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Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fagales
Family: Ticodendraceae
Gómez-Laur. & L.D.Gómez [2]
Genus: Ticodendron
Gómez-Laur. & L.D.Gómez
T. incognitum
Binomial name
Ticodendron incognitum
Gómez-Laur. & L.D.Gómez

Ticodendron incognitum is the only species of Ticodendron, and the only member of the family Ticodendraceae. It is most closely related to the family Betulaceae.


It was discovered only in 1989 in Costa Rica, having been overlooked previously due to its habitat in poorly researched cloud forests and its very 'ordinary' appearance; further research showed its range extends from southern Mexico (Veracruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas), south through Central America to Panama. [3] [4] [5] [6]

It is a tree, 20–30 m tall, superficially resembling an alder in appearance, with alternate, simple leaves 5–12 cm long with a serrated margin. It is generally dioecious, with separate male and female plants. [7]

Fossil record

Ferrignocarpus bivalvis fossil fruits, from the Middle Eocene of Oregon and the Early Eocene London Clay flora of southern England, correspond closely in morphology and anatomy to fruits of extant Ticodendron. [8]

Related Research Articles

Fagales Order of flowering plants

The Fagales are an order of flowering plants, including some of the best-known trees. The order name is derived from genus Fagus, beeches. They belong among the rosid group of dicotyledons. The families and genera currently included are as follows:

Lamiales Order of dicot flowering plants

The Lamiales are an order in the asterid group of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It includes about 23,810 species, 1,059 genera, and is divided into about 24 families. Being one of the largest orders of flowering plants, Lamiales have representatives found all over the world. Well-known or economically important members of this order include lavender, lilac, olive, jasmine, the ash tree, teak, snapdragon, sesame, psyllium, garden sage, and a number of table herbs such as mint, basil, and rosemary. Lamiales and Orobanchaceae are both the largest populated parasitic angiosperms of flowering plants.

Polygonaceae Knotweed family of flowering plants

The Polygonaceae are a family of flowering plants known informally as the knotweed family or smartweed—buckwheat family in the United States. The name is based on the genus Polygonum, and was first used by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789 in his book, Genera Plantarum. The name may refer to the many swollen nodes the stems of some species have, being derived from Greek, poly meaning 'many' and gony meaning 'knee' or 'joint'. Alternatively, it may have a different derivation, meaning 'many seeds'.

Araceae Family of flowering plants

The Araceae are a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants in which flowers are borne on a type of inflorescence called a spadix. The spadix is usually accompanied by, and sometimes partially enclosed in, a spathe or leaf-like bract. Also known as the arum family, members are often colloquially known as aroids. This family of 140 genera and about 3750 known species is most diverse in the New World tropics, although also distributed in the Old World tropics and northern temperate regions.

Cornaceae Family of flowering plants

Cornaceae is a cosmopolitan family of flowering plants in the order Cornales. It contains approximately 85 species in two genera, Alangium and Cornus. They are mostly trees and shrubs, which may be deciduous or evergreen, although a few species are perennial herbs. Members of the family usually have opposite or alternate simple leaves, four- or five-parted flowers clustered in inflorescences or pseudanthia, and drupaceous fruits. The family is primarily distributed in northern temperate regions and tropical Asia. In northern temperate areas, Cornaceae are well known from the dogwoods Cornus.

Tupelo Genus of trees

Tupelo, genus Nyssa, is a small genus of deciduous trees with alternate, simple leaves. It is sometimes included in the subfamily Nyssoideae of the dogwood family, Cornaceae, but is placed by other authorities in the family Nyssaceae. In the APG IV system, it is placed in Nyssaceae.

Geraniaceae Family of plants

Geraniaceae is a family of flowering plants placed in the order Geraniales. The family name is derived from the genus Geranium. The family includes both the genus Geranium and the garden plants called geraniums, which modern botany classifies as genus Pelargonium, along with other related genera.

Ulmaceae Family of flowering plants

The Ulmaceae are a family of flowering plants that includes the elms, and the zelkovas. Members of the family are widely distributed throughout the north temperate zone, and have a scattered distribution elsewhere except for Australasia.

Hamamelidaceae Witch-hazel, a shrub or small tree

Hamamelidaceae, commonly referred to as the witch-hazel family, is a family of flowering plants in the order Saxifragales. The clade consists of shrubs and small trees positioned within the woody clade of the core Saxifragales. An earlier system, the Cronquist system, recognized Hamamelidaceae in the Hamamelidales order.

Theaceae Family of flowering plants

Theaceae, the tea family, is a family of flowering plants comprising shrubs and trees, including the economically important tea plant, and the ornamental camellias. It can be described as having from seven to 40 genera, depending on the source and the method of circumscription used. The family Ternstroemiaceae has been included within Theaceae; however, the APG III system of 2009 places it instead in Pentaphylacaceae. Most but not all species are native to China and East Asia.

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Collaborative research group for the classification of flowering plants

The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) is an informal international group of systematic botanists who collaborate to establish a consensus on the taxonomy of flowering plants (angiosperms) that reflects new knowledge about plant relationships discovered through phylogenetic studies.

Altingiaceae Family of flowering plants in the order Saxifragales

Altingiaceae is a small family of flowering plants in the order Saxifragales, consisting of wind-pollinated trees that produce hard, woody fruits containing numerous seeds. The fruits have been studied in considerable detail. They naturally occur in Central America, Mexico, eastern North America, the eastern Mediterranean, China, and tropical Asia. They are often cultivated as ornamentals and many produce valuable wood.

Myristicaceae Family of flowering plants

The Myristicaceae are a family of flowering plants native to Africa, Asia, Pacific islands, and the Americas and has been recognized by most taxonomists. It is sometimes called the "nutmeg family", after its most famous member, Myristica fragrans, the source of the spices nutmeg and mace. The best known genera are Myristica in Asia and Virola in the Neotropics.

Peridiscaceae Family of flowering plants in the order Saxifragales

Peridiscaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Saxifragales. Four genera comprise this family: Medusandra, Soyauxia, Peridiscus, and Whittonia., with a total of 12 known species. It has a disjunct distribution, with Peridiscus occurring in Venezuela and northern Brazil, Whittonia in Guyana, Medusandra in Cameroon, and Soyauxia in tropical West Africa. Whittonia is possibly extinct, being known from only one specimen collected below Kaieteur Falls in Guyana. In 2006, archeologists attempted to rediscover it, however, it proved unsuccessful.

Tofieldiaceae Family of flowering plants

Tofieldiaceae is a family of flowering plants in the monocot order Alismatales. The family is divided into four genera, which together comprise 28 known species. They are small, herbaceous plants, mostly of arctic and subarctic regions, but a few extend further south, and one genus is endemic to northern South America and Florida. Tofieldia pusilla is sometimes grown as an ornamental.

Icacinaceae Family of flowering plants

The Icacinaceae are a family of flowering plants, consisting of trees, shrubs, and lianas, primarily of the tropics.

Lepidobotryaceae Family of flowering plants

Lepidobotryaceae is a flowering plant family in the order Celastrales. It contains only two genera, each with a single species: Lepidobotrys staudtii and Ruptiliocarpon caracolito.

Hondurodendron is a monotypic genus of tree endemic to Honduras. The only species in the genus, H. urceolatum, was discovered during 2004 and 2006 botanical surveys of plants in Parque Nacional El Cusuco in northwest Honduras. It was subsequently described in 2010 by Carmen Ulloa Ulloa, Daniel L. Nickrent, Caroline Whitefoord, and Daniel L. Kelly in the Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden.

<i>Eucommia</i> Genus of trees

Eucommia is a genus of small trees now native to China, with a fossil record that shows a much wider distribution. The single living species, Eucommia ulmoides, is near threatened in the wild, but is widely cultivated in China for its bark, and is highly valued in herbology such as traditional Chinese medicine.

Dendrobangia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Metteniusaceae. It was formerly placed in the family Cardiopteridaceae. It was described as a genus in 1896.


  1. Rivers, M.C.; Barstow, M.; Fuentes, A.C.D. (2019). "Ticodendron incognitum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2019: e.T37468A128258819. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T37468A128258819.en . Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  2. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x .
  3. Kew Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  4. Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  5. Gómez-Laurito, Jorge & Gómez P., Luis Diego 1989. Ticodendron: A new tree from Central America. Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden 76(4): 1148–1151
  6. Ulloa Ulloa, C. 2001. Ticodendraceae. En: Stevens, W.D., C. Ulloa, A. Pool & O.M. Montiel (eds.). Flora de Nicaragua. Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85(3): 2452
  7. Kubitzki, K. (1993). "Ticodendraceae". Flowering Plants · Dicotyledons. pp. 594–596. doi:10.1007/978-3-662-02899-5_72. ISBN   978-3-642-08141-5.
  8. Fruits of Ticodendraceae (Fagales) from the Eocene of Europe and North America by Steven R Manchester - International Journal of Plant Sciences 172(9):1179-1187 · November 2011