailand prior to the September 2006 military coup d'état was focused on blocking pornographic websites. The following years have seen a constant stream of sometimes violent protests, regional unrest, emergency decrees, a new cybercrimes law, and an updated Internal Security Act. Year by year Internet censorship has grown, with its focus shifting to lèse majesté, national security, and political issues. By 2010, estimates put the number of websites blocked at over 110,000. In December 2011, a dedicated government operation, the Cyber Security Operation Center, was opened. Between its opening and March 2014, the Center told ISPs to block 22,599 URLs.
Like many developed and developing countries, the Internet in Bangladesh has witnessed significant growth. Although facing many constraints in expanding Internet access and use, development of the Internet and Information Technology are high government priorities. In April, 2019 Internet users in Bangladesh increased to 93.702 million. On 19 February 2018, Bangladesh started the 4G network service.
The Republic of Turkey has been a secular state since the constitutional amendment of 1937. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk introduced the secularization of the state in the Turkish Constitution of 1924, alongside his reforms. Atatürk never forbade the headscarf, but actively discouraged its use in public venues. The headscarf was banned in public institutions because of the 'public clothing regulation' issued after the 1980 coup and began to be implemented in a radical way after the 1997 military memorandum. The ban on the headscarf for public personnel was lifted by the democratization package on 1 October 2013 and with the amendment made in article 5 of the dress code regulation, restrictive provisions were lifted. These were in accordance with the Kemalist ideology, with a strict appliance of laïcité in the constitution. The issue of the headscarf debate has been very intense and controversial since its ban, along with other prominent religious symbols, in public buildings such as government institutions and public schools, similar to policies in France and Mexico. Turkey is a secular country and over 95% of its people are Muslims. It has resulted in a clash between those favouring the secular principles of the state, such as the Turkish Armed Forces, and religious conservatives, including some Islamists.
On 5 December 2008, the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF), a British watchdog group, blacklisted content on the English Wikipedia related to Scorpions' 1976 studio album Virgin Killer, due to the presence of its controversial cover artwork, depicting a young girl posing nude, with a faux glass shatter obscuring her genitalia. The image was deemed to be "potentially illegal content" under English law which forbids the possession or creation of indecent photographs of children. The IWF's blacklist are used in web filtering systems such as Cleanfeed.
Facebook has been replacing traditional media channels since its founding in 2003. Censorship in the media, especially on Facebook is because of a variety of reasons, since Facebook accepts all kinds of content, with little or no moderation, and displays what people post publicly, this practice can sometimes threaten oppressive governments especially in totalitarian regimes while also propelling fake news, hate speech and misinformation thus undermining the credibility of online platforms and social media. Many countries have banned or temporarily limited access to the social networking website Facebook, including China, Iran, Syria and North Korea. Use of the website has also been restricted in various ways in other countries. As of May 2016, the only countries to ban access around the clock to the social networking site are China, Iran, Syria, and North Korea. However, since most North Korean residents have no access to the Internet, China and Iran are the only countries where access to Facebook is actively restricted in a wholesale manner.
Censorship of Wikipedia has occurred in several countries, including China, France, Germany, Iran, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, the United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, and Venezuela. Some instances are examples of widespread internet censorship in general that includes Wikipedia content. Others are indicative of measures to prevent the viewing of specific content deemed offensive. The length of different blocks have varied from days to years. When Wikipedia ran on the HTTP protocol, governments were able to block specific articles. However, in 2011 Wikipedia began running on HTTPS as well, and in 2015 switched over entirely. Since then, the only censorship option has been to block the entire site for a particular language, which has resulted in some countries dropping their bans and others expanding their bans to the entire site. Wikipedia is currently blocked in China.
Censorship of Twitter refers to Internet censorship by governments that block access to Twitter, or censorship by Twitter itself. Twitter censorship also includes governmental notice and take down requests to Twitter, which Twitter enforces in accordance with its Terms of Service when a government or authority submits a valid removal request to Twitter indicating that specific content is illegal in their jurisdiction.
Innocence of Muslims is an anti-Islamic short film that was written and produced by Nakoula Basseley Nakoula. Two versions of the 14-minute video were uploaded to YouTube in July 2012, under the titles The Real Life of Muhammad and Muhammad Movie Trailer. Videos dubbed in Arabic were uploaded during early September 2012. Anti-Islamic content had been added in post-production by dubbing, without the actors' knowledge.
This is a list of countries where at least one internet service provider (ISP) formerly or currently censors the popular file sharing website The Pirate Bay (TPB).
India censors and websites through Court orders as per IT Act 2000. Mostly these bans are instigated under copyright and trademark infringement through film studio scare without proper security measures and lists that they provide without proper research or professional technical services. The current blocks are initiated by ISPs under court order for blocking the illegal sites themselves with warning the site accessed as currently deemed to be illegal. Many of the sites listed may be occasionally or even regularly available, depending on the access or change of current events.
From 29 April 2017 to 15 January 2020, the online encyclopedia Wikipedia was blocked in Turkey. On 29 April 2017, Turkish authorities blocked online access to all its language editions throughout the country. The restrictions were imposed by Turkish Law No. 5651, due to the English version's article on state-sponsored terrorism, where Turkey was described as a sponsor country for ISIS and Al-Qaeda, which Turkish courts viewed as a public manipulation of mass media. Requests by the Turkish Information and Communication Technologies Authority to edit several articles to comply with Turkish law were not acted on.