Hampton University

Last updated

Hampton University
Hampton University Seal.png
Former names
Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute
Hampton Institute
Motto"The Standard of Excellence, An Education for Life"
Type Private historically black research university
EstablishedApril 1, 1868;153 years ago (1868-04-01)
Academic affiliations
Endowment $280.6 million (2020) [1]
Chancellor JoAnn Haysbert
President William R. Harvey
Provost JoAnn Haysbert
Undergraduates 3,836
Postgraduates 810
Location, ,
United States

37°01′19″N76°20′10″W / 37.022°N 76.336°W / 37.022; -76.336 Coordinates: 37°01′19″N76°20′10″W / 37.022°N 76.336°W / 37.022; -76.336
Campus Suburban, 314 acres (1.27 km2)
NewspaperThe Hampton Script [2]
Colors Reflex Blue & White    
Athletics NCAA Division I - FCS
Nickname Pirates
Affiliations Big South Conference
Website www.hamptonu.edu
Hampton University logo.png

Hampton University is a private historically black research university in Hampton, Virginia. It was founded in 1868 by black and white leaders of the American Missionary Association after the American Civil War to provide education to freedmen. It is home to the Hampton University Museum, which is the oldest museum of the African diaspora in the United States, and the oldest museum in the commonwealth of Virginia. [3] In 1878, it established a program for teaching Native Americans that lasted until 1923. It is classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity". [4]



The campus looking south across the harbor of Hampton Roads was founded on the grounds of "Little Scotland", a former plantation in Elizabeth City County not far from Fortress Monroe and the Grand Contraband Camp that gathered nearby. These facilities represented freedom to former slaves, who sought refuge with Union forces during the first year of the war.

The American Missionary Association (AMA) responded in 1861 to the former slaves' need for education by hiring its first teacher, Mary Smith Peake, who had secretly been teaching slaves and free blacks in the area despite the state's prohibition in law. She first taught for the AMA on September 17, 1861, and was said to gather her pupils under a large oak. After the tree was the site of the first reading in the former Confederate states of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, it was called the Emancipation Oak. The tree, now a symbol of the university and of the city, is part of the National Historic Landmark District at Hampton University.

The Hampton Agricultural and Industrial School, later called the Hampton Institute, was founded in 1868 after the war by the biracial leadership of the AMA, who were chiefly Congregational and Presbyterian ministers. It was first led by former Union General Samuel Chapman Armstrong. [5] Among the school's famous alumni is Dr. Booker T. Washington, an educator who founded the Tuskegee Institute.

Civil War

During the American Civil War (1861–1865), Union-held Fortress Monroe in southeastern Virginia at the mouth of Hampton Roads became a gathering point and safe haven of sorts for fugitive slaves. The commander, General Benjamin F. Butler, determined they were "contraband of war", to protect them from being returned to slaveholders, who clamored to reclaim them. As numerous individuals sought freedom behind Union lines, the Army arranged for the construction of the Grand Contraband Camp nearby, from materials reclaimed from the ruins of Hampton, which had been burned by the retreating Confederate Army. This area was later called "Slabtown." [6] [7]

Hampton University traces its roots to the work of Mary S. Peake, which began in 1861 with outdoor classes which she taught under the landmark Emancipation Oak in the nearby area of Elizabeth City County. The newly issued Emancipation Proclamation was first read to a gathering under the historic tree there in 1863. [6] [8]

After the War: teaching teachers

Hampton Institute, 1898 Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va (NYPL b12647398-62703).tiff
Hampton Institute, 1898
An 1899 class in mathematical geography Hampton Institute - geography.jpg
An 1899 class in mathematical geography

After the War, a normal school (teacher training school) was formalized in 1868, with former Union brevet Brigadier General Samuel C. Armstrong (1839–1893) as its first principal. The new school was established on the grounds of a former plantation named "Little Scotland", which had a view of Hampton Roads. The original school buildings fronted the Hampton River. Legally chartered in 1870 as a land grant school, it was first known as Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute.

Typical of historically black colleges, Hampton received much of its financial support in the years following the Civil War from the American Missionary Association (whose black and white leaders represented the Congregational and Presbyterian churches), other church groups, and former officers and soldiers of the Union Army. One of the many Civil War veterans who gave substantial sums to the school was General William Jackson Palmer, a Union cavalry commander from Philadelphia. He later built the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad, and founded Colorado Springs, Colorado. As the Civil War began in 1861, although his Quaker upbringing made Palmer abhor violence, his passion to see the slaves freed compelled him to enter the war. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for bravery in 1894. (The current Palmer Hall on the campus is named in his honor.)

Students in an 1899 bricklaying class Hampton Institute - bricklaying.jpg
Students in an 1899 bricklaying class

Unlike the wealthy Palmer, Sam Armstrong was the son of a missionary to the Sandwich Islands (which later became the U.S. state of Hawaii). He also had dreams for the betterment of the freedmen. He patterned his new school after the model of his father, who had overseen the teaching of reading, writing and arithmetic to the Polynesians. He wanted to teach the skills necessary for blacks to be self-supporting in the impoverished South. Under his guidance, a Hampton-style education became well known as an education that combined cultural uplift with moral and manual training. Armstrong said it was an education that encompassed "the head, the heart, and the hands."

At the close of its first decade, the school reported a total admission in those ten years of 927 students, with 277 graduates, all but 17 of whom had become teachers. Many of them had bought land and established themselves in homes; many were farming as well as teaching; some had gone into business. Only a very small proportion failed to do well. By another 10 years, there had been over 600 graduates. In 1888, of the 537 still alive, three-fourths were teaching, and about half as many undergraduates were also teaching. It was estimated that 15,000 children in community schools were being taught by Hampton's students and alumni that year. [9]

After Armstrong's death, Hampton's leaders continued to develop a highly successful external relations program that forged a network of devoted supporters. By 1900, Hampton was the wealthiest school serving African Americans, largely due to its success in development and fundraising. [10]

Hampton also had the only library school in the United States for educating black librarians. [11] The Hampton Institute Library School opened in 1925 and through its Negro Teacher-Librarian Program (NTLTP) trained and issued professional degrees to 183 black librarians. [11] The library school closed in 1939. [11]

Booker T. Washington: spreading the educational work

Among Hampton's earliest students was Booker T. Washington, who arrived from West Virginia in 1872 at the age of 16. He worked his way through Hampton, and then went on to attend Wayland Seminary in Washington D.C. After graduation, he returned to Hampton and became a teacher. Upon recommendation of Sam Armstrong to the founder Lewis Adams and others, of a small new school in Tuskegee Alabama that had begun in 1874. In 1881, Washington went to Tuskegee at age 25 to strengthen it and develop it to the status of a Normal school, one recognized as being able to produce qualified teachers. This new institution eventually became Tuskegee University. Embracing much of Armstrong's philosophy, Washington built Tuskegee into a substantial school and became nationally famous as an educator, orator, and fund-raiser as well. He collaborated with the philanthropist Julius Rosenwald in the early 20th century to create a model for rural black schools – Rosenwald established a fund that matched monies raised by communities to build more than 5,000 schools for rural black children, mostly in the South. Washington recruited his Hampton classmate (1875), Charles W. Greene [12] to the work at Tuskegee in 1888 to lead the Agriculture Department. Washington and Greene recruited George Washington Carver to the Tuskegee Agriculture faculty upon his graduation with a master's degree from Iowa State University in 1896. Carver provided such technical strength in Agriculture that in 1900, Booker T. Washington assigned Greene to establish a demonstration of black business capability and economic independence off-campus in Tuskegee. This project, entirely black-owned, comprised 4,000 lots of real estate and was formally established and designated Greenwood in 1901, as a demonstration for black-owned business and residential districts in every city in the nation with a significant black population. After Booker T. Washington visited Tulsa, Oklahoma in 1905 and addressed a large gathering there, the Oklahomans followed the Tuskegee model and named Tulsa's black-owned and operated district "Greenwood" in 1906.

Native Americans

In 1878, Hampton established a formal education program for Native Americans. In 1875 at the end of the American Indian Wars, the United States Army sent seventy-two warriors from the Cheyenne, Kiowa, Comanche and Caddo Nations, to imprisonment and exile in St. Augustine, Florida. Essentially they were considered hostages to persuade their peoples in the West to keep peace. Richard Henry Pratt supervised them at Fort Marion and began to arrange for their education in the English language and American culture. Numerous visitors to St. Augustine from the North became interested in their cases and volunteered as teachers. They also provided them with art supplies, and some of the resulting works (including by David Pendleton Oakerhater) are held by the Smithsonian Institution. At the end of the warriors' incarceration, Pratt convinced seventeen to enroll at Hampton Institute for a fuller education. [13] (Later Pratt founded the Carlisle Indian Industrial School based on the same philosophy of education and assimilation). Altogether, seventy Native Americans, young men and women from various tribes, mostly from the Plains rather than the acculturated tribes that had occupied Virginia, joined that first class. Because Virginia's aristocrats sometimes boasted of their Native American heritage through Pocahontas, it was hoped that the Native American students would help locals to accept the university's black students. The black students were also supposed to "civilize" the Native American students to current American society, and the Native Americans to "uplift the Negro[es]." [14] [15]

The program died in 1923, in the face of growing controversy over racial mingling. Native Americans stopped sending their boys to the school after some employers fired Native American men because they had been educated with blacks. The program's final director resigned because she could not prevent "amalgamation" between the Native American girls and black boys. [15]

Name changes, expansion, and community

Sunset at Hampton University Waterfront Sunset at Hampton University Waterfront.jpg
Sunset at Hampton University Waterfront
Hampton University Monroe Memorial Church HAMPTON UNIVERSITY Monroe Memorial Church.jpg
Hampton University Monroe Memorial Church

Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute became simply Hampton Institute in 1930. In 1931 the George P. Phenix School for all age groups was opened there under principal Ian Ross. A new nurses' training school was attached to the Dixie Hospital, with Nina Gage as director. [16] In 1945 the Austrian-American psychologist, art educator, and author of the influential text book Creative and Mental Growth [17] Viktor Lowenfeld joined the Hampton faculty as an assistant professor of industrial arts and eventually became chair of the Art Department. By 1971 the university offered 42 evening classes in programs including "Educational Psychology", "Introduction to Oral Communication", "Modern Mathematics", and "Playwriting", among others. [18] At the time, the tuition cost for these courses was $30 per semester hour. [18] With the addition of departments and graduate programs, it became Hampton University in 1984. [19] Originally located in Elizabeth City County, it was long-located in the Town of Phoebus, incorporated in 1900. Phoebus and Elizabeth City County were consolidated with the neighboring City of Hampton to form a much larger independent city in 1952. The City of Hampton uses the Emancipation Oak on its official seal. From 1960 to 1970, noted diplomat and educator Jerome H. Holland was president of the Hampton Institute.

2018 student protests and demands

In early 2018, Hampton University students launched a protest calling for the university administration to address several concerns they believed to be longstanding and urgent, including food quality, living conditions, and sexual assault. [20] Students shared videos and photos related to these concerns. [21] The university released a statement indicating that it was "moving forward" to address student concerns and issues. [22]

2020 Scott donation

In July 2020, philanthropist MacKenzie Scott donated $30 million to Hampton. The donation is the largest single gift in Hampton's history. [23] Hampton's president has sole discretion on how funds will be used but has committed to consulting with other university leaders on the best way to allocate the generous donation. [24] [23]


Aerial view of Hampton University Hampton University aerial view.jpg
Aerial view of Hampton University

The campus contains several buildings that contribute to its National Historic Landmark district: Virginia-Cleveland Hall (freshman female dormitory, as well as former home to the school's two cafeterias), Wigwam building (home to administrative offices), Academy Building (administrative offices), Memorial Chapel (religious services) and the President's Mansion House. [25] [26]

The original High School on the campus became Phenix Hall when Hampton City Public Schools opened a new Phenix High School in 1962. Phenix Hall was damaged in a minor fire on June 12, 2008. [27]

The Hampton University Museum was founded in 1868 and is the nation's oldest African-American museum. The museum contains over 9,000 pieces, some of which are highly acclaimed. [28]

Hampton University is home to 16 research centers. [29] The Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute is the largest free-standing facility of its kind in the world. [30]

The four libraries on campus are the William R. and Norma B. Harvey Library (main library), William H. Moses Jr. Architecture Library, the Music Library, and the Nursing Library. [31]

The Emancipation Oak was cited by the National Geographic Society as one of the 10 great trees in the world.

The waterfront campus is settled near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay.

National Historic Landmark District

Hampton Institute
USA Virginia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Usa edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
LocationNW of jct. of U.S. 60 and the Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel, Hampton, Virginia
Coordinates 37°01′13″N76°35′40″W / 37.0203°N 76.5945°W / 37.0203; -76.5945
Area314 acres (127 ha)
Built1866 (1866)
Architect Richard Morris Hunt; Et al.
NRHP reference No. 69000323 [32]
VLR No.114-0006
Significant dates
Added to NRHPNovember 12, 1969
Designated NHLDMay 30, 1974 [33]
Designated VLRSeptember 9, 1969 [34]

A 15-acre (61,000 m2) portion of the campus along the Hampton River, including many of the older buildings, is a U.S. National Historic Landmark District. Buildings included are:

In addition, Cleveland Hall, Ogden, and the Administration building are also included in the district. [35]

The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1969, [32] and declared a National Historic Landmark in 1974. [33] [35]

Student demographics

In 2015, nearly two-thirds of the student body was female and the other third male. Approximately 90% of the population identified as Black and only about 30% were Virginia residents. [36]


Hampton University has 10 accredited schools and colleges. [37]

As of 2020, Hampton offers 50 baccalaureate programs, 26 master's programs, 7 doctoral programs, 2 professional programs, and 10 associate/certificate programs. [39]

The Freddye T. Davy Honors College is a non-degree granting college that offers special learning opportunities and privileges to the most high-achieving undergraduates. To join the honors college, students must formally accept an invitation given by the college or directly apply for admissions into the college. [40]

Hampton University consistently ranks among the top five HBCUs in the nation and is ranked in Tier 3 (#217) among "National Universities" by U.S. News & World Report . [41] [42]

Hampton's student to faculty ratio is 10 to 1, which is better than the national university average of 18 to 1. [39] [43] Also, Hampton has the second highest graduation rate among HBCUs. [44] [45]

Hampton is the first and only HBCU to have 100% control of a NASA Mission. [46]

The Alumni Factor named Hampton one of the seven best colleges in Virginia. [47]

Hampton University is classified as a selective admissions institution. [48]

Student activities

There are over 55 student-run organizations on campus. [49]

Greek Life and organizations

OrganizationChapter NameChapter Symbol
CIO Alpha Eta Rho - ΑΗΡOmicron GammaΟΓ
NPHC Alpha Phi Alpha - ΑΦΑGamma IotaΓΙ
NPHC Alpha Kappa Alpha - ΑΚΑGamma ThetaΓΘ
CIO Chi Eta Phi - ΧΗΦTau BetaΤΒ
NPHC Delta Sigma Theta - ΔΣΘGamma IotaΓΙ
CIO Groove Phi Groove - GΦGPirate
NPHC Iota Phi Theta - ΙΦΘBetaΒ
NPHC Kappa Alpha Psi - ΚΑΨBeta ChiΒΧ
CIO Kappa Kappa Psi - KKΨNu OmegaΝΩ
NPHC Omega Psi Phi - ΩΨΦGamma EpsilonΓΕ
CIO Pershing Angels Company U-4-5U-4-5
CIO Pershing Rifles Company U-4U-4
NPHC Phi Beta Sigma - ΦΒΣBeta GammaΒΓ
CIO Phi Mu Alpha - ΦΜΑPi BetaΠΒ
CIO Sigma Alpha Iota - ΣΑΙMu GammaΜΓ
NPHC Sigma Gamma Rho - ΣΓΡZeta XiΖΞ
CIO Swing Phi Swing - SΦSUpenda Undergraduate
CIO Tau Beta Sigma - ΤΒΣTheta PhiΘΦ
NPHC Zeta Phi Beta - ΖΦΒRho AlphaΡΑ


Hampton's colors are reflex blue and white, and their nickname is "The Pirates". Hampton sports teams participate in NCAA Division I (FCS for football) in the Big South Conference. They joined this in 2018 upon leaving the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference. Before joining the Big South, Hampton won MEAC titles in many sports, including football, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's track, and men's and women's tennis. Hampton is one of two NCAA Division 1 HBCU institutions (along with Tennessee State University, in the Ohio Valley Conference) to not be a member of the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference or Southwestern Athletic Conference.

In 2016, Hampton became the first and only HBCU to field a Division I men's lacrosse team. ESPN held a broadcast on campus preceding the inaugural game in Armstrong Stadium. [50] [51]

Hampton is the only HBCU with a competitive sailing team.

Hampton University athletics logo Hampton University H Wordmark.gif
Hampton University athletics logo

In 2001, the Hampton basketball team won its first NCAA Tournament game, when they beat Iowa State 58–57, in one of the largest upsets of all time. They were only the fourth fifteen-seed to upset a two-seed in the tournament's history. They returned to the tournament a year later, as well as in 2006, 2011, 2015 and 2016, having won their conference basketball tournament. Their NCAA tournament record is 2–6, including the play-in game.

The "Lady Pirates" basketball team has seen great success as well, and made trips to the NCAA tournament in 2000, 2003, 2004, 2010–2014, and 2017. In 1988, as a Division II school, the Lady Pirates won the NCAA Women's Division II Basketball Championship, defeating West Texas State. In 2011, as a number-13 seed, the Lady Pirates nearly upset Kentucky, but fell in overtime, 66–62. In 2015, the Lady Pirates played in the Women's NIT, where they defeated Drexel 45–42 in the opening round. However, in the second round, the team lost to West Virginia 57–39.

The Pirates won their conference title in football in 1997, shared the title 1998 and 2004, and won it again outright in 2005 and 2006. From 2004 to 2006, the team won three MEAC Championships and three SBN-Black College National Championships, and was ranked in the Division I FCS top 25 poll each year. The Pirates also sent five players to the NFL Combine in 2007, the most out of any FCS subdivision school for that year. They have also been dominant in tennis, winning the MEAC from 1996 to 1999, 2001–2003 and 2007 for the men, and 1998 and 2002–2004 for the women.

Major rivals include Norfolk State University, located across Hampton Roads in downtown Norfolk, and Howard University in Washington, D.C.

In 2019, Hampton revived their rivalry with Virginia Union University from Richmond, Virginia.

"The Marching Force" marching band

Pirate athletics are supported by a plethora of groups, including "The Marching Force" Marching Band. The marching band has appeared at several notable events, including a Barack Obama Presidential Inauguration parade in Washington, DC. "The Force" was chosen out of a large pool of applicants to participate in the parade as the representative for the state of Virginia. "The Force" is complemented by the "Ebony Fire" all-women danceline, as well as "Silky", the flag team, and as of 2018, "Shimmering Sapphire Elegance" the majorette team.

On January 1, 2020, The Force made history by being the first HBCU to perform in Rome, Italy and the Vatican City in the Rome New Years Day Parade as part of the World Day of Peace. [52]

Notable alumni


NameClass yearNotabilityReference(s)
Robert S. Abbott 1896founder of The Chicago Defender
Robert Brokenburr 1906attorney; counsel and general manager for the Madame C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company
Percy Creuzot 1949Founder of creole restaurant chain Frenchy's Chicken in Houston, Texas [53]
Henry E. Hallco-founder and president of Mammoth Life and Accident Insurance Company, which became the largest black-owned business in Kentucky. Mammoth later merged with Atlanta Life
Rashida Jones 2002President of MSNBC; former Vice President of NBC News and MSNBC [54]
Keith Leaphart 1996entrepreneur, philanthropist and physician
Charles Phillips 1986Former Chairman and CEO of Infor; former President of Oracle Corporation
John H. Sengstacke 1934owner and publisher of the largest chain of black newspapers in the U.S.; founder of the National Newspaper Publishers Association
Charles Shearer1880Built the inn Shearer Cottage on Martha's Vineyard
Percy Sutton Co-founder of Inner City Broadcasting Corporation; investor in the New York Amsterdam News and the Apollo Theater; producer of It's Showtime at the Apollo
Thomas W. Youngpresident and general manager of the Norfolk Journal and Guide; took over the newspaper after the passing of his father, who bought the publication in 1910


NameClass yearNotabilityReference(s)
St. Clair Drake 1931sociologist and anthropologist; created the first African and African American studies program at Stanford University
Luther H. Foster Jr. 1934fourth president of Tuskegee University and president of the United Negro College Fund
Martha Louise Morrow Foxx blind educator; principal of the Mississippi School for the Blind
Charles W. Green 1875headed Tuskegee University’s Agriculture Department and hired George W. Carver; developed the Greenwood business district adjacent to Tuskegee for Booker T. Washington to serve as a model for black business development [55]
Freeman A. Hrabowski III 1969President of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County; Heinz Award
William C. HunterDean emeritus of the Tippie College of Business at University of Iowa; former senior vice president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago [56]
Dr. Wilmer Leonpolitical scientist and associate professor in the Political Science Department at Howard University; talk show host on Urban View Channel 110 on Sirius XM Radio [57]
Robert Russa Moton 1890Second president of Tuskegee University and head of the National Negro Business League; advisor to five U.S. presidents; Spingarn Medal; Harmon Award
Kimberly Oliver2006 National Teacher of the Year [58]
Hugh R. Page 1977professor of theology and Africana Studies at the University of Notre Dame [59]
James Solomon Russell Founder, president and chaplain of Saint Paul's College (Virginia); Harmon Award
Spencer Shaw 1940professor of library science at the University of Washington [60]
Booker T. Washington 1875founder of Tuskegee University and the National Negro Business League; trustee of the Jeanes Fund; launched the National Negro Health movement
William T. B. Williams 1888Field agent for the Jeanes Fund and Slater Fund and U.S. government consultant; reports helped establish hundreds of training schools; Spingarn Medal
Constance Hill Marteena 1933librarian and president of the North Carolina Negro Library Association
Stephen J. Wright 1934seventh president of Fisk University and president of the United Negro College Fund

Entertainment, media, and the arts

NameClass yearNotabilityReference(s)
Emil Wilbekin 1989Black & gay rights activist, former Editor-in-Chief of Vibe (magazine), Giant (magazine), and Essence (magazine), founder of Native Son Now
Leslie Garland Bolling 1918early 20th-century wood carver
John T. Biggers Harlem Renaissance muralist and founder of the Art Department at Texas Southern University
J.I.D rapper, signed to Dreamville Records in 2017
Ruth E. Carter 1982 Academy Award winning costume designer; Black Panther
Spencer Christian former weatherman for Good Morning America , 1986–1998
Rashida Jones 2002first African-American to lead a major cable news network (MSNBC) [61]
DJ Babey Drew 2003 Grammy Award winning record producer and disc jockey
Doctur Dot 2012Rapper, Member of EARTHGANG and co-founder of Spillage Village
DJ Envy 1999disc jockey and host of The Breakfast Club
Brandon Fobbs 2002actor; The Wire , Pride , This Christmas
Beverly Gooden 2005writer and activist
Biff Henderson stage manager and personality on the Late Show with David Letterman
Weldon Irvine 1965composer, playwright, poet, pianist, organist, and keyboardist. Wrote over 500 songs, including the lyrics for "To Be Young, Gifted and Black"
DJ Tay James 2009disc jockey for Justin Bieber
Dorothy Maynor 1933concert singer; first black American to sing at a U.S. presidential inauguration; founder of The Harlem School of the Arts
Javicia Leslie 2009actress; Batwoman , God Friended Me , Always a Bridesmaid , The Family Business
Samella Lewis 1945Painter, printmaker; founder of the International Review of African American Art; first black American female to earn a Ph.D. in fine art and art history
Orpheus McAdoo 1876minstrel show impresario; toured Britain, South Africa and Australia [62]
MC Ride musician; best known for being the lead vocalist of Death Grips
Robi Reed 1982Casting director; first black American to win an Emmy Award for casting; The Tuskegee Airmen , Harlem Nights , In Living Color
Clarissa Sligh 1961photographer, book artist; lead plaintiff in the Virginia school desegregation case Thompson v County School Board of Arlington County
Brandon Mychal Smith Actor
Nikkolas Smith Author, Illustrator, Film Artist. Known for painting the "King Chad" Mural in Disneyland
Wanda Sykes 1986 Emmy Award winning actress, comedian and writer
Johnny Venus 2012Rapper, Member of EARTHGANG and co-founder of Spillage Village
Roslyn Walker 1966Curator of African Art, Dallas Museum of Art; former director of the National Museum of African Art
A. S. (Doc) Young 1941First black publicist in Hollywood; executive editor of the Los Angeles Sentinel ; sports editor for Jet and Ebony magazines [63]

Politics and government

NameClass yearNotabilityReference(s)
Orison Rudolph Aggrey 1946Former U.S. Ambassador to The Gambia, Senegal and Romania
Ebenezer Ako-Adjei 1942One of the Big Six leaders in the Gold Coast’s struggle for independence from Britain; served as Ghana’s first Minister for Trade and Labor, first Minister for Justice and first Minister for Foreign Affairs
Honorable Roxanne E. Covington Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas Judge [64]
Tameika Isaac-Devine First Black councilwoman for the city of Columbia, South Carolina.
Ambrose Mandvulo Dlamini 1996 Prime minister of Eswatini; CEO of Nedbank Eswatini and CEO of MTN Eswatini
Allyson Kay Duncan 19724th Circuit US Circuit Court Judge [65]
George Washington Fields 1878First black graduate of Cornell Law School; member of the Virginia House of Delegates
Frankie Muse Freeman 1936Civil rights attorney; first woman appointed to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights; Spingarn Medal
Vanessa D. Gilmore 1977Federal Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas [66]
Tishaura Jones1994First Black Female Mayor of St. Louis [67]
Theodore Theopolis Jones II 1965Associate Judge of the Court of Appeals, New York [68]
Gloria Gary Lawlah1960Secretary of Aging for the State of Maryland [69]
Spencer Overton 1990election scholar, George Washington University Law School [70]
Douglas Palmer 1973Mayor of Trenton, New Jersey
Henry E. Parker 1965 Connecticut State Treasurer (1975–1986)
Robin R. Sanders 1977Former U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of the Congo and Nigeria
Gregory M. Sleet US District Court Judge for the United States District Court for the District of Delaware
Sylvia Trent-Adams 1987First African-American nurse to serve as Surgeon General of the United States [71]
Charles Wesley Turnbull 1958former governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands
W. Carlton Weddington member of Ohio House of Representatives
Ivory Lee Young Jr.1986City Councilmember with the Atlanta City Council District 3, Atlanta, Georgia 2002–2018 [72]
Stephanie Young2006Director of African American Outreach, Associate Director of Communications, The White House [73]

Science, health care, technology, engineering and mathematics

NameClass yearNotabilityReference(s)
William Warrick Cardozo 1923early sickle cell anemia researcher
William Claytor 1900pioneering African-American mathematician [74]
Moogega Cooper 2006Engineer; Lead of Planetary Protection for the Mars 2020 Mission at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Christine Darden 1962 NASA mathematician and aeronautical engineer; supersonic flight and sonic boom researcher featured in the book Hidden Figures
Mary Jackson 1942Pioneering African-American human computer and aerospace engineer for NASA [75]
Ayana Jordan 2001psychiatrist and professor at Yale School of Medicine [76]
Flemmie Pansy Kittrell 1928pioneer in nutrition and child development; first woman of color to earn a Ph.D. in nutrition; was instrumental in creating the Head Start program
Susan La Flesche Picotte 1886first Native American physician
Devin G. Walker 1998 Dark matter researcher; theoretical particle physicist at Dartmouth College; first black American to earn a Ph.D. in physics from Harvard University

Sociology and humanities

NameClass yearNotabilityReference(s)
Clara Byrd Baker Educator, civic leader, and suffragette [77]
Septima Poinsette Clark 1946“queen mother” of the Civil Rights Movement; Clark’s citizenship classes helped enable many Black Southerners to register and vote
George Clinton Cooper1939member of the Golden Thirteen, the first black commissioned officers in the U.S. Navy
Alberta Williams King 1924mother of Martin Luther King Jr.
Elisabeth Omilami Chief Executive Officer of Hosea Feed the Hungry and Homeless
William Henry Sheppard 1883Presbyterian Church missionary; reported on the Belgian atrocities in the Congo; pioneering African art collector
Mychal Denzel Smith 2008writer at The Nation, television commentator and author
Thomas Calhoun Walker 1883attorney and land ownership advocate; purchased land and sold it back to local farmers; Gloucester County, Virginia led the nation in per capita black farm ownership in 1930


NameClass yearNotabilityReference(s)
Chris Baker 2008current NFL defensive tackle [78]
Darian Barnes former NFL running back
Johnnie Barnes former NFL wide receiver
Jamal Brooks 1999former NFL linebacker [79]
James Carter award-winning track athlete
Mo'ne Davis 2023Participant in the 2014 Little League World Series and 2014 AP Women's Athlete of the Year; began playing for Hampton softball in the 2020 season [80] [81]
Marcus Dixon current CFL defensive tackle; also played in the NFL for the Dallas Cowboys and the New York Jets [82]
Reggie Doss former NFL defensive end
Justin Durant 2007current NFL linebacker, Jacksonville Jaguars, Detroit Lions
Kenrick Ellis current NFL defensive tackle, New York Jets [83]
Devin Green 2005former NBA player [84]
Isaac Hilton former NFL defensive end [85]
Rick Mahorn 1980former NBA player, Washington Bullets, Detroit Pistons, New Jersey Nets; WNBA Detroit Shock Head Coach [86]
Jerome Mathis former NFL wide receiver [87]
Nevin McCaskill former NFL offensive lineman [88]
Francena McCorory 2010 track and field, NCAA 400m three-time champion [89]
Marquay McDaniel 2007 CFL football player, Hamilton Tiger-Cats
Dick Price1957former head football coach at Norfolk State University, 1974–1983; former head coach of track team and athletic director at Norfolk State [90]
Donovan Rose 1980former NFL defensive back and former head coach of the Hampton Pirate football team [91]
Zuriel Smith 2002former NFL wide receiver and return specialist [92]
Cordell Taylor former NFL defensive back [93]
Terrence Warren former NFL wide receiver [91]
Kellie Wells track and field Olympic athlete; 100m hurdle bronze medalist, 2012

See also

Related Research Articles

Booker T. Washington American educator, author, orator and adviser

Booker Taliaferro Washington was an American educator, author, orator, and adviser to several presidents of the United States. Between 1890 and 1915, Washington was the dominant leader in the African American community and of the contemporary black elite. Washington was from the last generation of black American leaders born into slavery and became the leading voice of the former slaves and their descendants. They were newly oppressed in the South by disenfranchisement and the Jim Crow discriminatory laws enacted in the post-Reconstruction Southern states in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Jackson State University University in Mississippi, United States

Jackson State University is a public historically black university in Jackson, Mississippi. It is one of the largest HBCUs in the United States and the fourth largest university in Mississippi. The university is a member of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund and classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity".

Tuskegee University Private, historically black university located in Tuskegee, Alabama, USA

Tuskegee University is a private, historically black land-grant university in Tuskegee, Alabama. The campus is designated as the Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site by the National Park Service. The university was home to scientist George Washington Carver and to World War II's Tuskegee Airmen.

Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the intention of primarily serving the African-American community. Most of these institutions were founded in the years after the American Civil War and are concentrated in the Southern United States. During the period of segregation in the United States prior to the Civil Rights Act, the overwhelming majority of higher education institutions were predominantly white and completely disqualified or limited African-American enrollment. For a century after the end of slavery in the United States in 1865, most colleges and universities in the Southern United States prohibited all African Americans from attending, while institutions in other parts of the country regularly employed quotas to limit admissions of blacks. HBCUs were established to give opportunities to African Americans especially in the South.

Howard University Historically black university in Washington, D.C., US

Howard University is a private, federally chartered historically black research university in Washington, D.C. It is classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity" and accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education.

Florida A&M University United States historic place

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (FAMU) is a public historically black land-grant university in Tallahassee, Florida. Founded in 1887, it is located on the highest geographic hill in Tallahassee. It is the third largest historically black university in the United States by enrollment and the only public historically black university in Florida. It is a member institution of the State University System of Florida, as well as one of the state's land grant universities, and is accredited to award baccalaureate, master's and doctoral degrees by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.

South Carolina State University Historically black university in Orangeburg, South Carolina, USA

South Carolina State University is a public, historically black, land-grant university in Orangeburg, South Carolina, United States. It is the only public, historically black land-grant institution in South Carolina, is a member-school of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund, and is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS).

Virginia State University College in Virginia, United States

Virginia State University is a public historically black land-grant university in Ettrick, Virginia. Founded on March 6, 1882, Virginia State developed as the United States's first fully state-supported four-year institution of higher learning for black Americans. The university is a member school of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund.

Grambling State University

Grambling State University is a public historically black university in Grambling, Louisiana. The university is home of the Eddie G. Robinson Museum and is listed on the Louisiana African American Heritage Trail. The university is a member-school of the University of Louisiana System and Thurgood Marshall College Fund.

Samuel C. Armstrong

Samuel Chapman Armstrong was an American soldier and general during the American Civil War who later became an educator, particularly of non-whites. The son of missionaries in Hawaii, he rose through the Union Army during the American Civil War to become a general, leading units of African American soldiers. He became best known as an educator, founding and becoming the first principal of the normal school for African-American and later Native American pupils in Virginia which later became Hampton University. He also founded the university's museum, the Hampton University Museum, which is the oldest African-American museum in the country, and the oldest museum in Virginia.

Frederick D. Patterson

Frederick Douglass Patterson was an American academic administrator, the president of what is now Tuskegee University (1935–1953), and founder of the United Negro College Fund. He was a 1987 recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor, and 1988 recipient of the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP.

Saint Pauls College (Virginia)

Saint Paul's College was a private, historically black college located in Lawrenceville, Virginia. Saint Paul's College opened its doors on September 24, 1888, originally training students as teachers and for agricultural and industrial jobs.

Robert Russa Moton American educator and author

Robert Russa Moton was an American educator and author. He served as an administrator at Hampton Institute. In 1915 he was named principal of Tuskegee Institute, after the death of founder Booker T. Washington, a position he held for 20 years until retirement in 1935.

Emancipation Oak United States historic place

Emancipation Oak is a historic tree on the campus of Hampton University in what is now the City of Hampton, Virginia in the United States. The large sprawling oak is 98 feet in diameter, with branches which extend upward as well as laterally. It is designated one of the 10 Great Trees of the World by the National Geographic Society and is part of the National Historic Landmark district of Hampton University. The tree is a southern live oak.

Mary S. Peake American teacher and humanitarian

Mary Smith Peake, born Mary Smith Kelsey, was an American teacher, humanitarian and a member of the black elite in Hampton, best known for starting a school for the children of former slaves starting in the fall of 1861 under what became known as the Emancipation Oak tree in present-day Hampton, Virginia near Fort Monroe. The first teacher hired by the American Missionary Association, she was also associated with its later founding of Hampton University in 1868.

The Grand Contraband Camp was located in Elizabeth City County, Virginia, on the Virginia Peninsula near Fort Monroe, during and immediately after the American Civil War. The area was a refuge for escaped slaves who the Union forces refused to return to their former Confederate masters, by defining them as "contraband of war". The Grand Contraband Camp was the first self-contained black community in the United States and occupied the area of the downtown section of the present-day independent city of Hampton, Virginia.

The black college football national championship is a national championship won by the best football teams among historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) in the United States.

Elizabeth Evelyn Wright

Elizabeth Evelyn Wright founded Denmark Industrial Institute in Denmark, South Carolina, as a school for African-American youth. It is present-day Voorhees College, a historically black college (HBCU). She was a humanitarian and educator, founding several schools for black children.

The Black Ivy League refers to the historically black colleges (HBCUs) in the United States that attract the majority of high-performing or affluent African American students. Similar groups include: Public Ivies, Southern Ivies, and the Little Ivies among others, none of which have canonical definitions. Generally, the schools themselves avoid using the term Black Ivy to describe themselves.

The HBCU Library Alliance is a consortium of libraries at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Founded in 2002 by deans and directors of libraries at HBCUs, the consortium comprises over 100 member organizations. The alliance specifically represents the organizations included in the White House HBCU Initiative. In 2019 the HBCU Library Alliance entered into a national partnership with the Council on Library and Information Resources.


  1. As of June 30, 2020. U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2020 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY19 to FY20 (Report). National Association of College and University Business Officers and TIAA. February 19, 2021. Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  2. https://hamptonscript.com/
  3. "Arts & Museums | Hampton, VA - Official Website". hampton.gov. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  4. "Carnegie Classifications Institution Lookup". carnegieclassifications.iu.edu. Center for Postsecondary Education. Retrieved September 12, 2020.
  5. Ellinghaus, Katherine (2000). "Assimilation by Marriage: White Women and Native American Men at Hampton Institute, 1878–1923". The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. Virginia Historical Society. 108 (3): 279–303. JSTOR   4249851.
  6. 1 2 "History". www.hamptonu.edu. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  7. "Official Visitor Information Site for Hampton, VA - Civil War". www.visithampton.com. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  8. "Mary Peake - History of American Women". November 28, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  9. Our Twin Cities of the Nineteenth Century: Norfolk and Portsmouth, Their Past, Present, and Future Archived November 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine , Robert W. Lamb, Editor. Norfolk, VA: Barcroft, Publisher. 1887–8. Norfolk Landmark Steam Presses.
  10. Smith, Troy A. (February 2021). "Not Just the Raising of Money: Hampton Institute and Relationship Fundraising, 1893-1917". History of Education Quarterly. 61 (1): 63–93. doi: 10.1017/heq.2020.67 .
  11. 1 2 3 Sutton, Allison (Spring 2005). "Bridging the Gap in Early Library Education History for African Americans: The Negro Teacher-Librarian Training Program (1936-1939)". Journal of Negro Education. 74 (2): 138–150. JSTOR   40034539.
  12. "Wishing I Were There" Time Travel to Hampton Institute Graduation Exercises 1875
  13. Landis, B. (n.d.). "Carlisle Indian Industrial School History2. Frontier Homepage Powered by Yahoo!. Retrieved November 6, 2010, from http://home.epix.net/~landis/histry.html
  14. "The American Indian at Hampton Institute, Virginia". Jubilo! The Emancipation Century. February 28, 2011. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  15. 1 2 "Hampton". xroads.virginia.edu. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  16. 'Hampton makes appointments of 2 whites'. The Afro-American, 6 June 1931
  17. Lowenfeld, Viktor; Brittain, W. Lambert (1987). Creative and mental growth (Eighth ed.). Collier Books. ISBN   0-02372110-3.
  18. 1 2 "Hampton to Start Evening Credit Classes". Charlottesville-Albemarle Tribune. January 7, 1971.
  19. "History". www.hamptonu.edu. Hampton University. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  20. REPORT, CNN and TRIBUNE STAFF. "Hampton University students outraged over conditions and sexual assault complaints". The Philadelphia Tribune. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  21. Harriot, Michael. "The Mutiny at Hampton University". The Root. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  22. "Hampton University releases update on concerns raised at student Town Hall meeting". WTKR.com. March 2, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  23. 1 2 http://news.hamptonu.edu/release/Hampton-University-Receives-the-Largest-Single-Gift-in-the-School%27s-History
  24. https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:tbJldQ7krzEJ:https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/howard-university-announces-largest-single-donor-gift-from-philanthropist-mackenzie-scott/2020/07/28/e354fc92-d116-11ea-8c55-61e7fa5e82ab_story.html+&cd=4&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
  25. "Hampton University – Admissions". Archived from the original on April 30, 2007. Retrieved May 3, 2007.
  26. "National Historic Landmarks Survey: Listing of National Historic Landmarks by State:Virginia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2007. Retrieved May 3, 2007.
  27. "Fire damages historic building on HU campus". Dailypress.com. Retrieved September 29, 2012.[ permanent dead link ]
  28. "Our Museum : Hampton University Museum". museum.hamptonu.edu. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  29. "Hampton University : Research Centers". www.hamptonu.edu. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  30. http://www.dailypress.com/health/dp-nws-proton-therapy-20151017-story.html
  31. "Libraries". www.hamptonu.edu. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  32. 1 2 "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places . National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
  33. 1 2 "Hampton Institute". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on December 26, 2007. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
  34. "Virginia Landmarks Register". Virginia Department of Historic Resources. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
  35. 1 2 Carol Ann Poh (January 9, 1974). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Hampton Institute / Hampton Normal and Industrial Institute". National Park Service.Cite journal requires |journal= (help) and Accompanying 17 photos, from 1973  (5.84 MB)
  36. "Facts & Figures". www.hamptonu.edu. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  37. "Accreditation". www.hamptonu.edu. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  38. http://news.hamptonu.edu/release/Hampton-University-School-of-Business-Officially-Named-James-T%5E-George-School-of-Business-for-Trustee-James-George
  39. 1 2 "Facts & Figures". www.hamptonu.edu. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  40. "Freddye T. Davy Honors College : Requirements". honorscollege.hamptonu.edu. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  41. https://www.usnews.com/best-colleges/hampton-university-3714
  42. "6. What are National Universities?". usnews.com. U.S. News & World Report, L.P. Retrieved November 4, 2020.
  43. "Student-to-Faculty Ratio: What Does it Mean?". www.campusexplorer.com. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  44. "Hampton University ranked No. 2 in College Choice's 2015 Rankings of Best Historically Black Colleges and Universities" . Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  45. "HBCU Rankings 2017: Top 25 Black Colleges from US News". hbculifestyle.com. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  46. "Hampton University | State of HBCUs". stateofhbcus.wordpress.com. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  47. "Top 227 Schools | The Alumni Factor". www.alumnifactor.com. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  48. "The 10 Best Historically Black Colleges and Universities". colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Archived from the original on September 22, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  49. https://www.hamptonu.edu/student_life/studentorgs.cfm
  50. "NCAA.com – The Official Website of NCAA Championships". NCAA.com. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  51. "ESPN TO BROADCAST BEFORE FIRST HOME LACROSSE GAME" . Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  52. "Hampton University marching band performs in New Year's Parade in Rome, Italy". WVEC. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  53. "CREUZOT, PERCY PENNINGTON, JR. (FRENCHY)." Handbook of Texas . Retrieved on May 1, 2014.
  54. "Rashida Jones named next president of MSNBC". nbcnews.com. NBC.
  55. web|url=Charles W Kelly & Charles W Greene Plaque (Greenwood dedication)". December 7, 1940. p. 2 – via newspapers.com.
  56. "Dean's Message – Tippie College of Business – The University of Iowa". Tippie.uiowa.edu. August 21, 2012. Retrieved September 29, 2012.
  57. "Inside the Issues With Wilmer Leon". wilmerleon.com. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2011.
  58. "Kimberly Oliver". Ccsso.org. June 16, 2010. Archived from the original on June 16, 2010. Retrieved September 29, 2012.
  59. "Hugh Page". University of Notre Dame. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  60. "A Pied Piper Of Children's Stories". The Hartford Courant. July 18, 2010.
  61. https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/2020/12/07/rashida-jones-msnbc-nbc-news-phil-griffin/6483344002/
  62. "Orpheus M. and Mattie Allen McAdoo Papers". Yale University Beinecke Rare Books & Manuscript Library. February 9, 2010. Archived from the original on May 21, 2014. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
  63. Flanagan, Sylvia P., ed. (September 30, 1996). "A.S. 'Doc' Young, Noted Journalist-Author, Dies". Jet. Chicago, Illinois: Johnson Publishing Company, Inc. 90 (20): 60.
  64. "Common Pleas Judges". Notable Name Data Base. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  65. "Allyson Kay Duncan". Notable Name Data Base. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
  66. "VANESSA D. GILMORE". Just The Beginning Foundation. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
  67. "Hampton University Alumna Tishaura Jones Elected as First Black Woman Mayor of St. Louis". Office of University Relations. Hampton University. Retrieved April 8, 2021.
  68. "Honorable Theodore T. Jones". Court of Appeals State of New York. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
  69. "Gloria G. Lawlah, Maryland Secretary of Aging". Msa.md.gov. Retrieved September 29, 2012.
  70. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 29, 2012. Retrieved February 16, 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  71. "Biography of the Deputy Surgeon General". Notable Name Data Base. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
  72. "Gregory M. Sleet Adjunct Professor of Law". Widener Law. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
  73. "About the Office of Public Engagement". whitehouse.gov . Archived from the original on January 24, 2017. Retrieved September 30, 2016 via National Archives.
  74. William Waldron Schieffelin Claytor, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive
  75. Warren, Wini (1999). Black Women Scientists in the United States . Bloomington, Indiana, USA: Indiana University Press. pp.  126. ISBN   9780253336033.
  76. "Ayana Jordan, MD/PhD". Yale School of Medicine. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  77. "African–American History Month at the Library of Virginia". lva.virginia.gov. Library of Virginia.
  78. "Chris Baker". nfl.com. Archived from the original on September 30, 2011. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  79. "Jamal Brooks". nfl.com. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  80. Bell, Daryl (December 19, 2018). "Mo'ne Davis chooses Hampton University to play softball because 'everything felt right'". The Undefeated . Retrieved September 23, 2019.
  81. Bengel, Chris (February 10, 2020). "Mo'ne Davis, former Little League World Series star, makes college softball debut for Hampton". CBSSports.com. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  82. "Marcus Dixon". Pro-Football-Reference.Com. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
  83. "Kenrick Ellis". Pro-Football-Reference.Com. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
  84. "Devin Green". Basketball-Reference.Com. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
  85. "Isaac Hilton". NFL Enterprises LLC. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
  86. "Derrick Allen Mahorn". Basketball-Reference.Com. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
  87. "Jerome Mathis". databaseFootball.com. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
  88. "Nevin McCaskill". databaseFootball.com. Archived from the original on January 12, 2015. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
  89. "Athletes – McCorory Francena Biography". iaaf.org. Retrieved September 29, 2012.
  90. "Ex-Norfolk State football coach Dick Price dies at 75". hamptonroads.com. Retrieved January 23, 2011.
  91. 1 2 "NFL Players who attended Hampton University". databaseSports.com. Archived from the original on March 7, 2008. Retrieved April 5, 2008.
  92. "Zuriel Smith". databaseFootball.com. Archived from the original on October 26, 2012. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
  93. "Cordell Jerome Taylor". Pro-Football-Reference.Com. Retrieved January 1, 2013.

Further reading