Old Durham Road, Deckham
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Fire||Tyne and Wear|
Deckham is a residential suburb in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. It is bordered by Gateshead town centre to the north, Sheriff Hill to the south, Felling and Carr Hill to the east and Shipcote to the west. It lies on the B1296, the route of the old Great North Road, 1 mile (1.6 km) south of Gateshead town centre, 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and 13 miles (21 km) north of the city of Durham. In 2011, Deckham had a population of 9,938.
Deckham's history is sparsely documented but suggests that the settlement was established at the junction of Carr Hill Road and the Old Durham Road in the early 19th century alongside the estate of Deckham Hall, built several centuries earlier and inhabited at one time by Thomas Deckham. The village grew, and at the turn of the 20th century was enveloped by urban spawl when neighbouring Gateshead absorbed its outlying villages and settlements. Deckham is largely distinguished from other areas by a commercial area on Old Durham Road which is the principal route through the suburb. Historically, Deckham was a village in County Durham and was incorporated into the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead by the Local Government Act 1972.
Deckham has steep topography which has shaped the character of the suburb. Residents can enjoy striking views towards Newcastle upon Tyne and across the Team Valley. The settlement is governed locally by a Parliamentary Labour council and elects a Labour MP.
Deckham is an area of social and economic deprivation, in the top ten per cent of such areas according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation. Housing stock is predominantly council housing and is, in many places, outdated and in need of modernisation. Whilst once the site of a coal mine, there is today no major employer in Deckham, which is considered a residential suburb of Gateshead. The main economic activity is in a commercial development on Old Durham Road. Deckham has a number of public houses, one of which, the Plough Inn, is more than 150 years old. The only education provision is at South Street Primary School, which is a good school according to OFSTED. There are two churches, one of which, the Church of St George, is a Grade II listed building, and community facilities are provided by Gateshead Older People's Assembly and the Elgin Centre in Carr Hill.
Unlike Sheriff Hill, Carr Hill and Low Fell, Deckham's history is sparsely recorded. It indicates that, by the middle of the 19th century, there was a small settlementwhich was part of Gateshead Fell; a wild and treacherous area of common land notable for the criminality of the tinkers and hawkers who lived there. Ordnance survey mapping illustrates the sparsity of buildings in 1860; the area contained little except Deckham Hall, a few other dwellings and two public houses at the point where the old turnpike road branched off towards Carr's Hill. The two public houses were the 'Speed the Plough' and 'The Ship'.
The Deckham Hall estate was on the east side of Old Durham Road, 1.25 miles from the Tyne Bridge.It is evidenced in 1614 and belonged to Thomas Deckham, who died the same year and bequeathed it to his granddaughter with "three pounds for the bringing home of water" to the poor people of the area. It changed hands regularly between the families Wooler, James and Bowker, in the centuries after Deckham's death and varied in size whilst doing so. Alderman Benjamin Biggar, Mayor of Gateshead 1861–2, is thought to have lived at Deckham Hall.
By the turn of the 20th century Deckham's rural aspect had changed. Whilst there remained large areas of grass and woodland between Deckham and Gateshead, there was a period of extensive building; several dozen dwellings were erected by 1895 in the Mount Pleasant area as Gateshead expanded southwards.A public house was built at the junction of Taylor Terrace and Split Crow Road. Two years later, a tract of Tyneside flats was built on the west side of the Old Durham Road and many streets in the area, such as Chandos Street, Shipcote Terrace, Raby Street and Northborne Street, are evidenced, along with an unnamed school. By 1919, some rural scenes could still be enjoyed but the fields were "rapidly encroached upon" in the 1920s and 1930s and replaced with more terraced housing at Caris Street, Fullerton Place and Methuen Street and large tracts of council houses. By this time, Deckham Hall was in a state of disrepair and was notable to residents for its resemblance to a haunted house "because of its air of gloom and the strange echoes to be heard on windy nights". The hall was demolished in 1930 and more council houses were erected on the site.
Since the intensive period of house building, little has changed. At the west end of the suburb, the Tyneside flats at Northborne Street and surrounding streets remain in situ and here there is "housing and little else".Much of this housing is in poor condition, some is in "crumbling disrepair" and requires substantial investment. Old Durham Road has developed into the focal point of the neighbourhood and is the sole commercial area, with small, independent shops running along the western end of the road backing onto the streets from Inskip Terrace and Shipcote Terrace. Whilst many retail units are in a state of deterioration, and despite a report describing recent housing development on the east side of Old Durham Road as "poorly handled and unsightly", the area remains "interesting and lively". By contrast, the central and eastern areas of Deckham are affected by a more marked decline. At the western edge there are stone remnants of an old, rural settlement, but the remainder, grouped around Edgeware and Kingston Roads, consists of bland, repetitive social housing arranged on long, curved streets which combine to create an environment which is anonymous, claustrophobic and disorientating. One source describes the environment as one where "eyesores become landmarks (lock–up workshops on Kingston Road), any slight change in materials becomes significant (system–built housing on Kingston Road), and any attempt to do something different becomes a relief (a corner garden on Mayfair Gardens)".
The net result is that, in Deckham today:
There is something of a sense of isolation in parts of Deckham, especially further up the hill as development densities drop, commercial and social facilities disappear and activity levels on the street fall away. Around the Old Durham Road the surviving mix of small shops and meeting places generate some impression of communal spirit, but the poor condition of many properties and the dominance of the public realm by traffic serve to stunt it.
Unlike Sheriff Hill, Deckham was not founded on heavy industry. It developed primarily for its ease of access to the turnpike road, the principle route between Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne which ran through it.There is evidence of coal mining; the Durham Mining Museum has a record for 'Deckham Hall Colliery'. Few records of the colliery survive, and it is difficult to ascertain when it opened, but the colliery was located 1.5 miles south from Newcastle and was in the hands of Hopper, Hughes and Company in 1886. By December 1893 the colliery had been abandoned as being "not workable to a profit".
In common with most suburbs of the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, its economy is dominated by the economies of Newcastle–upon–Tyne and Gateshead town centre.This is reflected in terms of independent commercial space; retail floor space in the suburb totals 1% of that available in the whole metropolitan borough. There are 33 retail units concentrated on Old Durham Road, which provide some employment, though these are at the lower end of the spectrum and provide little choice. There is a good provision of hardware stores, fast–food outlets and hairdressers, a butcher's shop, a greengrocer and a supermarket, but there is no bakery, bank nor building society and the Post Office has closed. The retail units were domestic properties, so many are too small for retail purposes and around 20% are vacant.
Deckham suffers from high levels of unemployment; in 2011 the mean percentage of the population claiming Jobseekers Allowance was 7%. This compares to Gateshead's 5% average over the same period.Youth unemployment is 10%, compared to Gateshead's 9%.
Deckham, at latitude 54.95° N and longitude 1.59 ° W, lies less than 1 mile (1.6 km) south and east of Gateshead town centre between two main transport corridors; Sunderland Road to the east and Old Durham Road to the west. The distance from Deckham to London is 255 miles (410 km). Deckham occupies an elevated position, especially at its north end which sits on a ridge, and some parts are steeply sloped– notably those which border Sheriff Hill to the south.
In the urban expansion of Gateshead, Deckham was enveloped so that its exact boundaries are difficult to define. 1974 Deckham was incorporated into the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead by the Local Government Act 1972. Until its implementation, Deckham was part of County Durham. It is now bordered by settlements which are part of the metropolitan borough. These are Sheriff Hill to the south, Low Fell and Shipcote to the west, Gateshead to the north and Felling and Carr Hill to the east.The estate had boundaries at Split Crow Road, Old Durham Road, Hendon Road and Carr Hill Road but documents indicate that Deckham stretches to Durham Road in the west and the streets adjoining Hendon Road as far north as the Bankies open space at Mount Pleasant. In
Deckham has distinctive, steep topography which "shapes the character" of the suburb.Though the urbanisation of Gateshead has detracted from panoramic views that were once enjoyed by residents, the topography ensures that residents continue to have excellent views towards Newcastle-upon-Tyne and the Team Valley.
|Gateshead Council, Deckham–2012 local elections|
|Candidate name||Political party||Number of votes||% of votes cast|
|Karen Therese Crozier||Liberal Democrats||146||7.3%|
|John Richards||National Front||124||6.2%|
|Norman Hall||Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition||118||5.9%|
Deckham is a council ward in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead. It is approximately 1.5 square kilometres (0.58 sq mi) in area and has a population of 9,228. It is represented by three councillors. In June 2012, they were Brian Coates, Martin Gannon and Bernadette Oliphant.
Deckham is part of the Westminster parliamentary constituency of Gateshead. It was previously in the Gateshead East and Washington West constituency which was abolished by boundary changes before the 2010 UK General Election. April 2005 and was awarded a life peerage into the House of Lords on 13 June 2006 and is now Baroness Quin.For many years the MP was Joyce Quin, who retired on 11
The present MP Ian Mearns, is a member of the Labour party and his office is in Gateshead.He replaced Sharon Hodgson who successfully campaigned in the newly formed constituency of Washington and Sunderland West. In the 2010 UK General Election, Mearns was elected with a majority of 12,549 over Frank Hindle. The swing from Labour to the Liberal Democrats was 3.9%.
Deckham is in a safe Labour seat. Mearns' success in 2010 followed of Sharon Hodgson, who in the 2005 UK General Election polled over 60% of the votes castwhilst in 2001, Joyce Quin was returned with a majority of 53.3%.
|Deckham compared (2001)|
According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, Deckham has a population of 9,228– 51.5% of the population are female, slightly above the national average, whilst 48.5% are male.Only 2% of the population are from a black or other minority ethnic group (BME), as opposed to 9.1% of the national population. Of the BME group, 35% are from the Asian or Asian–British ethnic group. Deckham has a high proportion of lone parent households at some 15% of all households. This is the third highest figure in Gateshead and compares with a borough average of 11.5%. Some 31% of households have dependent children, as opposed to 29.5% nationally and 28.4% in Gateshead. The Index of Multiple Deprivation, which divides England into 32,482 areas and measures quality of life to indicate deprivation, splits Deckham into halves and lists the western half, along with Carr Hill and Sheriff Hill, in the top 10% of all deprived areas in England in 2012. The eastern half is in the top 5% of deprived areas.
In 2011 however, the ethnic minority population increased rapidly. In 2001, 96.8% of Deckham's population were white British, this figure reduced to 92.3% white British in 2011. Also, the population increased massively too, from 7,886 in 2001 to 9,938 in 2011. 88.8% of adults in lone parent households with independent children were women.
In 2011, 7.7% of Deckham's population were non white British. This is above average for the Metropolitan borough of Gateshead, but below average for the town of Gateshead which Deckham forms a part of.
|Deckham compared 2011||Gateshead Town||Deckham (ward)|
Deckham is situated to the east of Gateshead town centre. It is also split into three sub districts, Central Deckham, Mount Pleasant and Carr Hill.
Deckham has three buildings listed by English Heritage. They are 33 and 35 Fife Street and the Church of St George.
The flats at 33 and 35 Fife Street, in Mount Pleasant, are Grade II Listed buildings. Described by English Heritage as "perhaps the last surviving example of an unspoilt, 2–flat dwelling of high quality but modest size", they were built in the latter part of the 19th century from sandstone ashlar and slate.The Church of St George is an Anglican church at the corner of Inskip Terrace and Durham Road built in 1896 by Stephen Piper of Newcastle. This "bold and remarkably simple" church consists of a nave, vestry, bell tower and porch, is built in sandstone and remains in very good condition. Access to the bell tower is by spiral staircase and the staircase and bells are in good order. Of particular note is the church organ; a Father Willis built organ which has been described as "an utter gem" and "exceptional".
Deckham's other church is the Emmanuel Pentecostal Church, a plain, stone building located in a prominent position on the corner of Caris Street and Old Durham Road.Little is documented regarding this church, and the date of building is difficult to ascertain, though the Pentecostal movement in Britain dates to 1907 and the church was certified for the solomnising of marriages as recently as 21 October 1959. The Church is a member of the Assembly of God denomination of Pentecostalism and hold weekly Sunday worship, a prayer service on Mondays and a children's group on Wednesdays.
Two more buildings were locally listed as places of special interest by Gateshead Council. These are Carr Hill Clinic at Carr Hill Road/Ilford Place and St Mark's Methodist Church at Shipcote Terrace.
Deckham has several public houses. The Plough Inn on Old Durham Road and is evidenced on the ordnance survey map in 1862 where it is shown as 'Speed the Plough'.The Shakespeare Inn is on Split Crow Road and Mount Pleasant Working Mans Club is described by one official document as "intrusive" though it hosts several local housing discussion groups. The Deckham Inn at the junction of Split Crow Road and Old Durham Road, was closed in the early 21st century and an application to demolish it to make way for residential flats was approved in 2004. After objections were raised planning approval was rescinded but it was demolished in 2011.
There are no libraries in Deckham, though Gateshead Central Library, the largest library in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, is nearby.Gateshead Leisure Centre in Shipcote and Saltwell Park are close by.
The Elgin Centre is on Elgin Road at the south–east boundary between Deckham and Carr Hill. Whilst geographically outside Deckham, the centre provides "the key cluster" of community provisions for its residents.These facilities contribute to the regeneration of the suburb.
The facilities are utilized by the Route 26 Community Project; a registered charity based at the centrewhich aims to work towards the betterment of lives in Deckham and neighbouring wards. The project works with Gateshead Council and the Gateshead Housing Company to provide a community cafe promoting healthy eating (the 'T–Junction'), a gymnasium, indoor sports hall, outdoor Five-a-side football pitches and a meeting place for resident groups. The project has education provision for young children as a registered day–care provider and it also offers adult education and training. The project hosts the 'Carnival on the Hill/Deckham Festival'; a collaborative enterprise between Route 26, Gateshead Council and Home Group which offers free activities, such as go-karting and children's soft play, against the backdrop of a steel band. The second Deckham Festival was held on 3 September 2011 and attracted over one thousand visitors, including Mayor of Gateshead and BBC local weatherman Paul Mooney.
Based in what was Deckham Village Hall, Gateshead Older People's Assembly is a charity working to provide opportunities for over 50s to improve their health and maintain their independence. The charity was established in 2002 and supports activities for older people in 18 of Gateshead's 22 wards. In Deckham, the charity runs a thriving wellness hub which welcomes hundreds of older people each week. In addition to a community garden and a large outdoor area dedicated to exercise groups, the charity offers the following activities for older people:
·Staying Steady falls prevention programme ·Dancercise ·Strength & Balance classes ·Never Too Old to Rock ·Tai Chi ·Cosy Crow Singing Group ·Deckham Social Group ·Pilates ·Ukulele Group ·Samba Percussion Group ·Art Group ·Reminiscence Group ·Craft Group ·Belly Dancing ·Tea Dance ·Zoom exercise classes and social activities
Activities are open to all Gateshead residents aged 50+.
The suburb is crossed by the B1296 Old Durham Road,a commuter road and route of the Great North Road before it was diverted through Low Fell on the route of the A167. Journey time by car or bus to Gateshead town centre is approximately 5 minutes, and 10–12 minutes into the centre of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Deckham is in a "metro corridor" so that it is broadly equidistant from Gateshead Metro station and Gateshead Stadium Metro station.
Deckham is on a major bus route into Gateshead; and Old Durham Road is a "bus priority route".The suburb is served by several bus services, such as the Fab 56 which continues into Sunderland, the Citylink 57 which terminates at Wardley and the CityLink 58. It is also part of the Qualyink Q1/Q2 network. Services to intu MetroCentre and Chester-le-Street also run through and stop in the area. All buses serving Deckham are operated by Go North East under the administration of Nexus.
|Q1||Newcastle, Central Station||Felling Square, Heworth Interchange , Wrekenton, Low Fell, Gateshead Interchange , Quayside||Quaylink|
|28||Newcastle, Eldon Square||Gateshead Interchange||Waggonway 28|
|Chester-le-Street||Sheriff Hill, Wrekenton, Birtley|
|56||Newcastle Pilgrim Street||Gateshead Interchange||Fab 56|
|Park Lane Interchange||Sheriff Hill, Wrekenton, Concord, Washington|
|57||Newcastle Pilgrim Street||Gateshead Interchange||Citylink 57|
|Wardley||Sheriff Hill, Beacon Lough, Leam Lane Estate|
|58||Heworth Interchange||Felling, Windy Nook, Leam Lane Estate||Citylink 58|
|Hadrian Park||Gateshead Interchange , Newcastle-upon-Tyne, A1058 Coast Road|
|67||intu MetroCentre||Bensham, Dunston||Go North East 67|
|Wardley||Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Leam Lane Estate|
South Street Community Primary School at the northern end of Deckham in Cramer Street and caters for pupils in the 3–11 age range.The number of pupils eligible for free school meals is well above the national average. In the most recent OFSTED inspection, the nursery provision was praised for enabling children who enter the school with skills below that expected of similarly–aged children nationwide to achieve well through a stimulating and engaging curriculum and the nursery provision was good overall. The primary provision was praised for providing a safe and engaging learning environment in which children are able to progress to a level broadly comparable with children nationally and where pupils are extremely well behaved. In all inspection categories, the primary provision was judged good.
South Street Primary is the only school in Deckham. Some children of primary–school age, particularly those living in the east of Deckham, attend nearby Carr Hill Primary School instead.
Deckham compares unfavourably with the wider Gateshead area in respect of adults with educational qualifications. 43% of adults have no educational qualifications, compared to 38.4% across the whole of Gateshead and the England average of 28.9%.Only 17% of adults have five or more GCSE's or equivalent at A*–C (compared to 36.9% across Gateshead and 47.6% nationally) whilst 6% of adults in the suburb have two or more A-Level's (or equivalent).
Gateshead is a large town in Tyne and Wear, England, on the southern bank of the River Tyne opposite Newcastle upon Tyne. Gateshead and Newcastle are joined by seven bridges across the Tyne, including the Gateshead Millennium Bridge. The town is known for its architecture, including the Sage Gateshead, the Angel of the North and the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art. Residents of Gateshead, like the rest of Tyneside, are usually referred to as Geordies. Gateshead's town population in 2011 was 120,046.
The Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead is a metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear, North East England. It is named after its largest town, Gateshead, but the metropolitan borough incorporates the surrounding area including Rowlands Gill, Whickham, Blaydon, Ryton, Felling, Pelaw, Dunston and Low Fell. The borough forms part of the Tyneside conurbation, centred on Newcastle upon Tyne.
Bill Quay is a residential area in Gateshead, located around 4 miles (6.4 km) from Newcastle upon Tyne, 12 miles (19 km) from Sunderland, and 17 miles (27 km) from Durham. In 2011, Census data for the Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council ward of Heworth and Pelaw recorded a total population of 9,100.
Felling is an eastern suburb of Gateshead, Tyne and Wear, England. The town was formed when three villages coalesced in the 19th century. Historically part of County Durham, the town was subsumed into the metropolitan borough of Gateshead in 1974. It lies on the B1426 Sunderland Road and the A184 Felling bypass, less than 1 mile (1.6 km) east of Gateshead town centre, 1 mile (1.6 km) south east of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and 10 miles north west of the City of Sunderland. In 2011, Felling had a population of 8,908.
The Quayside is an area along the banks (quay) of the River Tyne in Newcastle upon Tyne and Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, North East England, United Kingdom.
Pelaw is a residential area in Gateshead, located around 3.5 miles (5.6 km) from Newcastle upon Tyne, 11 miles (18 km) from Sunderland, and 17 miles (27 km) from Durham. In 2011, Census data for the Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council ward of Heworth and Pelaw recorded a total population of 9,100.
Sheriff Hill is a suburb in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. It lies on the B1296 road 2 miles (3.2 km) south of Gateshead, 2.5 miles (4.0 km) south of Newcastle upon Tyne and 12 miles (19 km) north of the historic city of Durham. According to the 2001 UK census it had a population of 5,051.
Wrekenton is a residential area in Gateshead, located around 3.5 miles (5.6 km) from Newcastle upon Tyne, 11 miles (18 km) from Sunderland, and 14 miles (23 km) from Durham. In 2011, Census data for the Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council ward of High Fell recorded a total population of 6,110.
Low Fell is a suburb of Gateshead situated in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. Built predominantly on sandstone, grindstone and clay, it is bordered by Sheriff Hill/Deckham to the east, Saltwell/Bensham to the west, Harlow Green to the south and Shipcote to the north. The suburb lies on a major bus route 2.5 miles south of Gateshead centre, 3 miles south of the city of Newcastle upon Tyne and 12 miles north of the historic City of Durham. The principal road in the suburb is the A167. According to the 2001 UK census, the suburb had a population of 8,643, falling marginally to 8,636 at the 2011 census.
Sunniside is a village in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, which is located around 5.5 miles (9 km) from Newcastle upon Tyne. Prior to the creation of the county of Tyne and Wear in 1974, it was part of Whickham Urban District, which in turn formed a part of County Durham.
Wardley is a residential area in Gateshead, located around 4 miles (6.4 km) from Newcastle upon Tyne, 10 miles (16 km) from Sunderland, and 15 miles (24 km) from Durham. In 2011, Census data for the Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council ward of Wardley and Leam Lane recorded a total population of 8,327.
Leam Lane Estate is a housing estate in Gateshead, built in the 1950s and early 60's. Originally made up solely of council-built accommodation and housing association houses. Most of the properties are now privately owned. The estate is located around 4 miles (6.4 km) from Newcastle upon Tyne, 10.5 miles (16.9 km) from Sunderland, and 15.5 miles (24.9 km) from Durham. In 2011, Census data for the Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council ward of Wardley and Leam Lane recorded a total population of 8,327.
Gateshead Fell was a district in County Durham, England. It was located on the immediate border of the town of Gateshead, 2.3 miles from the city of Newcastle upon Tyne. Once described as a "dark, spongy moor", Gateshead Fell existed in some form for almost nine hundred years before it was enclosed in 1809 and divided into a number of villages, notably Sheriff Hill, Low Fell and Wrekenton, which were themselves absorbed by the urban expansion of Gateshead and were officially incorporated into the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead with the passing of the Local Government Act in 1974.
The Sheriff's March was an annual procession at Gateshead Fell, County Durham.
Sheriff Hill Colliery or Ellison Main Colliery was a coal mine at Gateshead Fell in County Durham, England. The colliery had two shafts and provided employment to the residents of Sheriff Hill, after it opened in 1793. There were many major accidents resulting in the deaths of workers at the colliery. There was a protracted strike at the colliery in 1834. The colliery closed in 1926.
Windy Nook is an area in Tyne and Wear, England, bordered by Carr Hill to the west, Whitehills Estate and Leam Lane Estate to the east, Felling to the north and Sheriff Hill to the south. It lies on steep, sloping land 2.25 miles (3.62 km) south of Gateshead, 2.75 miles (4.43 km) south of Newcastle upon Tyne and 12 miles (19 km) north of Durham. In 2011, the Windy Nook and Whitehills ward had a population of 9,781. Formerly part of Heworth, it was incorporated into the newly formed Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead on 1 April 1974.
Carr Hill is a suburb in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. It is bordered by Felling to the north, Sheriff Hill to the south, Windy Nook to the east and Deckham to the west. It lies 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south of Gateshead, 2 miles (3.2 km) south of the city of Newcastle upon Tyne and 13 miles (21 km) north of the historic City of Durham. Once a village in County Durham, it was incorporated into the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead by the Local Government Act 1972 on 1 April 1974.
The National Cycle Route 725, also known as the Great North Cycleway is a partially-complete regional cycling route that forms part of the National Cycle Network (NCN) in the United Kingdom.
Bensham is a suburban area in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, which is located around 2 miles (3 km) from Newcastle upon Tyne.
Where an abbreviation is used in the references this is indicated below in (brackets) at the end of the source name. When a source is available online, a link has been included.