CNBC Europe

Last updated

CNBC Europe
CNBC logo.svg
Broadcast areaEurope
Slogan "First in Business Worldwide"
(Since 16 October 2006)
HeadquartersLondon, United Kingdom
Programming
Picture format 1080i HDTV
(downscaled to 16:9 576i for the SDTV feed)
Ownership
Owner NBCUniversal
(Comcast)
Sister channels
History
Launched27 February 1995 (European Business News)
11 March 1996 (CNBC Europe)
Links
Website Official Website
Screenshot of European Closing Bell, showing the network's presentation style from 1 March 2010 to 28 March 2014. CNBC Europe screenshot.png
Screenshot of European Closing Bell , showing the network's presentation style from 1 March 2010 to 28 March 2014.
The CNBC Europe logo used prior to September 2008. CNBC Europe.svg
The CNBC Europe logo used prior to September 2008.

CNBC Europe (referred to on air simply as CNBC) is a business and financial news television channel which airs across Europe. The station is based in London, where it shares the Adrian Smith-designed [1] 10 Fleet Place building with organisations including Dow Jones & Company. Along with CNBC Asia, the channel is operated by the Singapore-headquartered CNBC subsidiary company CNBC International, which is in turn wholly owned by NBCUniversal.

Contents

European Business News TV (EBN) with Ed Mitchell, London, in 1996. Ed Mitchell on stage EBN TV in 1996.jpg
European Business News TV (EBN) with Ed Mitchell, London, in 1996.

As the most viewed pan-European financial TV channel according to the 2010 EMS survey, the broadcaster reaches over 100 million households across the continent. [2] CNBC Europe produces four hours of live programming each weekday and airs reports and content for its global sister stations and the outlets of NBC News.

History

1990s

CNBC Europe began broadcasts in March 1996, as a wholly owned subsidiary of NBC. On 9 December 1997, the channel announced that it would merge with the Dow Jones news channel in Europe, European Business News (EBN), which had been on air since 1995. The merger took place in February 1998, upon which the channel then became known officially as "CNBC Europe – A Service of NBC and Dow Jones".

2000s

CNBC Europe has leaned generally on the U.S. CNBC on-air graphical look in the past. However, in June 2003, it revamped a number of its programmes, taking many of them away from the U.S. formats. [3] CNBC Europe re-launched its on-air image in September 2004, but instead of adapting the U.S. title sequences for programmes, designed all of its title sequences itself from scratch (while still using the U.S. music adopted in September 2003).

In July 2005, NBC Universal announced that it would be acquiring the Dow Jones stake in CNBC Europe, subject to required regulatory clearances. On 30 December 2005, CNBC Europe became a wholly owned subsidiary of NBC Universal. [4] Dow Jones continues to provide content to the channel. On 1 January 2006, in line with this, the channel dropped the "A Service of NBC Universal and Dow Jones" tagline.

On 18 September 2006, CNBC Europe debuted a new graphics package, which is similar to that used by its U.S. counterpart (first seen in the United States on 19 December 2005). Like CNBC Asia (which debuted a new graphics package similar to CNBC U.S. and Europe on 30 October 2006), it elected to keep the previous theme music (CNBC Asia did so until March 2007). In addition, CNBC Europe also elected to keep its September 2004 opening titles for most programmes.

The channel adopted a new schedule on 26 March 2007 which included a new pan-regional programme, Capital Connection . [5] New title sequences were given to Power Lunch Europe and Europe Tonight to coincide with changes to the form and content of those programmes, but unlike CNBC Asia, no other changes were made to the channel's on air look on this date (although Capital Connection uses CNBC Asia's new graphics as it is produced by that channel).

On 7 January 2008, the channel unveiled a revamped studio and new "lower thirds". The lower-third style was distinct to CNBC Europe, but adopted some elements of the CNBC U.S. style.

On 29 September 2008 [6] the channel dropped "Europe" from its on-screen name, returning to the CNBC brand it had previously used for a spell in the 1990s. This positioned the station in-line with its U.S. and Asian counterparts, which are also referred to simply as CNBC. [7] Some minor on-screen changes were introduced to coincide with the rebrand.

On 1 December 2008 the channel relaunched its flagship programme Squawk Box Europe , with a new look not derived from CNBC U.S. at all. At the same time a third line was added to the ticker detailing general news stories. [8]

On 15 December 2008 the channel announced that long running show Power Lunch Europe would be removed from the schedule and be replaced, in both Ireland and the United Kingdom only, with a 12-week run of Strictly Money , a new programme focussing specifically on UK issues. This marks the creation of a new UK/Ireland opt-out for CNBC Europe. [9] The new schedule aired from 12 January 2009, with Strictly Money remaining in the schedule until its cancellation in March 2011.

CNBC Europe debuted a new lower thirds, which were completely different from its sister U.S. and Asian channels, on 27 July 2009.

2010s - 2020s

On 22 January 2010, the station ended its encryption on digital satellite television in the UK to increase its viewer footprint to an estimated 11 million households. [10] The channel was subsequently added to Freesat on 23 February 2010. [11]

A significantly revamped studio was unveiled in May 2011 [12] along with a new format for various programmes.

The network was formally merged with CNBC Asia in December 2011 to form a new Singapore-based company, CNBC International, to manage the two stations. As a result of the merger CNBC Asia managing director Satpal Brainch was appointed to lead the new company, with his European counterpart Mick Buckley leaving his post. [13]

On 31 March 2014, CNBC Europe launched in widescreen (16:9) and changed its lower thirds to match the on-air style of its sister CNBC Asia channel, which also launched in widescreen on the same day. The new look also saw the removal of the on-screen clock, which CNBC Europe had shown during live European and American programming since the channel was launched. This new on-air style did not carry over to CNBC US, which continued to use the old on-air style. CNBC US would ultimately follow with its own launch in 16:9 widescreen on 13 October 2014. An on-screen clock returned on this day (13 October) but it was a world clock with the time from various financial capitals shown on a rotating basis. CNBC Europe's current on-air style (which is based on the US design used since 13 October 2014) was launched 9 March 2015, exactly a month after its sister Asia channel.

On 10 November 2015, CNBC announced cutbacks to its international television operation, including the closure of its Paris and Tokyo bureaus, and a two-hour reduction in local programming from London (which will be filled with more programming from the U.S. feed). The cuts, which will result in the layoff of 15 employees, comes as part of a wider focus on providing European market coverage via digital platforms, such as the CNBC website. [14] The programming cutbacks from London took effect on 4 January 2016. Only two programmes, Squawk Box Europe and the European version of Street Signs (the latter debuted on the same day), are produced out of CNBC Europe's Fleet Place studios in London. [15]

On 1 February 2019, CNBC Europe launched free-to-air in HD on Astra 28.2°E. [16] and 19 June 2021, change frequency free-to-air in HD on Astra 28.2°E to 12,168 GHz. [17]

On 12 November 2020, CNBC Europe also launched channel free-to-air in HD on Hot Bird 13°E. [18]

Ratings

Unlike its American sister station, CNBC Europe does not have its ratings measured on a daily basis: the channel resigned its membership of the UK's Broadcasters' Audience Research Board in September 2004 in protest at its refusal to incorporate out-of-home viewing into its audience figures. [19] The network instead focuses its viewership measure strictly towards the top 20% income bracket, where figures are compiled as part of Synovate's European Media and Marketing Survey (EMS). CNBC Europe's monthly viewership grew steadily from 1.7 million to 6.7 million in the decade after its 1998 merger with European Business News, with annual growth coming in at around 10%. [7] In the EMS survey covering 2010, the network's monthly reach was reported to be 6.8 million. [2]

Programming

European Business Day

Current programming

CNBC Europe produces live business day programming from 7h to 11h CET. The major business day programmes, all broadcast from London, on CNBC Europe are:

In addition, CNBC Europe produces other business-related programmes. These programmes are premiered at 23h CET and repeated at various times over the weekend. These are:

  • Access: Middle East
  • The Edge
  • Marketing Media Money
  • The CNBC Conversation

During the business day, the CNBC Europe Ticker is displayed during both programmes and commercials, providing information on share prices from the leading European stock exchanges (this means that advertisements on CNBC Europe are formatted differently from those on most television channels, taking up only part of the screen). When programming from CNBC Asia is shown, that network's ticker is displayed. A stack (or bug) providing index and commodity prices was displayed in the bottom right hand corner of the screen until December 2005, when it was replaced with a strip across the top of the screen (in line with the other CNBC channels). The ticker was decreased in size at the same time. The bug was moved back to the bottom right hand corner of the screen on 13 October 2014.

Past programming

CNBC Europe's headquarters in Fleet Place, London. Fleet Place.jpg
CNBC Europe's headquarters in Fleet Place, London.

Rebroadcasts of CNBC U.S. and CNBC Asia

In addition to its own programming, CNBC Europe also broadcasts live almost all of the business day programming from CNBC U.S.. Worldwide Exchange , Squawk on the Street , TechCheck , Fast Money Half Time Report , Power Lunch and Closing Bell are all broadcast in their entirety. Squawk Box is also now shown in full right across Europe, but prior to March 2011 only the final two hours of the show were available to viewers in the UK and Ireland because CNBC Europe broadcast Strictly Money to UK and Irish viewers. However, on the day when CNBC Europe broadcasts its coverage of the monthly announcements of the UK and European Central Bank lender rates, only the first hour of Squawk Box is shown on CNBC Europe. Squawk Alley was originally not shown because it clashed with European Closing Bell , until the latter show was cancelled on 18 December 2015. Fast Money is occasionally seen on CNBC Europe, such as during major events as a way of providing the channel with continued live programming, Mad Money has yet to be seen on CNBC Europe and The News with Shepard Smith is currently being shown between November and March on a four-hour tape delay to fill the one-hour gap between the end of Street Signs and the start of Capital Connection , created by Europe not being on Daylight Saving Time.

While the U.S. markets are open, the CNBC Europe Ticker is modified to carry U.S. share prices. A break filler, consisting of HotBoards (CNBC's custom stock price graphs) is often broadcast during U.S. programming, owing to the increased number of advertising breaks. In addition, for many years, during the evening a recorded Europe Update, a 90-second run down of the European closing prices, and for a time in 2013 this concept was extended into daytime when CNBC Europe broadcast brief European updates twice an hour when the network was broadcasting CNBC U.S.'s Squawk programmes. These segments were broadcast live and, as with the recorded evening updates, were inserted into commercial breaks. Europe Update has now been discontinued and has been replaced with an insert detailing current items on CNBC Europe's website.

The channel also broadcasts live the majority of CNBC Asia's output. However broadcasts of CNBC Asia's live programming had been scaled back in the late 2000s as the channel had broadcast teleshopping and, latterly, poker programming overnight. During the period when poker was shown CNBC Europe only broadcast the final hour (final two hours between April and October) of Asian programming, apart from late Sunday night/early Monday morning when the channel broadcast CNBC Asia's full morning line-up. In 2009, the majority of Asian programming was reinstated although the entire broadcast day of CNBC Asia is still only shown on Sunday night/early Monday morning.

Other programmes

For two hours each weeknight and all weekend the channel does not air live business programming. The weeknight non-business output runs from 10 pm until midnight UK time and consists of an edition of a weekly business magazine show, an edition of Late Night With Seth Meyers and a live broadcast of NBC Nightly News with Lester Holt. At the weekend, programming consists of weekly business magazine programmes such as On The Money and Managing Asia , news and current affairs, sport, several editions of chat show Late Night With Seth Meyers , paid religious programming and special programmes, such as CNBC on Assignment, dedicated to the world of financial news and politics.

The channel also broadcasts four hours of sports programming under the banner of CNBC Sports. The block airs on Saturday and Sunday between 10 am and 2 pm UK time. The middle two hours are devoted to highlights of the US PGA Golf Tour with the rest made up of other highlights and of magazine show Mobil 1 The Grid .

The channel airs some programmes from sister network NBC. These include NBC talk show Late Night With Seth Meyers and NBC Nightly News with Lester Holt. The channel also airs NBC's Sunday morning political talk show Meet The Press , showing it a few hours after its live broadcast.

CNBC Europe carries paid religious programmes. They are shown in a two-hour block on Sundays, between 7am and 9am, with one 30-minute programme broadcast on Saturday mornings.

Previously, the channel had given over much of the overnight hours to teleshopping. Most teleshopping output was broadcast at the weekend although for a time in the mid-2000s, teleshopping was broadcast overnight during the week. Teleshopping ended on CNBC Europe in the early 2010s.

Former programming

CNBC Life

In February 2008 a weekend nine-hour CNBC Life strand, [20] was launched. This slot, which ran during the afternoon and evening, incorporated the already established weekend afternoon sporting coverage of sports such as PGA Tour golf, tennis and yachting with new programming which included travel programmes produced by the Travel Channel, output from The Luxury Channel, news and current affairs broadcasts as well as the airing of programs from sister channels, such as The Tonight Show and Meet the Press . In September 2010 CNBC Europe began airing a series of operas and ballets on Sunday afternoons under the title of CNBC Performance. The 20-part series began in September 2010 and ran until the end of January 2011. [21] This programming was repeated during the rest of 2011.

Since 2012 CNBC Life began to be wound down in favour of a schedule more focused on its core remit of business programming and the lifestyle, travel and CNBC Performance elements started to be removed from the schedule. The CNBC Life branding finally disappeared in 2018.

Simulcasts of MSNBC

The channel used to air American news channel MSNBC during weekend overnights and during the afternoon on American public holidays. CNBC Europe also carried MSNBC during major non-business related breaking news.

By the end of the 2000s, CNBC Europe had stopped showing MSNBC. Standard weekend programming replaced the overnight broadcasts and on American bank holidays CNBC Europe now broadcasts replays of its weekly magazine programmes. Coverage of non-business related breaking news now comes from either CNBC U.S. or NBC News.

Extended programming

In the past CNBC Europe has broadcast extended European programming on U.S. bank holidays. In the mid 2000s, this took the form of an extended edition of Power Lunch Europe , during 2009 and 2010 CNBC had broadcast Strictly Money to the whole of Europe and in 2012 and 2013 the network broadcast a three-hour edition of Worldwide Exchange and a two-hour edition of European Closing Bell . In 2014 and 2015, CNBC Europe did not broadcast any extended programming on U.S. bank holidays, although on many of the 2016 American bank holidays, CNBC Europe broadcast two-hour editions of Street Signs.

Since the start of 2016, CNBC Europe has broadcast almost all of the CNBC US live business day schedule. Previously, the full schedule had only been seen on Europe-wide bank holidays which were regular working days in the United States (CNBC Asia produced Worldwide Exchange on those days) and between Christmas and the new year as CNBC Europe produces less European programming at this time.

On the day each month when the bank lending rates are announced, CNBC Europe broadcasts Decision Time, which airs between 1300 CET and 1500 CET.

The channel provides extra programming during the annual January gathering in Davos of the World Economic Forum. In addition to coverage during its regular programmes, the channel broadcasts a daily one-hour special programme beginning at 1600 CET.

The channel also occasionally opts out of American programming for one-off interviews and/or special coverage of a specific event.

Simulcasts outside Europe

All of CNBC Europe's live programming is broadcast in their entirety in the U.S. on CNBC World and Squawk Box Europe and Street Signs are shown on CNBC Asia.

The CNBC Europe ticker is seen on CNBC World but not on CNBC Asia and CNBC U.S.

Presenters

[22]

Current anchors and correspondents

Then-CNBC Europe journalist Louisa Bojesen moderates a debate at the 2009 World Economic Forum on the Middle East in Jordan. Louisa Bojesen - 2009 WEF Middle East.jpg
Then-CNBC Europe journalist Louisa Bojesen moderates a debate at the 2009 World Economic Forum on the Middle East in Jordan.

Staff are based in London unless otherwise stated.

CNBC Europe anchor Geoff Cutmore moderates a debate at the 2008 World Economic Forum: New Champions meeting in Tianjin, China. CNBC World Economic Forum debate.jpg
CNBC Europe anchor Geoff Cutmore moderates a debate at the 2008 World Economic Forum: New Champions meeting in Tianjin, China.

Contributors

Past anchors and reporters

Affiliate channels and partnerships

There is a feed of CNBC Europe for Scandinavian countries called CNBC Nordic. [23] It shows identical programmes to CNBC Europe but has a ticker focussing on Scandinavian stock exchanges.

The channel also operates a separate feed for the United Kingdom. Before late 2008 this was used only occasionally, usually for advertising purposes. [24] The network has since begun to actively market the feed to potential advertisers, [24] and at the start of 2009 its first UK-specific programming, Strictly Money, began, initially as a 12-week experiment but the programme continued to air until March 2011. Now the only UK-specific programming is the occasional weekend teleshopping broadcast. Viewers in Ireland also receive this feed.

The following European channels also fall under the CNBC brand:

In December 2003, CNBC Europe signed an agreement with German television news channel N24 to provide regular updates from the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. [29] Correspondents Silvia Wadhwa, Patricia Szarvas and Annette Weisbach report throughout the day in German. In June 2008 the channel also began producing thrice-daily video reports in German for the website of Focus magazine. [30]

Other services

CNBC Europe is narrowcast in London's black cabs on the Cabvision network. [31] Since 2005, CNBC Europe also produces the monthly magazine CNBC Business (formerly named CNBC European Business) in conjunction with Ink Publishing. The magazine is aimed at senior business people and business travellers.

Related Research Articles

CNBC American television business news channel

CNBC is an American pay television business news channel owned by NBCUniversal News Group, a division of NBCUniversal, with both indirectly owned by Comcast. Headquartered in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, the network primarily carries business day coverage of U.S. and international financial markets. Following the end of the business day and on non-trading days, CNBC primarily carries financial and business-themed documentaries and reality shows.

CNBC Asia Southeast Asian pay television channel

CNBC Asia is a Southeast Asian pay television business channel in Asia. A subsidiary of NBCUniversal, it is the Asian service of CNBC. Its programmes originate from Singapore, Hong Kong and Sydney.

News ticker

A news ticker is a horizontal or vertical text-based display either in the form of a graphic that typically resides in the lower third of the screen space on a television station or network or as a long, thin scoreboard-style display seen around the facades of some offices or public buildings dedicated to presenting headlines or minor pieces of news. It is an evolution of the ticker tape, a continuous paper print-out of stock quotes from a printing telegraph which was mainly used in stock exchanges before the advance of technology in the 1960s.

NBC Europe Former pan-European cable and satellite television network known as Super Channel

NBC Europe was a satellite television network based in the United Kingdom that broadcast across Europe, and it was picked up by various European cable systems where available.

<i>Squawk Box</i>

Squawk Box is an American business news television program that airs from 6 to 9 a.m. Eastern time on CNBC. The program is co-hosted by Joe Kernen, Becky Quick, and Andrew Ross Sorkin. Since debuting in 1995, the show has spawned a number of versions across CNBC's international channels, many of which employ a similar format. The program title originates from a term used in investment banks and stock brokerages for a permanent voice circuit or intercom used to communicate stock deals or sales priorities; it also may refer to the squawk of a bird, like a peacock, which is the logo of CNBC.

Bloomberg Television Financial and business cable news channel

Bloomberg Television is an American-based pay television network centered towards business and capital market programming, owned by Bloomberg L.P. It is distributed globally, reaching over 310 million homes worldwide. It is headquartered in New York City, with European headquarters in London and Asian headquarters in Hong Kong.

<i>Early Today</i>

Early Today is an American early morning television news program that is broadcast on NBC on weekday mornings. The program features general national and international news stories, financial and entertainment news, off-beat stories, national weather forecasts and sports highlights. As of 2017, it is anchored by Frances Rivera and Phillip Mena.

<i>Street Signs</i> (TV program)

Street Signs is a television business program that originally aired on CNBC, and currently airs on CNBC Asia and CNBC Europe. Before the Asian version debuted on March 31, 2014, it was broadcast on CNBC at 2:00pm ET. The CNBC United States version's final episode aired on February 6, 2015, due to Power Lunch returning to a two-hour format. The European version of Street Signs, which is aired in a one-hour format on CNBC Europe, debuted January 4, 2016.

CNBC-e Defunct Turkish television channel

CNBC-e is a Turkish free-to-air television channel operated in Turkey by CNBC Europe and the NTV Group. The channel shares its name with a co-owned magazine about CNBC-e. The economy-related morning and afternoon programmes of CNBC-e are in Turkish and are dedicated mainly to the global and Turkish financial markets such as the Istanbul Stock Exchange, while the evening programmes are mostly American TV series, films, talk shows and animations in English.

CNBC World American pay television business news channel

CNBC World is an American pay television business news channel operated by the NBCUniversal News Group which provides coverage of world markets alongside the domestic CNBC service, using programmes from CNBC's international networks based in Europe, Asia, India, and other regions served by a domestic CNBC channel or affiliate. Effectively, this makes the network's prime time timeslot the graveyard slot, due to time zone differences, when it simulcasts live programming from their overseas sister networks. During U.S. trading hours covered by the main CNBC network, several other pre-taped shows from CNBC's different international channels are also seen on the channel, along with CNBC Prime reality programming such as American Greed and other CNBC specials are shown, in order to force viewers to tune in to the main CNBC service for business information outside the Eurasian market days.

<i>Worldwide Exchange</i>

Worldwide Exchange is a television business news program on CNBC channels around the world. It used to be broadcast live from studios on three continents until May 11, 2012. The programme is anchored by Brian Sullivan and is produced at CNBC Global Headquarters in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Prior to January 4, 2016, it was produced by CNBC Europe in London.

Financial News Network American television network

The Financial News Network (FNN) was an American financial and business news television network that was launched November 30, 1981. The purpose of the network was to broadcast programming nationwide, five days a week for seven hours a day on thirteen stations, in an effort to expand the availability of business news for public dissemination. FNN was founded by Glen H. Taylor, a former minister of the Christian Church from 1950—1956, and producer of films for the California Department of Education. The channel was purchased by NBC in February 1991, and operations were integrated with rival cable financial news network, the Consumer News and Business Channel (CNBC), on May 21, 1991.

<i>Fast Money</i> (talk show)

Fast Money is an American financial stock trading talk show that began airing on the CNBC cable/satellite TV channel on June 21, 2006. Beginning October 10, 2007, it was broadcast every weeknight at 5pm ET, one hour after the close of trading on the New York Stock Exchange, until mid-2011 when it was moved to just four nights per week, Monday through Thursday, to make room for special option and currency trading shows on Friday evenings. On March 22, 2013, it returned to the Friday night slot as a half-hour show, followed by the Options Action half-hour show. The show originates from the NASDAQ MarketSite in New York City.

<i>Squawk Box Europe</i>

Squawk Box Europe is a television business news programme on CNBC Europe, aired from 7-10am CET each weekday. It also airs on CNBC Asia between 2.00 p.m.-5.00 p.m. Hong Kong / Singapore time, and in the United States on CNBC World at the respective time, 1:00 a.m. - 4:00 a.m., ET. The programme is co-anchored by Geoff Cutmore, Steve Sedgwick and Karen Tso. Prior to June 2003, the programme ran for only two hours, between 7.00 and 9.00 UK time but later gained an hour from Today's Business.

<i>Asia Squawk Box</i>

Asia Squawk Box is a television business news program on CNBC Asia, aired Monday through Friday from 6:00 a.m.-9:00 a.m.. This programme is also aired on CNBC World in the United States at the respective time, and on CNBC Europe from 11:00 p.m.-2:00 a.m. although only the Monday edition of the programme is broadcast in its entirety on CNBC Europe.

<i>Capital Connection</i> (TV programme)

Capital Connection is a television business news programme aired every weekday on various CNBC channels around the world. It is broadcast live from CNBC Asia's Singapore studios and from CNBC's Middle East headquarters in Abu Dhabi and is presented by Matthew Taylor and Hadley Gamble.

<i>Squawk Australia</i>

Squawk Australia was a television business news program that aired every weekday at 6:00am Singapore/Hong Kong/Taiwan time on CNBC Asia. It was broadcast live from CNBC Asia's Australia studio in Sydney, and anchored by Amanda Drury. It was produced by CNBC Asia from Australia. It was also seen in the United States on the CNBC World channel at 6:00pm ET or 5:00pm ET. On Sundays, it was simulcasted on CNBC Europe at 22.00 UK time or 23.00 CET time.

<i>Morning Call</i> (TV program)

Morning Call is an American TV business program that aired on CNBC, from 10AM to 12 noon ET weekdays. The show premiered as Midday Call on February 4, 2002, offered a clear focus on real-time market coverage at the heart of the trading day. Previous programs shown in the same time slot were The Money Wheel with Ted David and Martha MacCallum and Market Watch. The program last aired August 8, 2007.

The Rundown is a Singaporean pre-market business news television program broadcast from the Singapore Exchange Monday through Friday on CNBC Asia. The program aired daily across the Asia Pacific from 06:00 AM to 07:00 AM in Singapore and Hong Kong. It debuted on March 31, 2014, and aired through October 26, 2018.

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