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In integrated circuits, electrical power is distributed to the components of the chip over a network of conductors on the chip. Power network design includes the analysis and design of such networks. As in all engineering, this involves tradeoffs - the network must have adequate performance, be sufficiently reliable, but should not use more resources than required.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece of semiconductor material that is normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, faster, and less expensive than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC's mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, and other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs.
The power distribution network distributes power and ground voltages from pad locations to all devices in a design. Shrinking device dimensions, faster switching frequencies and increasing power consumption in deep sub-micrometer technologies cause large switching currents to flow in the power and ground networks which degrade performance and reliability. A robust power distribution network is essential to ensure reliable operation of circuits on a chip. Power supply integrity verification is a critical concern in high-performance designs. Due to the resistance of the interconnects constituting the network, there is a voltage drop across the network, commonly referred to as the IR-drop. The package supplies currents to the pads of the power grid either by means of package leads in wire-bond chips or through C4 bump arrays in flip chip technology. Although the resistance of package is quite small, the inductance of package leads is significant which causes a voltage drop at the pad locations due to the time varying current drawn by the devices on die. This voltage drop is referred to as the di/dt-drop. Therefore, the voltage seen at the devices is the supply voltage minus the IR-drop and di/dt-drop.
Wire bonding is the method of making interconnections (ATJ) between an integrated circuit (IC) or other semiconductor device and its packaging during semiconductor device fabrication. Although less common, wire bonding can be used to connect an IC to other electronics or to connect from one printed circuit board (PCB) to another. Wire bonding is generally considered the most cost-effective and flexible interconnect technology and is used to assemble the vast majority of semiconductor packages. Wire bonding can be used at frequencies above 100 GHz.
Moore's law is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years. The observation is named after Gordon Moore, the co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and CEO of Intel, whose 1965 paper described a doubling every year in the number of components per integrated circuit and projected this rate of growth would continue for at least another decade. In 1975, looking forward to the next decade, he revised the forecast to doubling every two years. The period is often quoted as 18 months because of a prediction by Intel executive David House.
Flip chip, also known as controlled collapse chip connection or its abbreviation, C4, is a method for interconnecting semiconductor devices, such as IC chips and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), to external circuitry with solder bumps that have been deposited onto the chip pads. The technique was developed by General Electric's Light Military Electronics Dept., Utica, N.Y. The solder bumps are deposited on the chip pads on the top side of the wafer during the final wafer processing step. In order to mount the chip to external circuitry, it is flipped over so that its top side faces down, and aligned so that its pads align with matching pads on the external circuit, and then the solder is reflowed to complete the interconnect. This is in contrast to wire bonding, in which the chip is mounted upright and wires are used to interconnect the chip pads to external circuitry.
Excessive voltage drops in the power grid reduce switching speeds and noise margins of circuits, and inject noise which might lead to functional failures. High average current densities lead to undesirable wearing out of metal wires due to electromigration (EM). Therefore, the challenge in the design of a power distribution network is in achieving excellent voltage regulation at the consumption points notwithstanding the wide fluctuations in power demand across the chip, and to build such a network using minimum area of the metal layers. These issues are prominent in high performance chips such as microprocessors, since large amounts of power have to be distributed through a hierarchy of many metal layers. A robust power distribution network is vital in meeting performance guarantees and ensuring reliable operation.
Delay calculation is the term used in integrated circuit design for the calculation of the gate delay of a single logic gate and the wires attached to it. By contrast, static timing analysis computes the delays of entire paths, using delay calculation to determine the delay of each gate and wire.
Signal integrity or SI is a set of measures of the quality of an electrical signal. In digital electronics, a stream of binary values is represented by a voltage waveform. However, digital signals are fundamentally analog in nature, and all signals are subject to effects such as noise, distortion, and loss. Over short distances and at low bit rates, a simple conductor can transmit this with sufficient fidelity. At high bit rates and over longer distances or through various mediums, various effects can degrade the electrical signal to the point where errors occur and the system or device fails. Signal integrity engineering is the task of analyzing and mitigating these effects. It is an important activity at all levels of electronics packaging and assembly, from internal connections of an integrated circuit (IC), through the package, the printed circuit board (PCB), the backplane, and inter-system connections. While there are some common themes at these various levels, there are also practical considerations, in particular the interconnect flight time versus the bit period, that cause substantial differences in the approach to signal integrity for on-chip connections versus chip-to-chip connections.
Electromigration is the transport of material caused by the gradual movement of the ions in a conductor due to the momentum transfer between conducting electrons and diffusing metal atoms. The effect is important in applications where high direct current densities are used, such as in microelectronics and related structures. As the structure size in electronics such as integrated circuits (ICs) decreases, the practical significance of this effect increases.
Capacitance between power and ground distribution networks, referred to as decoupling capacitors or decaps, acts as local charge storage and is helpful in mitigating the voltage drop at supply points. Parasitic capacitance between metal wires of supply lines, device capacitance of the non-switching devices, and capacitance between N-well and substrate, occur as implicit decoupling capacitance in a power distribution network. Unfortunately, this implicit decoupling capacitance is sometimes not enough to constrain the voltage drop within safe bounds and designers often have to add intentional explicit decoupling capacitance structures on the die at strategic locations. These explicitly added decoupling capacitances are not free and increase the area and leakage power consumption of the chip. Parasitic interconnect resistance, decoupling capacitance and package/interconnect inductance form a complex RLC circuit which has its own resonance frequency. If the resonance frequency lies close to the operating frequency of the design, large voltage drops can develop in the grid.
A decoupling capacitor is a capacitor used to decouple one part of an electrical network (circuit) from another. Noise caused by other circuit elements is shunted through the capacitor, reducing the effect it has on the rest of the circuit. An alternative name is bypass capacitor as it is used to bypass the power supply or other high impedance component of a circuit.
Capacitance is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential. There are two closely related notions of capacitance: self capacitance and mutual capacitance. Any object that can be electrically charged exhibits self capacitance. A material with a large self capacitance holds more electric charge at a given voltage than one with low capacitance. The notion of mutual capacitance is particularly important for understanding the operations of the capacitor, one of the three elementary linear electronic components.
In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance describes the tendency of an electrical conductor, such as coil, to oppose a change in the electric current through it. The change in current induces a reverse electromotive force (voltage). When an electric current flows through a conductor, it creates a magnetic field around that conductor. A changing current, in turn, creates a changing magnetic field, the surface integral of which is known as magnetic flux. From Faraday's law of induction, any change in magnetic flux through a circuit induces an electromotive force (voltage) across that circuit, a phenomenon known as electromagnetic induction. Inductance, , is defined as the ratio between this induced voltage, , and the rate of change of the current in the circuit.
The crux of the problem in designing a power grid is that there are many unknowns until the very end of the design cycle. Nevertheless, decisions about the structure, size and layout of the power grid have to be made at very early stages when a large part of the chip design has not even begun. Unfortunately, most commercial tools focus on post-layout verification of the power grid when the entire chip design is complete and detailed information about the parasitics of the power and ground lines and the currents drawn by the transistors are known. Power grid problems revealed at this stage are usually very difficult or expensive to fix, so the preferred methodologies help to design an initial power grid and refine it progressively at various design stages.
Due to the growth in power consumption and switching speeds of modern high performance microprocessors, the di/dt effects are becoming a growing concern in high speed designs. Clock gating, which is a preferred scheme for power management of high performance designs, can cause rapid surges in current demands of macro-blocks and increase di/dt effects. Designers rely on the on-chip parasitic capacitances and intentionally added decoupling capacitors to counteract the di/dt variations in the voltage. But it is necessary to model accurately the inductance and capacitance of the package and chip and analyze the grid with such models, as otherwise the amount of decoupling to be added might be underestimated or overestimated. Also it is necessary to maintain the efficiency of the analysis even when including these detailed models.
Clock gating is a popular technique used in many synchronous circuits for reducing dynamic power dissipation. Clock gating saves power by adding more logic to a circuit to prune the clock tree. Pruning the clock disables portions of the circuitry so that the flip-flops in them do not have to switch states. Switching states consumes power. When not being switched, the switching power consumption goes to zero, and only leakage currents are incurred.
A critical issue in the analysis of power grids is the large size of the network (typically millions of nodes in a state-of-the-art microprocessor). Simulating all the non-linear devices in the chip together with the power grid is computationally infeasible. To make the size manageable, the simulation is done in two steps. First, the non-linear devices are simulated assuming perfect supply voltages and the currents drawn by the devices are measured. Next, these devices are modeled as independent time-varying current sources for simulating the power grid and the voltage drops at the transistors are measured. Since voltage drops are typically less than 10% of the power supply voltage, the error incurred by ignoring the interaction between the device currents and the supply voltage is small. By doing these two steps, the power grid analysis problem reduces to solving a linear network which is still quite large. To further reduce the network size, we can exploit the hierarchy in the power distribution models.
Note that the circuit currents are not independent due to signal correlations between blocks. This is addressed by deriving the inputs for individual blocks of the chip from the results of logic simulation using a common set of chip-wide input patterns. An important issue in power grid analysis is to determine what these input patterns should be. For IR-drop analysis, patterns that produce maximum instantaneous currents are required, whereas for electromigration purposes, patterns producing large sustained (average) currents are of interest.
Logic simulation is the use of simulation software to predict the behavior of digital circuits and hardware description languages. Simulation can be performed at varying degrees of physical abstraction, such as at the transistor level, gate level, register-transfer level (RTL), electronic system-level (ESL), or behavioral level.
Power grid analysis can be classified into input vector dependentmethods and vectorless methods. The input vector pattern dependent methods employ search techniques to find a set of input patterns which cause the worst drop in the grid. A number of methods have been proposed in literature which use genetic algorithms or other search techniques to find vectors or a pattern of vectors that maximize the total current drawn from the supply network. Input vector-pattern dependent approaches are computationally intensive and are limited to circuit blocks rather than full-chip analysis. Furthermore, these approaches are inherently optimistic, underestimating the voltage drop and thus letting some of the supply noise problems go unnoticed. The vectorless approaches, on the other hand, aim to compute an upper bound on the worst-case drop in an efficient manner. These approaches have the advantage of being fast and conservative, but are sometimes too conservative, leading to overdesign.
Most of the literature on power network analysis deals with the issue of computing the worst voltage drops in the power network. Electromigration is an equally serious concern, but is attacked with almost identical methods. Instead of the voltage at each node, EM analysis solves for current in each branch, and instead of a voltage limit, there is a current limit per wire, depending on its layer and width.
Other IC applications may use only a portions of the flows mentioned here. A gate array or field programmable gate array (FPGA) designer, for example, will only do the design stages, since the detailed usage of these parts is not known when the power supply must be designed. Likewise, a user of FPGAs or gate arrays will only use the analysis portion, as the design is already fixed.
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) is a technology for constructing integrated circuits. CMOS technology is used in microprocessors, microcontrollers, static RAM, and other digital logic circuits. CMOS technology is also used for several analog circuits such as image sensors, data converters, and highly integrated transceivers for many types of communication. Frank Wanlass invented CMOS in 1963 while at Fairchild Semiconductor and was granted US patent 3,356,858 in 1967.
In electronics, a linear regulator is a system used to maintain a steady voltage. The resistance of the regulator varies in accordance with the load resulting in a constant output voltage. The regulating device is made to act like a variable resistor, continuously adjusting a voltage divider network to maintain a constant output voltage and continually dissipating the difference between the input and regulated voltages as waste heat. By contrast, a switching regulator uses an active device that switches on and off to maintain an average value of output. Because the regulated voltage of a linear regulator must always be lower than input voltage, efficiency is limited and the input voltage must be high enough to always allow the active device to drop some voltage.
In digital electronics, the fan-out of a logic gate output is the number of gate inputs it can drive.
A voltage regulator is a system designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may use a simple feed-forward design or may include negative feedback. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.
A voltage multiplier is an electrical circuit that converts AC electrical power from a lower voltage to a higher DC voltage, typically using a network of capacitors and diodes.
Power electronics is the application of solid-state electronics to the control and conversion of electric power.
A power MOSFET is a specific type of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) designed to handle significant power levels.
In electronics, motorboating is a type of low frequency parasitic oscillation that sometimes occurs in audio and radio equipment and often manifests itself as a sound similar to an idling motorboat engine, a "put-put-put", in audio output from speakers or earphones. It is a problem encountered particularly in radio transceivers and older vacuum tube audio systems, guitar amplifiers, PA systems and is caused by some type of unwanted feedback in the circuit. The amplifying devices in audio and radio equipment are vulnerable to a variety of feedback problems, which can cause distinctive noise in the output. The term motorboating is applied to oscillations whose frequency is below the range of hearing, from 1 to 10 hertz, so the individual oscillations are heard as pulses. Sometimes the oscillations can even be seen visually as the woofer cones in speakers slowly moving in and out.
Parasitic capacitance, or stray capacitance is an unavoidable and usually unwanted capacitance that exists between the parts of an electronic component or circuit simply because of their proximity to each other. When two electrical conductors at different voltages are close together, the electric field between them causes electric charge to be stored on them; this effect is parasitic capacitance. All actual circuit elements such as inductors, diodes, and transistors have internal capacitance, which can cause their behavior to depart from that of 'ideal' circuit elements. Additionally, there is always non-zero capacitance between any two conductors; this can be significant at higher frequencies with closely spaced conductors, such as wires or printed circuit board traces.
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electronic component that stores electrical energy in an electric field. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. While some capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors in proximity in a circuit, a capacitor is a component designed to add capacitance to a circuit. The capacitor was originally known as a condenser or condensator. The original name is still widely used in many languages, but not commonly in English.
Dynamic voltage scaling is a power management technique in computer architecture, where the voltage used in a component is increased or decreased, depending upon circumstances. Dynamic voltage scaling to increase voltage is known as overvolting; dynamic voltage scaling to decrease voltage is known as undervolting. Undervolting is done in order to conserve power, particularly in laptops and other mobile devices, where energy comes from a battery and thus is limited, or in rare cases, to increase reliability. Overvolting is done in order to increase computer performance.
In electrical engineering, capacitive sensing is a technology, based on capacitive coupling, that can detect and measure anything that is conductive or has a dielectric different from air.
BACPAC, or the Berkeley Advanced Chip Performance Calculator, is a software program to explore the effect of changes in IC technology. The use enters a set of fairly fundamental properties of the technology and the program estimates the system level performance of an IC built with these assumptions. Previous work in this area can be found in  and , but these do not consider many of the effects of deep-sub-micrometre interconnect. BACPAC is based on the work in .
In electronic design automation, parasitic extraction is calculation of the parasitic effects in both the designed devices and the required wiring interconnects of an electronic circuit: parasitic capacitances, parasitic resistances and parasitic inductances, commonly called parasitic devices, parasitic components, or simply parasitics.
Power gating is a technique used in integrated circuit design to reduce power consumption, by shutting off the current to blocks of the circuit that are not in use. In addition to reducing stand-by or leakage power, power gating has the benefit of enabling Iddq testing.
Electronic components have a wide range of failure modes. These can be classified in various ways, such as by time or cause. Failures can be caused by excess temperature, excess current or voltage, ionizing radiation, mechanical shock, stress or impact, and many other causes. In semiconductor devices, problems in the device package may cause failures due to contamination, mechanical stress of the device, or open or short circuits.
Parasitic oscillation is an undesirable electronic oscillation in an electronic or digital device. It is often caused by feedback in an amplifying device. The problem occurs notably in RF, audio, and other electronic amplifiers as well as in digital signal processing. It is one of the fundamental issues addressed by control theory.
Power integrity or PI is an analysis to check whether the desired voltage and current are met from source to destination. Today, power integrity plays a major role in the success and failure of new electronic products. There are several coupled aspects of PI: on the chip, in the chip package, on the circuit board, and in the system. Four main issues must be resolved to ensure power integrity at the printed circuit board level:
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