String (computer science)

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Strings are applied e.g. in Bioinformatics to describe DNA strands composed of nitrogenous bases. 0321 DNA Macrostructure.jpg
Strings are applied e.g. in Bioinformatics to describe DNA strands composed of nitrogenous bases.

In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable. The latter may allow its elements to be mutated and the length changed, or it may be fixed (after creation). A string is generally considered as a data type and is often implemented as an array data structure of bytes (or words) that stores a sequence of elements, typically characters, using some character encoding. String may also denote more general arrays or other sequence (or list) data types and structures.

Computer programming Process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable computer programs

Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task. Programming involves tasks such as: analysis, generating algorithms, profiling algorithms' accuracy and resource consumption, and the implementation of algorithms in a chosen programming language. The source code of a program is written in one or more languages that are intelligible to programmers, rather than machine code, which is directly executed by the central processing unit. The purpose of programming is to find a sequence of instructions that will automate the performance of a task on a computer, often for solving a given problem. The process of programming thus often requires expertise in several different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain, specialized algorithms, and formal logic.

Sequence ordered list of elements; function with natural numbers as domain

In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed. Like a set, it contains members. The number of elements is called the length of the sequence. Unlike a set, the same elements can appear multiple times at different positions in a sequence, and order matters. Formally, a sequence can be defined as a function whose domain is either the set of the natural numbers or the set of the first n natural numbers.

In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.

Contents

Depending on programming language and precise data type used, a variable declared to be a string may either cause storage in memory to be statically allocated for a predetermined maximum length or employ dynamic allocation to allow it to hold a variable number of elements.

When a string appears literally in source code, it is known as a string literal or an anonymous string. [1]

In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text. The source code of a program is specially designed to facilitate the work of computer programmers, who specify the actions to be performed by a computer mostly by writing source code. The source code is often transformed by an assembler or compiler into binary machine code understood by the computer. The machine code might then be stored for execution at a later time. Alternatively, source code may be interpreted and thus immediately executed.

A string literal or anonymous string is a type of literal in programming for the representation of a string value within the source code of a computer program. Most often in modern languages this is a quoted sequence of characters, as in x = "foo", where "foo" is a string literal with value foo – the quotes are not part of the value, and one must use a method such as escape sequences to avoid the problem of delimiter collision and allow the delimiters themselves to be embedded in a string. However, there are numerous alternate notations for specifying string literals, particularly more complicated cases, and the exact notation depends on the individual programming language in question. Nevertheless, there are some general guidelines that most modern programming languages follow.

In formal languages, which are used in mathematical logic and theoretical computer science, a string is a finite sequence of symbols that are chosen from a set called an alphabet.

Formal language set of strings of symbols that may be constrained by rules that are specific to it

In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language consists of words whose letters are taken from an alphabet and are well-formed according to a specific set of rules.

Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics. It bears close connections to metamathematics, the foundations of mathematics, and theoretical computer science. The unifying themes in mathematical logic include the study of the expressive power of formal systems and the deductive power of formal proof systems.

Theoretical computer science subfield of computer science and of mathematics

Theoretical computer science (TCS) is a subset of general computer science and mathematics that focuses on more mathematical topics of computing and includes the theory of computation.

String datatypes

A string datatype is a datatype modeled on the idea of a formal string. Strings are such an important and useful datatype that they are implemented in nearly every programming language. In some languages they are available as primitive types and in others as composite types. The syntax of most high-level programming languages allows for a string, usually quoted in some way, to represent an instance of a string datatype; such a meta-string is called a literal or string literal.

Programming language Language designed to communicate instructions to a machine

A programming language is a formal language, which comprises a set of instructions that produce various kinds of output. Programming languages are used in computer programming to implement algorithms.

In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order. The term syntax is also used to refer to the study of such principles and processes. The goal of many syntacticians is to discover the syntactic rules common to all languages.

String length

Although formal strings can have an arbitrary but finite length, the length of strings in real languages is often constrained to an artificial maximum. In general, there are two types of string datatypes: fixed-length strings, which have a fixed maximum length to be determined at compile time and which use the same amount of memory whether this maximum is needed or not, and variable-length strings, whose length is not arbitrarily fixed and which can use varying amounts of memory depending on the actual requirements at run time. Most strings in modern programming languages are variable-length strings. Of course, even variable-length strings are limited in length – by the number of bits available to a pointer, and by the size of available computer memory. The string length can be stored as a separate integer (which may put an artificial limit on the length) or implicitly through a termination character, usually a character value with all bits zero such as in C programming language. See also "Null-terminated" below.

Memory management managing physical and/or virtual memory in computer systems

Memory management is a form of resource management applied to computer memory. The essential requirement of memory management is to provide ways to dynamically allocate portions of memory to programs at their request, and free it for reuse when no longer needed. This is critical to any advanced computer system where more than a single process might be underway at any time.

Computer memory physical device used to store information for immediate use in a digital electronic device

In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage". Computer memory operates at a high speed, for example random-access memory (RAM), as a distinction from storage that provides slow-to-access information but offers higher capacities. If needed, contents of the computer memory can be transferred to secondary storage; a very common way of doing this is through a memory management technique called "virtual memory". An archaic synonym for memory is store.

Character encoding

String datatypes have historically allocated one byte per character, and, although the exact character set varied by region, character encodings were similar enough that programmers could often get away with ignoring this, since characters a program treated specially (such as period and space and comma) were in the same place in all the encodings a program would encounter. These character sets were typically based on ASCII or EBCDIC. If text in one encoding was displayed on a system using a different encoding, text was often mangled, though often somewhat readable and some computer users learned to read the mangled text.

Logographic languages such as Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (known collectively as CJK) need far more than 256 characters (the limit of a one 8-bit byte per-character encoding) for reasonable representation. The normal solutions involved keeping single-byte representations for ASCII and using two-byte representations for CJK ideographs. Use of these with existing code led to problems with matching and cutting of strings, the severity of which depended on how the character encoding was designed. Some encodings such as the EUC family guarantee that a byte value in the ASCII range will represent only that ASCII character, making the encoding safe for systems that use those characters as field separators. Other encodings such as ISO-2022 and Shift-JIS do not make such guarantees, making matching on byte codes unsafe. These encodings also were not "self-synchronizing", so that locating character boundaries required backing up to the start of a string, and pasting two strings together could result in corruption of the second string.

Unicode has simplified the picture somewhat. Most programming languages now have a datatype for Unicode strings. Unicode's preferred byte stream format UTF-8 is designed not to have the problems described above for older multibyte encodings. UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-32 require the programmer to know that the fixed-size code units are different than the "characters", the main difficulty currently is incorrectly designed APIs that attempt to hide this difference (UTF-32 does make code points fixed-sized, but these are not "characters" due to composing codes).

Implementations

Some languages like C++ implement strings as templates that can be used with any datatype, but this is the exception, not the rule.

Some languages, such as C++ and Ruby, normally allow the contents of a string to be changed after it has been created; these are termed mutable strings. In other languages, such as Java and Python, the value is fixed and a new string must be created if any alteration is to be made; these are termed immutable strings.

Strings are typically implemented as arrays of bytes, characters, or code units, in order to allow fast access to individual units or substrings—including characters when they have a fixed length. A few languages such as Haskell implement them as linked lists instead.

Some languages, such as Prolog and Erlang, avoid implementing a dedicated string datatype at all, instead adopting the convention of representing strings as lists of character codes.

Representations

Representations of strings depend heavily on the choice of character repertoire and the method of character encoding. Older string implementations were designed to work with repertoire and encoding defined by ASCII, or more recent extensions like the ISO 8859 series. Modern implementations often use the extensive repertoire defined by Unicode along with a variety of complex encodings such as UTF-8 and UTF-16.

The term byte string usually indicates a general-purpose string of bytes, rather than strings of only (readable) characters, strings of bits, or such. Byte strings often imply that bytes can take any value and any data can be stored as-is, meaning that there should be no value interpreted as a termination value.

Most string implementations are very similar to variable-length arrays with the entries storing the character codes of corresponding characters. The principal difference is that, with certain encodings, a single logical character may take up more than one entry in the array. This happens for example with UTF-8, where single codes (UCS code points) can take anywhere from one to four bytes, and single characters can take an arbitrary number of codes. In these cases, the logical length of the string (number of characters) differs from the physical length of the array (number of bytes in use). UTF-32 avoids the first part of the problem.

Null-terminated

The length of a string can be stored implicitly by using a special terminating character; often this is the null character (NUL), which has all bits zero, a convention used and perpetuated by the popular C programming language. [2] Hence, this representation is commonly referred to as a C string. This representation of an n-character string takes n + 1 space (1 for the terminator), and is thus an implicit data structure.

In terminated strings, the terminating code is not an allowable character in any string. Strings with length field do not have this limitation and can also store arbitrary binary data.

An example of a null-terminated string stored in a 10-byte buffer, along with its ASCII (or more modern UTF-8) representation as 8-bit hexadecimal numbers is:

FRANK NUL kefw
46 16 521641164E164B1600166B16651666167716

The length of the string in the above example, "FRANK", is 5 characters, but it occupies 6 bytes. Characters after the terminator do not form part of the representation; they may be either part of other data or just garbage. (Strings of this form are sometimes called ASCIZ strings, after the original assembly language directive used to declare them.)

Byte- and bit-terminated

Using a special byte other than null for terminating strings has historically appeared in both hardware and software, though sometimes with a value that was also a printing character. $ was used by many assembler systems, : used by CDC systems (this character had a value of zero), and the ZX80 used " [3] since this was the string delimiter in its BASIC language.

Somewhat similar, "data processing" machines like the IBM 1401 used a special word mark bit to delimit strings at the left, where the operation would start at the right. This bit had to be clear in all other parts of the string. This meant that, while the IBM 1401 had a seven-bit word, almost no-one ever thought to use this as a feature, and override the assignment of the seventh bit to (for example) handle ASCII codes.

Early microcomputer software relied upon the fact that ASCII codes do not use the high-order bit, and set it to indicate the end of a string. It must be reset to 0 prior to output. [4]

Length-prefixed

The length of a string can also be stored explicitly, for example by prefixing the string with the length as a byte value. This convention is used in many Pascal dialects; as a consequence, some people call such a string a Pascal string or P-string. Storing the string length as byte limits the maximum string length to 255. To avoid such limitations, improved implementations of P-strings use 16-, 32-, or 64-bit words to store the string length. When the length field covers the address space, strings are limited only by the available memory.

If the length is bounded, then it can be encoded in constant space, typically a machine word, thus leading to an implicit data structure, taking n + k space, where k is the number of characters in a word (8 for 8-bit ASCII on a 64-bit machine, 1 for 32-bit UTF-32/UCS-4 on a 32-bit machine, etc.). If the length is not bounded, encoding a length n takes log(n) space (see fixed-length code), so length-prefixed strings are a succinct data structure, encoding a string of length n in log(n) + n space.

In the latter case, the length-prefix field itself doesn't have fixed length, therefore the actual string data needs to be moved when the string grows such that the length field needs to be increased.

Here is a Pascal string stored in a 10-byte buffer, along with its ASCII / UTF-8 representation:

lengthFRANKkefw
05164616521641164E164B166B16651666167716

Strings as records

Many languages, including object-oriented ones, implement strings as records with an internal structure like:

classstring{size_tlength;char*text;};

However, since the implementation is usually hidden, the string must be accessed and modified through member functions. text is a pointer to a dynamically allocated memory area, which might be expanded as needed. See also string (C++).

Other representations

Both character termination and length codes limit strings: For example, C character arrays that contain null (NUL) characters cannot be handled directly by C string library functions: Strings using a length code are limited to the maximum value of the length code.

Both of these limitations can be overcome by clever programming.

It is possible to create data structures and functions that manipulate them that do not have the problems associated with character termination and can in principle overcome length code bounds. It is also possible to optimize the string represented using techniques from run length encoding (replacing repeated characters by the character value and a length) and Hamming encoding [ clarification needed ].

While these representations are common, others are possible. Using ropes makes certain string operations, such as insertions, deletions, and concatenations more efficient.

The core data structure in a text editor is the one that manages the string (sequence of characters) that represents the current state of the file being edited. While that state could be stored in a single long consecutive array of characters, a typical text editor instead uses an alternative representation as its sequence data structure—a gap buffer, a linked list of lines, a piece table, or a rope—which makes certain string operations, such as insertions, deletions, and undoing previous edits, more efficient. [5]

Security concerns

The differing memory layout and storage requirements of strings can affect the security of the program accessing the string data. String representations requiring a terminating character are commonly susceptible to buffer overflow problems if the terminating character is not present, caused by a coding error or an attacker deliberately altering the data. String representations adopting a separate length field are also susceptible if the length can be manipulated. In such cases, program code accessing the string data requires bounds checking to ensure that it does not inadvertently access or change data outside of the string memory limits.

String data is frequently obtained from user input to a program. As such, it is the responsibility of the program to validate the string to ensure that it represents the expected format. Performing limited or no validation of user input can cause a program to be vulnerable to code injection attacks.

Literal strings

Sometimes, strings need to be embedded inside a text file that is both human-readable and intended for consumption by a machine. This is needed in, for example, source code of programming languages, or in configuration files. In this case, the NUL character doesn't work well as a terminator since it is normally invisible (non-printable) and is difficult to input via a keyboard. Storing the string length would also be inconvenient as manual computation and tracking of the length is tedious and error-prone.

Two common representations are:

Non-text strings

While character strings are very common uses of strings, a string in computer science may refer generically to any sequence of homogeneously typed data. A bit string or byte string, for example, may be used to represent non-textual binary data retrieved from a communications medium. This data may or may not be represented by a string-specific datatype, depending on the needs of the application, the desire of the programmer, and the capabilities of the programming language being used. If the programming language's string implementation is not 8-bit clean, data corruption may ensue.

C programmers draw a sharp distinction between a "string", aka a "string of characters", which by definition is always null terminated, vs. a "byte string" or "pseudo string" which may be stored in the same array but is often not null terminated. Using C string handling functions on such a "byte string" often seems to work, but later leads to security problems. [6] [7] [8]

String processing algorithms

There are many algorithms for processing strings, each with various trade-offs. Competing algorithms can be analyzed with respect to run time, storage requirements, and so forth.

Some categories of algorithms include:

Advanced string algorithms often employ complex mechanisms and data structures, among them suffix trees and finite state machines.

The name stringology was coined in 1984 by computer scientist Zvi Galil for the issue of algorithms and data structures used for string processing. [9] [ third-party source needed ]

Character string-oriented languages and utilities

Character strings are such a useful datatype that several languages have been designed in order to make string processing applications easy to write. Examples include the following languages:

Many Unix utilities perform simple string manipulations and can be used to easily program some powerful string processing algorithms. Files and finite streams may be viewed as strings.

Some APIs like Multimedia Control Interface, embedded SQL or printf use strings to hold commands that will be interpreted.

Recent scripting programming languages, including Perl, Python, Ruby, and Tcl employ regular expressions to facilitate text operations. Perl is particularly noted for its regular expression use, [10] and many other languages and applications implement Perl compatible regular expressions.

Some languages such as Perl and Ruby support string interpolation, which permits arbitrary expressions to be evaluated and included in string literals.

Character string functions

String functions are used to manipulate a string or change or edit the contents of a string. They also are used to query information about a string. They are usually used within the context of a computer programming language.

The most basic example of a string function is the string length function – the function that returns the length of a string (not counting any terminator characters or any of the string's internal structural information) and does not modify the string. This function is often named length or len. For example, length("hello world") would return 11.

String buffers

In some programming languages, a string buffer is an alternative to a string. It has the ability to be altered through adding or appending, whereas a String is normally fixed or immutable.

In Java

Theory

Java's standard way to handle text is to use its String class. Any given String in Java is an immutable object, which means its state cannot be changed. A String has an array of characters. Whenever a String must be manipulated, any changes require the creation of a new String (which, in turn, involves the creation of a new array of characters, and copying of the original array). This happens even if the original String's value or intermediate Strings used for the manipulation are not kept.

Java provides two alternate classes for string manipulation, called StringBuffer and StringBuilder . Both of these, like String, each has an array to hold characters. They, however, are mutable (its state can be altered). Their array of characters is not necessarily completely filled (as opposed to a String, whose array is always the exact required length for its contents). Thus, a StringBuffer or StringBuilder has the capability to add, remove, or change its state without creating a new object (and without the creation of a new array, and array copying). The exception to this is when its array is no longer of suitable length to hold its content (a case which rarely happens because of the default Dynamic memory allocation provided by the JVM). In this case, it is required to create a new array, and copy the contents.

For these reasons, Java would handle an expression like

StringnewString=aString+anInt+aChar+aDouble;

like this:

StringnewString=(newStringBuilder(aString)).append(anInt).append(aChar).append(aDouble).toString();

Implications

Generally, a StringBuffer is more efficient than a String in string handling. However, this is not necessarily the case, since a StringBuffer will be required to recreate its character array when it runs out of space. Theoretically, this is possible to happen the same number of times as a new String would be required, although this is unlikely (and the programmer can provide length hints to prevent this). Either way, the effect is not noticeable in modern desktop computers.

As well, the shortcomings of arrays are inherent in a StringBuffer. In order to insert or remove characters at arbitrary positions, whole sections of arrays must be moved.

The method by which a StringBuffer is attractive in an environment with low processing power takes this ability by using too much memory, which is likely also at a premium in this environment. This point, however, is trivial, considering the space required for creating many instances of Strings in order to process them. As well, the StringBuffer can be optimized to "waste" as little memory as possible.

The StringBuilder class, introduced in J2SE 5.0, differs from StringBuffer in that it is unsynchronized. When only a single thread at a time will access the object, using a StringBuilder processes more efficiently than using a StringBuffer.

StringBuffer and StringBuilder are included in the java.lang package.

In .NET

Microsoft's .NET Framework has a StringBuilder class in its Base Class Library.

In other languages

String instructions

Some microprocessor's instruction set architectures contain direct support for string operations, such as block copy (e.g. In intel x86m REPNZ MOVSB). [11]

Formal theory

Let Σ be a non-empty finite set of symbols (alternatively called characters), called the alphabet. No assumption is made about the nature of the symbols. A string (or word) over Σ is any finite sequence of symbols from Σ. [12] For example, if Σ = {0, 1}, then 01011 is a string over Σ.

The length of a string s is the number of symbols in s (the length of the sequence) and can be any non-negative integer; it is often denoted as |s|. The empty string is the unique string over Σ of length 0, and is denoted ε or λ. [12] [13]

The set of all strings over Σ of length n is denoted Σn. For example, if Σ = {0, 1}, then Σ2 = {00, 01, 10, 11}. Note that Σ0 = {ε} for any alphabet Σ.

The set of all strings over Σ of any length is the Kleene closure of Σ and is denoted Σ*. In terms of Σn,

For example, if Σ = {0, 1}, then Σ* = {ε, 0, 1, 00, 01, 10, 11, 000, 001, 010, 011, ...}. Although the set Σ* itself is countably infinite, each element of Σ* is a string of finite length.

A set of strings over Σ (i.e. any subset of Σ*) is called a formal language over Σ. For example, if Σ = {0, 1}, the set of strings with an even number of zeros, {ε, 1, 00, 11, 001, 010, 100, 111, 0000, 0011, 0101, 0110, 1001, 1010, 1100, 1111, ...}, is a formal language over Σ.

Concatenation and substrings

Concatenation is an important binary operation on Σ*. For any two strings s and t in Σ*, their concatenation is defined as the sequence of symbols in s followed by the sequence of characters in t, and is denoted st. For example, if Σ = {a, b, ..., z}, s = bear, and t = hug, then st = bearhug and ts = hugbear.

String concatenation is an associative, but non-commutative operation. The empty string ε serves as the identity element; for any string s, εs = sε = s. Therefore, the set Σ* and the concatenation operation form a monoid, the free monoid generated by Σ. In addition, the length function defines a monoid homomorphism from Σ* to the non-negative integers (that is, a function , such that ).

A string s is said to be a substring or factor of t if there exist (possibly empty) strings u and v such that t = usv. The relation "is a substring of" defines a partial order on Σ*, the least element of which is the empty string.

Prefixes and suffixes

A string s is said to be a prefix of t if there exists a string u such that t = su. If u is nonempty, s is said to be a proper prefix of t. Symmetrically, a string s is said to be a suffix of t if there exists a string u such that t = us. If u is nonempty, s is said to be a proper suffix of t. Suffixes and prefixes are substrings of t. Both the relations "is a prefix of" and "is a suffix of" are prefix orders.

Rotations

A string s = uv is said to be a rotation of t if t = vu. For example, if Σ = {0, 1} the string 0011001 is a rotation of 0100110, where u = 00110 and v = 01.

Reversal

The reverse of a string is a string with the same symbols but in reverse order. For example, if s = abc (where a, b, and c are symbols of the alphabet), then the reverse of s is cba. A string that is the reverse of itself (e.g., s = madam) is called a palindrome, which also includes the empty string and all strings of length 1.

Lexicographical ordering

It is often useful to define an ordering on a set of strings. If the alphabet Σ has a total order (cf. alphabetical order) one can define a total order on Σ* called lexicographical order. For example, if Σ = {0, 1} and 0 < 1, then the lexicographical order on Σ* includes the relationships ε < 0 < 00 < 000 < ... < 0001 < 001 < 01 < 010 < 011 < 0110 < 01111 < 1 < 10 < 100 < 101 < 111 < 1111 < 11111 ... The lexicographical order is total if the alphabetical order is, but isn't well-founded for any nontrivial alphabet, even if the alphabetical order is.

See Shortlex for an alternative string ordering that preserves well-foundedness.

String operations

A number of additional operations on strings commonly occur in the formal theory. These are given in the article on string operations.

Topology

(Hyper)cube of binary strings of length 3 Hamming distance 3 bit binary.svg
(Hyper)cube of binary strings of length 3

Strings admit the following interpretation as nodes on a graph:

The natural topology on the set of fixed-length strings or variable-length strings is the discrete topology, but the natural topology on the set of infinite strings is the limit topology, viewing the set of infinite strings as the inverse limit of the sets of finite strings. This is the construction used for the p-adic numbers and some constructions of the Cantor set, and yields the same topology.

Isomorphisms between string representations of topologies can be found by normalizing according to the lexicographically minimal string rotation.

See also

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Universal Binary JSON (UBJSON) is a computer data interchange format. It is a binary form directly imitating JSON, but requiring fewer bytes of data. It aims to achieve the generality of JSON, combined with being much easier to process than JSON.

A character literal is a type of literal in programming for the representation of a single character's value within the source code of a computer program.

C++ is a general-purpose programming language with imperative, object-oriented, and generic programming features. Many criticisms have been leveled at C++'s design by well-known software developers including Linus Torvalds, Richard Stallman, Joshua Bloch, Rob Pike, Ken Thompson, and Donald Knuth.

References

  1. "Introduction To Java - MFC 158 G". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. String literals (or constants) are called ‘anonymous strings’
  2. Bryant, Randal E.; David, O'Hallaron (2003), Computer Systems: A Programmer's Perspective (2003 ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, p. 40, ISBN   0-13-034074-X, archived from the original on 2007-08-06
  3. Wearmouth, Geoff. "An Assembly Listing of the ROM of the Sinclair ZX80". Archived from the original on August 15, 2015.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  4. Allison, Dennis. "Design Notes for Tiny BASIC". Archived from the original on 2017-04-10.
  5. Charles Crowley. "Data Structures for Text Sequences" Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine . Section "Introduction" Archived 2016-04-04 at the Wayback Machine .
  6. "strlcpy and strlcat - consistent, safe, string copy and concatenation." Archived 2016-03-13 at the Wayback Machine
  7. "A rant about strcpy, strncpy and strlcpy." Archived 2016-02-29 at the Wayback Machine
  8. Keith Thompson. "No, strncpy() is not a "safer" strcpy()". 2012.
  9. "The Prague Stringology Club". stringology.org. Archived from the original on 1 June 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  10. "Essential Perl". Archived from the original on 2012-04-21. Perl's most famous strength is in string manipulation with regular expressions.
  11. "x86 string instructions". Archived from the original on 2015-03-27.
  12. 1 2 Barbara H. Partee; Alice ter Meulen; Robert E. Wall (1990). Mathematical Methods in Linguistics. Kluwer.
  13. John E. Hopcroft, Jeffrey D. Ullman (1979). Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation. Addison-Wesley. ISBN   0-201-02988-X. Here: sect.1.1, p.1