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Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fagales
Family: Ticodendraceae
Gómez-Laur. & L.D.Gómez [2]
Genus: Ticodendron
Gómez-Laur. & L.D.Gómez
T. incognitum
Binomial name
Ticodendron incognitum
Gómez-Laur. & L.D.Gómez

Ticodendron incognitum is the only species of Ticodendron, and the only member of the family Ticodendraceae. It is most closely related to the family Betulaceae.


It was discovered only in 1989 in Costa Rica, having been overlooked previously due to its habitat in poorly researched cloud forests and its very 'ordinary' appearance; further research showed its range extends from southern Mexico (Veracruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas), south through Central America to Panama. [3] [4] [5] [6]

It is a tree, 20–30 m tall, superficially resembling an alder in appearance, with alternate, simple leaves 5–12 cm long with a serrated margin.

Fossil record

Ferrignocarpus bivalvis fossil fruits, from the Middle Eocene of Oregon and the Early Eocene London Clay flora of southern England, correspond closely in morphology and anatomy to fruits of extant Ticodendron. [7]

Related Research Articles

Fagales Order of flowering plants

The Fagales are an order of flowering plants, including some of the best-known trees. The order name is derived from genus Fagus, beeches. They belong among the rosid group of dicotyledons. The families and genera currently included are as follows:

Araceae Family of flowering plants

The Araceae are a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants in which flowers are borne on a type of inflorescence called a spadix. The spadix is usually accompanied by, and sometimes partially enclosed in, a spathe or leaf-like bract. Also known as the arum family, members are often colloquially known as aroids. This family of 114 genera and about 3750 known species is most diverse in the New World tropics, although also distributed in the Old World tropics and northern temperate regions.


Tupelo, genus Nyssa, is a small genus of deciduous trees with alternate, simple leaves. It is sometimes included in the subfamily Nyssoideae of the dogwood family, Cornaceae, but is placed by other authorities in the family Nyssaceae. In the APG IV system, it is placed in Nyssaceae.

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Winteraceae is a primitive family of tropical trees and shrubs including 60 to 90 species in five genera. It is of particular interest because it is such a primitive angiosperm family, distantly related to Magnoliaceae, though it has a much more southern distribution. Plants in this family grow mostly in the southern hemisphere, and have been found in tropical to temperate climate regions of Malesia, Oceania, eastern Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar and the Neotropics, with most of the genera concentrated in Australasia and Malesia. Drimys is found in the Neotropical realm, from southern Mexico to the subarctic forests of southern South America. Takhtajania includes a single species, T. perrieri, endemic only to Madagascar.

Altingiaceae Family of flowering plants in the order Saxifragales

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<i>Restrepiella ophiocephala</i>

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<i>Uvularia perfoliata</i>

Uvularia perfoliata, the perfoliate bellwort, is a perennial forb native to the eastern United States and Canada, which produces pale yellow flowers in spring.

<i>Aristolochia maxima</i>

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Calycolpus warscewiczianus is a plant species native to Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panamá and Venezuela.

Randia nicaraguensis is a plant species endemic to Nicaragua. It occurs in tropical drought-deciduous forests at elevations below 850 m.

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Brickellia glandulosa is a Mesoamerican species of flowering plants in the daisy family. It is widespread from San Luis Potosí south to Nicaragua.

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  1. Nelson (1998). "Ticodendron incognitum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 1998. Retrieved 11 May 2006.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) Listed as Vulnerable (VU A1c v2.3)
  2. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x .
  3. Kew Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  4. Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  5. Gómez-Laurito, Jorge & Gómez P., Luis Diego 1989. Ticodendron: A new tree from Central America. Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden 76(4): 1148–1151
  6. Ulloa Ulloa, C. 2001. Ticodendraceae. En: Stevens, W.D., C. Ulloa, A. Pool & O.M. Montiel (eds.). Flora de Nicaragua. Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85(3): 2452
  7. Fruits of Ticodendraceae (Fagales) from the Eocene of Europe and North America by Steven R Manchester - International Journal of Plant Sciences 172(9):1179-1187 · November 2011