|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Fire||Tyne and Wear|
Pennywell is one of the UK's largest post-war social housing schemes, and is situated in the central-west area of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, North East England. Pennywell is the largest local authority housing estate in the City of Sunderland. The estate mostly built during the late 1940s and early 1950s to replace 19th century slums in the centre of Sunderland.The name Pennywell is of Celtic origin and is thought to mean "wellspring at the top of the hill".
The Pennywell estate consists of nearly 3,000 homes, around 11% of which are privately owned and has a total population of 10,709This figure is considerably lower than in previous decades, when the Pennywell area housed over 20,000 people.
Pennywell has traditionally been associated with high crime rates since the estate was completed in 1953. Knife crime and anti-social behaviour have been a growing problem since the 1990s.
The estate was the scene of a murder when 22-year-old Kevin Johnson was fatally stabbed outside his house on Patrick Road in the early hours of 19 May 2007.Three teenagers were convicted of the murder six months later and sentenced to life imprisonment. At the trial, it was revealed that after stabbing Kevin Johnson, the three defendants had gone on to attack another man in the area and also damaged two cars. Mr Johnson's family later had two applications for criminal injuries compensation rejected on the basis that he had contributed to his own death by leaving the safety of his home to confront the teenagers about their noisy behaviour. A third application for compensation was successful and the Johnson family received £5,500 from a scheme which could already pay a maximum of £500,000 to claimants.
In April 1994, The Independent newspaper condemned Pennywell as a "no go area" and one of the worst places in Britain, highlighting an unemployment rate as 19% (around twice the national average) and that attacks on police and vandalism of police vehicles were a frequent occurrence in the area.
As a result of these events, the Gentoo Group are undertaking a massive programme of renewal and regeneration for the area which will provide a high standard of modern housing for social housing tenants and homeowners alike. The first phases of this plan, at Waterford Green, are nearing completion.
An industrial area on the western edge of the suburb has, among other businesses Calsonic's injection moulding plant and the Sunderland Echo building.
Pennywell Comprehensive School was built in 1967 and remained open until 2008. It was finally demolished in 2009 and replaced with a new facility on the same site – Academy 360. Pupils attending the comprehensive school were members of one of four houses - Stratford (green), Harwell (blue), Everest (yellow) and Runnymede (red). The school boasted excellent sporting facilities including several full size football/rugby pitches, an all-weather athletics track, a fully equipped sports hall (incorporating five-a-side pitches, basketball/netball courts & cricket nets), fully equipped indoor gymnasium with balance beams/climbing ropes/trampoline harnesses, outdoor cricket pitches, tennis courts and several tarmac yard areas with basketball courts. Classrooms were predominantly located in four five-storey tower blocks (B, C, D & E blocks) and included science laboratories, art studios, home economics kitchens and IT suites. The new school (Academy 360) has three houses, Oxford (blue), Mowbray (green), Doxford (red).
An anti-social behaviour order is a civil order made in Great Britain against a person who had been shown, on the balance of evidence, to have engaged in anti-social behaviour. The orders were introduced by Prime Minister Tony Blair in 1998 and continued in use until repealed in England and Wales by the Anti-Social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014 on 20 October 2014, although they continue to be used in Scotland. ASBOs were replaced in England and Wales by the civil injunctions and the Criminal Behaviour Order. They were designed to address behaviour like intimidation, drunkenness, and violence by individuals and families, using civil orders rather than criminal sanctions. The orders restricted behaviour in some way, such as prohibiting a return to a certain area, or shop, or restricting public behaviour such as swearing or drinking alcohol. Many saw the ASBO as connected with young delinquents.
Chelmsley Wood is a large housing estate and civil parish within the Metropolitan Borough of Solihull, England, with a population of 12,453. It is located near Birmingham Airport and the National Exhibition Centre. It lies about eight miles east of Birmingham City Centre and 5 miles to the north of Solihull town centre.
Ford Estate is a suburb in the south of Sunderland. The suburb is divided into two areas: High Ford borders the estate of Pennywell. Low Ford, to the east, borders the suburb of Pallion. Much like the neighbouring estate of Pennywell, Ford Estate is currently undergoing large levels of urban regeneration with private housing now standing in the place of the homes people were forcibly evicted from.
Broadwater Farm, often referred to simply as "The Farm", is an area in Tottenham, North London, straddling the River Moselle. The eastern half of the area is dominated by the Broadwater Farm Estate ("BWFE"), a Corbusian experiment in high-density social housing, dominated by concrete towers connected by walkways, built in the late 1960s using cheap but fire-vulnerable pre-fabricated concrete panels. The western half of the area is taken up by Lordship Recreation Ground, one of north London's largest parks. Broadwater Farm in 2011 had a population of 4,844. The estate is owned by Haringey London Borough Council.
The Sunderland Echo is a daily newspaper serving the Sunderland, South Tyneside and East Durham areas of North East England. The newspaper was founded by Samuel Storey, Edward Backhouse, Edward Temperley Gourley, Charles Palmer, Richard Ruddock, Thomas Glaholm and Thomas Scott Turnbull in 1873, as the Sunderland Daily Echo and Shipping Gazette. Designed to provide a platform for the Radical views held by Storey and his partners, it was also Sunderland's first local daily paper.
Farringdon is a suburb of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, England. Originally a Monastic grange and manor estate for hundreds of years, Farringdon was rebuilt as a post-war council housing estate in the 1950s. It is approximately 3 mi (4.8 km) south of the city centre along the A690, close to Thorney Close, Silksworth, East Herrington, Gilley Law and Doxford Park. Electorally, the area comes under the St. Chad's ward of the City.
Grindon is a suburb of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, in the United Kingdom.
Townhill Park is a suburb of Southampton, England, bordering Swaythling, Bitterne Park and West End. It is built on land which once belonged to the house which carries the same name.
Muirhouse is a residential estate in the north of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland.
Stonebridge is a locality in the London Borough of Brent that forms the western part of Harlesden in Northwest London, England. The A404 runs through the district known locally as Brentfield and Hillside, while to the south are railway tracks and to the west is the North Circular Road along with Stonebridge Park station. The area is known for the previously troubled 1960s Stonebridge housing estate, which was completely redeveloped in the 2000s.
Thorney Close is a suburb of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear in England.
Thomas Mervyn "Tom" ap Rhys Pryce was a 31-year-old British lawyer who was robbed and murdered by two teenagers as he made his way home in Kensal Green, northwest London, on 12 January 2006. The two, Donnel Carty and Delano Brown, were sentenced to life imprisonment.
Rhys Milford Jones was an English boy who was murdered in Liverpool at the age of 11 when he was shot in the neck. Sean Mercer, aged 16 at the time of the shooting, went on trial on 2 October 2008, and was found guilty of murder on 16 December. Mercer was sentenced to life imprisonment serving a minimum of 22 years.
The history of violence against LGBT people in the United Kingdom is made up of assaults on gay men, lesbians, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersexed individuals (LGBTQI), legal responses to such violence, and hate crime statistics in the United Kingdom. Those targeted by such violence are perceived to violate heteronormative rules and contravene perceived protocols of gender and sexual roles. People who are perceived to be LGBTQI may also be targeted.
The history of violence against LGBT people in the United States is made up of assaults on gay men, lesbians, bisexual, and transgender individuals (LGBT), legal responses to such violence, and hate crime statistics in the United States of America. Those targeted by such violence are believed to violate heteronormative rules and contravene perceived protocols of gender and sexual roles. People who are perceived to be LGBT may also be targeted. Violence can also occur between couples who are of the same sex, statistics showing that violence among same-sex couples is more common than among than couples of the opposite sex.
Academy 360 is a mixed all-through school located in the Pennywell area of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, England.
On 13 August 1994, 15-year-old Richard Everitt was stabbed to death in London in a racially motivated attack. Everitt's neighbourhood, Somers Town, had been the site of ethnic tensions. He was murdered by a gang of British Bangladeshis who were seeking revenge on another White British boy. He was not himself involved in gangs.
South Kilburn is a large housing estate in Kilburn, in the London Borough of Brent. Typical of brutalist 60's designs of public housing in the United Kingdom it is characterised by high-density housing in low-rise flats and 11 concrete tower blocks. It was approved in 1959 and extended in 1963. This scheme was further developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; redevelopment occurred during the 2010s. The population is predominantly Afro-Caribbean.
Winstanley Estate and York Road Estate are large estates of predominantly public housing apartments in Battersea, London, adjacent to Clapham Junction railway station, although some have since passed into private ownership.