Flag of Arkansas

Last updated

Arkansas
Flag of Arkansas.svg
Names Flag of Arkansas, Arkansas flag
Use State flag IFIS Equal.svg
Proportion2:3
AdoptedFebruary 26, 1913 (modifications made in 1923, 1924, and 2011)
DesignA rectangular field of red, on which is placed a large white diamond, bordered by a wide band of blue. Across the diamond is the word 'Arkansas' and four blue stars, one above, three below the word. On the blue band are placed 25 stars.
Designed by Willie K. Hocker

The flag of Arkansas, also known as the Arkansas flag, consists of a red field charged with a large blue-bordered white lozenge (or diamond). Twenty-nine five-pointed stars appear on the flag: twenty-five small white stars within the blue border, and four larger blue stars in the white diamond. The inscription "ARKANSAS" appears in blue within the white lozenge, with one star above and three stars below. The star above and the two outer stars below point upwards; the inner star below points downwards. The flag was designed by Willie K. Hocker of Wabbaseka, Arkansas, a member of Pine Bluff Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR).

Charge (heraldry) heraldic motif; an ordinary, common charge or symbol

In heraldry, a charge is any emblem or device occupying the field of an escutcheon (shield). This may be a geometric design or a symbolic representation of a person, animal, plant, object or other device. In French blazon, the ordinaries are called pièces while other charges are called meubles.

Lozenge (heraldry) heraldic charge

The lozenge in heraldry is a diamond-shaped charge, usually somewhat narrower than it is tall. It is to be distinguished in modern heraldry from the fusil, which is like the lozenge but narrower, though the distinction has not always been as fine and is not always observed even today. A mascle is a voided lozenge—that is, a lozenge with a lozenge-shaped hole in the middle—and the rarer rustre is a lozenge containing a circular hole in the centre. A field covered in a pattern of lozenges is described as lozengy; similar fields of mascles are masculy, and fusils, fusily. In civic heraldry, a lozenge sable is often used in coal-mining communities to represent a lump of coal.

Pentagram star polygon

A pentagram is the shape of a five-pointed star.

Contents

History

Hocker flag proposal (1912) Flag of Arkansas (Hocker).svg
FIAV proposal.svg Hocker flag proposal (1912)
Flag of Arkansas (1913-1923) Flag of Arkansas (1913).svg
FIAV historical.svg Flag of Arkansas (1913–1923)
Flag of Arkansas (1923-1924) Flag of Arkansas (1923).svg
FIAV historical.svg Flag of Arkansas (1923–1924)
Flag of Arkansas before 2011 color standardization Flag of Arkansas (1924-2011).svg
FIAV historical.svg Flag of Arkansas before 2011 color standardization

Around 1912, Pine Bluff Chapter of the DAR wished to present a state flag for the commissioning of the battleship USS Arkansas. When it was discovered that Arkansas did not have a state flag, the DAR chapter decided to sponsor a contest to design a flag. Hocker, a member of the Pine Bluff DAR chapter, won with a design that is similar to the current flag. She designed the flag with three blue stars in the middle of the white diamond and omitted "ARKANSAS". At the request of the flag committee, chaired by Secretary of State Earle Hodges, Hocker added "ARKANSAS" and rearranged the stars to one on top and two on bottom. This flag was adopted by the legislature on February 26, 1913. [1]

USS <i>Arkansas</i> (BB-33) dreadnought battleship

USS Arkansas (BB-33) was a dreadnought battleship, the second member of the Wyoming class, built by the United States Navy. She was the third ship of the US Navy named in honor of the 25th state, and was built by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation. She was laid down in January 1910, launched in January 1911, and commissioned into the Navy in September 1912. Arkansas was armed with a main battery of twelve 12-inch (305 mm) guns and capable of a top speed of 20.5 kn.

In 1923, the legislature added a fourth star, representing the Confederate States of America. This fourth star was originally placed so that there were two stars above the state name and two below; this was to include the Confederacy alongside Spain, France, and the United States. Since this disturbed the other two meanings of the original three stars, the legislature corrected this in 1924 by placing the Confederate star above "ARKANSAS" and the original three stars below it, as it is today. The 1924 design was confirmed as law in 1987 by Act 116, signed by Bill Clinton. [2]

Confederate States of America (de facto) federal republic in North America from 1861 to 1865

The Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy and the South, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was originally formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was heavily dependent upon agriculture, particularly cotton, and a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves.

Bill Clinton 42nd president of the United States

William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, and again from 1983 to 1992, and the attorney general of Arkansas from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat and many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy.

In 2011, Act 1205 (formerly House Bill 1546) was signed by Governor Beebe adding some more details to the state flag. In the terms of colors, the red and blue used on the state flag are Old Glory Red and Old Glory Blue. The Act also stated that flags purchased by the Secretary of State must be manufactured in the United States. [3] [4]

Symbolism

The flag's elements have a complex symbolism. According to the 1987 state law defining the flag, [5] the diamond represents Arkansas' status as "the only diamond-bearing state in the Union". (Crater of Diamonds State Park was the only diamond mine in North America at the time, before more recent discoveries in Colorado and Montana.) The number (25) of white stars around the border of the diamond represents Arkansas' position as the 25th state to join the union. The blue star above "ARKANSAS" represents the Confederate States of America, which Arkansas joined in secession. The design of the border around the white diamond evokes the saltire found on the Confederate battle flag.

Diamond Allotrope of carbon often used as a gemstone

Diamond is a solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At room temperature and pressure, another solid form of carbon known as graphite is the chemically stable form, but diamond almost never converts to it. Diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any natural material, properties that are utilized in major industrial applications such as cutting and polishing tools. They are also the reason that diamond anvil cells can subject materials to pressures found deep in the Earth.

Crater of Diamonds State Park

Crater of Diamonds State Park is a 911-acre (369 ha) Arkansas state park in Pike County, Arkansas, in the United States. The park features a 37.5-acre plowed field, the world's only diamond-bearing site accessible to the public. Diamonds have continuously been discovered in the field since 1906, including the Strawn-Wagner Diamond. The site became a state park in 1972 after the Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism purchased the site from the Arkansas Diamond Company and Ozark Diamond Mines Corporation, who had operated the site as a tourist attraction previously.

Colorado State of the United States of America

Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U.S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census.

The three stars below "ARKANSAS" have three separate meanings: [1]

The statute states that the two outer, upward-pointing stars of the three are considered "twin stars" representing the "twin states" of Arkansas and Michigan, which it claims were admitted together on June 15, 1836. However, that part of the statute contains two inaccuracies:

In 2001, a survey conducted by the North American Vexillological Association (NAVA) placed the Arkansas state flag 45th in design quality out of the 72 Canadian provincial, U.S. state, and U.S. territory flags ranked. [7]

Salute

The law defining the flag also defines a text to be used in saluting the flag: "I salute the Arkansas Flag with its diamond and stars. We pledge our loyalty to thee." [8]

See also

Related Research Articles

Flag of Alabama flag

The current flag of the state of Alabama was adopted by Act 383 of the Alabama state legislature on February 16, 1895:

The flag of the State of Alabama shall be a crimson cross of St. Andrew on a field of white. The bars forming the cross shall be not less than six inches broad, and must extend diagonally across the flag from side to side." – (Code 1896, §3751; Code 1907, §2058; Code 1923, §2995; Code 1940, T. 55, §5.)

Flag of Missouri flag

The flag of the state of Missouri consists of red, white, and blue stripes, with the Missourian state seal in the center. Designed by Mary Elizabeth Oliver, the red and white stripes, as is traditional, represent valor and purity, respectively. The blue represents three things: the permanency, vigilance, and justice of the state. The three colors also highlight the French influence on the state in its early years. The flag was made the official flag of the state on March 22, 1913, when then governor Elliot Woolfolk Major signed a bill making it official.

Flags of the Confederate States of America national flag representing the Confederate States of America

Three successive designs served as the official national flag of the Confederate States of America during its existence from 1861 to 1865.

Flag of Georgia (U.S. state) flag of the state of Georgia, United States

The current flag of the state of Georgia was adopted on May 8, 2003. The flag bears three stripes consisting of red-white-red, and a blue canton containing a ring of 13 white stars encompassing the state's coat of arms in gold. In the coat of arms, the arch symbolizes the state's constitution and the pillars represent the three branches of government: legislative, executive, and judicial. The words of the state motto, "Wisdom, Justice, and Moderation", are wrapped around the pillars, guarded by a male figure dressed in colonial attire dating back to the time of the American Revolutionary War. Within the arms, a sword is drawn to represent the defense of the state's constitution. An additional motto, In God We Trust, is positioned underneath these elements acting as the state's "foundation". The ring of stars that encompass the state's coat of arms symbolize Georgia's status as one of the original Thirteen Colonies. The design principle is based on the first national flag of the Confederacy, which was nicknamed the "Stars and Bars".

Flag of Michigan flag

The flag of the state of Michigan depicts the state's coat of arms on a dark blue field, as set forth by Michigan state law. The state has an official flag month from June 14 through July 14.

Flag of North Carolina national flag

The flag of the state of North Carolina is defined by law as follows:

That the flag of North Carolina shall consist of a blue union, containing in the center thereof a white star with the letter "N" in gilt on the left and the letter "C" in gilt on the right of said star, the circle containing the same to be one-third the width of the union. The fly of the flag shall consist of two equally proportioned bars; the upper bar to be red, the lower bar to be white; that the length of the bars horizontally shall be equal to the perpendicular length of the union, and the total length of the flag shall be one-third more than its width. That above the star in the center of the union there shall be a gilt scroll in semi-circular form, containing in black letters this inscription "May 20th 1775," and that below the star there shall be a similar scroll containing in black letters the inscription: "April 12th 1776".

Flag of Kansas flag

The flag of the State of Kansas was adopted in 1927. The elements of the state flag include the state seal and a sunflower. This original design was modified in 1961 to add the name of the state at the bottom of the flag.

Flag of Florida flag

The flag of Florida consists of a red saltire on a white background, with the state seal superimposed on the center. The design was approved by popular referendum November 6, 1900. The flag's current design has been in use since May 21, 1985, after the state seal was graphically altered and officially sanctioned for use by state officials.

Flag of Delaware flag

The flag of Delaware consists of a buff-colored diamond on a field of colonial blue, with the coat of arms of the state of Delaware inside the diamond. Below the diamond, the date December 7, 1787, declares the day on which Delaware became the first state to ratify the United States Constitution. The colors of the flag reflect the colors of the uniform of General George Washington.

Flag of Indiana Flag of the state of Indiana

The flag of Indiana was designed by Paul Hadley and officially adopted by the state of Indiana on May 11, 1917. It was the state's first official flag and has remained unchanged since then except for the creation of a statute to standardize the production of the flag.

Flag of Maine flag

The flag of the state of Maine features the state coat of arms on a blue field. In the center of the shield, a moose rests under a tall pine tree. A farmer and seaman represent the traditional reliance on agriculture and the sea by the state. The North Star represents the state motto: Dirigo.

Flag of Minnesota flag

The flag of Minnesota is the state flag of Minnesota and consists of scenes from the seal of Minnesota on a blue background. The first version of the flag was flown from 1893 until 1957, and was changed to be more easily manufacturable, and the state seal became simpler. The current flag was adopted in 1957 and the state seal on the flag was modified in 1983.

Flag of Mississippi state flag of Mississippi

The flag of the state of Mississippi was first adopted by the U.S. state of Mississippi in April 1894, replacing the unofficial flag that had been adopted in 1861 when Mississippi was a Confederate state. The flag was repealed in 1906 but remained in de facto use. When a referendum failed for a new design in April 2001, the state legislature voted to readopt the historic design that same month. Since Georgia adopted a new state flag in 2003, the Mississippi flag is the only U.S. state flag to include the Confederate battle flag's saltire.

Flag of Nevada flag

The flag of the U.S. state of Nevada consists of a cobalt blue field with a variant of the state's emblem in the upper left hand corner. The emblem contains a silver star, below which appears the state's name. Above the star is a golden-yellow scroll with the words "Battle Born", one of the state's mottos. Below the star and state name are two sprays of green sagebrush with yellow flowers.

Flag of Washington Flag

The state flag of Washington consists of the state seal, displaying an image of state namesake George Washington, on a field of dark green with gold fringe being optional. It is the only U.S. state flag with a field of green as well as the only state flag with the image of an American president. The Secretary of State regulates flag protocol related to the state flag, as well approving replica flags for commercial sale and other standards related to the flag.

Seal of Texas coat of arms

The Seal of the State of Texas was adopted through the 1845 Texas Constitution, and was based on the seal of the Republic of Texas, which dates from January 25, 1839.

Flag and seal of Illinois flag

The Great Seal of the State of Illinois is the official emblem of the state, and signifies the official nature of a document produced by the state of Illinois. The flag of the state of Illinois consists of the seal of Illinois on a white background, with the word "Illinois" underneath the seal. The present seal was adopted in 1869, the flag bearing the central elements of the seal was adopted in 1915, and the word Illinois was added to the flag in 1970.

Willie Kavanaugh Hocker was an American schoolteacher and designer of the current Arkansas flag.

Flag and coat of arms of Pennsylvania

The coat of arms of Pennsylvania is an official emblem of the state, alongside the seal and state flag, and was adopted in 1778. The flag of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania consists of a blue field on which the state coat of arms is embroidered. The Pennsylvania coat of arms features a shield crested by an American bald eagle, flanked by horses, and adorned with symbols of Pennsylvania's strengths—a ship carrying state commerce to all parts of the world; a clay-red plough, a symbol of Pennsylvania's rich natural resources; and three golden sheaves of wheat, representing fertile fields and Pennsylvania's wealth of human thought and action. An olive branch and cornstalk cross limbs beneath—symbols of peace and prosperity. The state motto, "Virtue, Liberty and Independence", appears festooned below. Atop the coat of arms is a bald eagle, representing Pennsylvania's loyalty to the United States.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Arkansas Secretary of State's educational website
  2. "As Governor, Bill Clinton Kept 'Confederate' Star On The Arkansas Flag". The Huffington Post. June 22, 2015. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
  3. "Bill Information" . Retrieved 2012-08-01.
  4. "Flag bill flies | Arkansas News". Arkansasnews.com. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  5. Ark. Code Ann. (1987), Section 14101; cited in B.F. Shearer and B.S. Shearer (2002), State Names, Seals, Flags, and Symbols, Greenwood Press, p. 54
  6. Encyclopedia of Arkansas
  7. "2001 State/Provincial Flag Survey - NAVA.org" (PDF). nava.org.
  8. "A.C.A. § 1-4-102" . Retrieved 3 November 2015.