|Synonyms||6α,9α-Difluoro-11β,17α-dihydroxy-16α-methyl-21-methyl-21-thiapregna-1,4-dien-3,20-dione; S-Methyl 6α,9α-difluoro-11β,17α-dihydroxy-16α-methyl-3-oxoandrosta-1,4-diene-17β-carbothioate|
|Drug class||Corticosteroid; Glucocorticoid|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||426.52 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Ticabesone is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid which was never marketed.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones. Glucocorticoids are corticosteroids that bind to the glucocorticoid receptor that is present in almost every vertebrate animal cell. The name "glucocorticoid" is a portmanteau and is composed from its role in regulation of glucose metabolism, synthesis in the adrenal cortex, and its steroidal structure. A less common synonym is glucocorticosteroid.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones. Two main classes of corticosteroids, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including stress response, immune response, and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and behavior.
Butriptyline, sold under the brand name Evadyne among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that has been used in the United Kingdom and several other European countries for the treatment of depression but appears to no longer be marketed. Along with trimipramine, iprindole, and amoxapine, it has been described as an "atypical" or "second-generation" TCA due to its relatively late introduction and atypical pharmacology. It was very little-used compared to other TCAs, with the number of prescriptions dispensed only in the thousands.
Norethandrolone, sold under the brand names Nilevar and Pronabol among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which has been used to promote muscle growth and to treat severe burns, physical trauma, and aplastic anemia but has mostly been discontinued. It is still available for use in France however. It is taken by mouth.
Norgestrienone, sold under the brand names Ogyline, Planor, and Miniplanor, is a progestin medication which has been used in birth control pills, sometimes in combination with ethinylestradiol. It was developed by Roussel Uclaf and has been registered for use only in France. Under the brand name Planor, it has been marketed in France as 2 mg norgestrienone and 50 μg ethinylestradiol tablets. It is taken by mouth.
Antiestrogens, also known as estrogen antagonists or estrogen blockers, are a class of drugs which prevent estrogens like estradiol from mediating their biological effects in the body. They act by blocking the estrogen receptor (ER) and/or inhibiting or suppressing estrogen production. Antiestrogens are one of three types of sex hormone antagonists, the others being antiandrogens and antiprogestogens.
Bexlosteride is a potent and noncompetitive inhibitor of the enzyme 5α-reductase related to finasteride and dutasteride. It is selective for the type I isoform of the enzyme. It advanced to Phase III clinical trials, but development was halted at that stage, and it was never marketed.
Mubritinib (TAK-165) is a protein kinase inhibitor which was under development by Takeda for the treatment of cancer. It completed phase I clinical trials but appears to have been discontinued, as no new information on the drug has surfaced since December 2008.
Zanoterone, also known as (5α,17α)-1'-(methylsulfonyl)-1'-H-pregn-20-yno[3,2-c]pyrazol-17-ol, is a steroidal antiandrogen which was never marketed. It was investigated for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) but failed to demonstrate sufficient efficacy in phase II clinical trials, and also showed an unacceptable incidence rate and severity of side effects. As such, it was not further developed.
Trepipam (INN) is a dopamine receptor agonist of the benzazepine group that was never marketed.
PPPA, or 3-phenoxy-3-phenylpropan-1-amine, is a drug which is described as an antidepressant. It was derived by Eli Lilly from the antihistamine diphenhydramine, a 2-diphenylmethoxyethanamine derivative with additional properties as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and has been the basis for the subsequent discovery of a number of other antidepressant drugs.
Fenethazine (INN), or phenethazine, is a first-generation antihistamine of the phenothiazine group. Promethazine, and subsequently chlorpromazine, were derived from fenethazine. Fenethazine, in turn, was derived from phenbenzamine.
Ethamoxytriphetol is a synthetic nonsteroidal antiestrogen that was studied clinically in the late 1950s and early 1960s but was never marketed. MER-25 was first reported in 1958, and was the first antiestrogen to be discovered. It has been described as "essentially devoid of estrogenic activity" and as having "very low estrogenic activity in all species tested". However, some estrogenic effects in the uterus have been observed, so it is not a pure antiestrogen but is, instead, technically a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). For all intents and purposes, it is a nearly pure antiestrogen, however.
Cioteronel is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) that was never marketed. It was under development between 1989 and 2001 for the topical treatment of androgenetic alopecia and acne and for the oral treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia; it reached phase III clinical trials for acne and phase II studies for androgenetic alopecia, but was ultimately discontinued due to poor efficacy.
Spirorenone (INN) is a steroidal antimineralocorticoid of the spirolactone group that was never marketed. Spirorenone possesses 5–8 times the antimineralocorticoid activity of spironolactone in animal studies. The initial discovery of spirorenone was deemed a great success, as no compound with greater antimineralocorticoid activity had been developed since spironolactone in 1957. Moreover, spirorenone itself has virtually no affinity for the androgen receptor while its progestogenic activity shows species differences, being somewhat greater than that of spironolactone in rabbits but absent in mice and rats. As such, it was characterized as a highly potent antimineralocorticoid with far fewer hormonal side effects relative to spironolactone.
Tigestol, also known as 17α-ethynylestr-5(10)-en-17β-ol, is a steroidal progestin of the 19-nortestosterone group that was developed by Organon in the 1960s but was never marketed. It is an isomer of the related 19-nortestosterone derivative progestins lynestrenol and cingestol.
Clomegestone acetate (USAN), or clomagestone acetate, also known as 6-chloro-17α-acetoxy-16α-methylpregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione, is a steroidal progestin of the 17α-hydroxyprogesterone group which was developed as an oral contraceptive but was never marketed. It is the acetate ester of clomegestone, which, similarly to clomegestone acetate, was never marketed. Clomegestone acetate is also the 17-desoxy cogener of clometherone, and is somewhat more potent in comparison. Similarly to cyproterone acetate, clomegestone acetate has been found to alter insulin receptor concentrations in adipose tissue, and this may indicate the presence of glucocorticoid activity.
Dianol is a synthetic, nonsteroidal estrogen that was never marketed. It is a dimer and impurity of anol, and was, along with hexestrol, involved in erroneous findings of highly potent estrogenic activity with anol. Although a potent estrogen, it requires a dose of 100 μg to show activity, whereas hexestrol shows activity with a mere dose of 0.2 μg.
Droloxifene, also known as 3-hydroxytamoxifen, is a nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of the triphenylethylene group that was developed originally in Germany and later in Japan for the treatment of breast cancer, osteoporosis in men and postmenopausal women, and cardiovascular disorders but was abandoned and never marketed. It reached phase II and phase III clinical trials for these indications before development was discontinued in 2000. The drug was found to be significantly less effective than tamoxifen in the treatment of breast cancer in two phase III clinical trials.
Miproxifene (INN) is a nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of the triphenylethylene group that was never marketed. It is a derivative of afimoxifene (4-hydroxytamoxifen) in which an additional 4-isopropyl group is present in the β-phenyl ring. The drug has been found to be 3- to 10-fold more potent than tamoxifen in inhibiting breast cancer cell growth in in vitro models. Miproxifene is the active metabolite of miproxifene phosphate (TAT-59), a phosphate ester and prodrug of miproxifene that was developed to improve its water solubility. Miproxifene phosphate was under development for the treatment of breast cancer and reached phase III clinical trials for this indication but development was discontinued.
Miproxifene phosphate is a nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of the triphenylethylene group that was under development in Japan for the treatment of breast cancer but was abandoned and never marketed. It reached phase III clinical trials for this indication before development was discontinued. The drug is a phosphate ester and prodrug of miproxifene (DP-TAT-59) with improved water solubility that was better suited for clinical development. Miproxifene has been found to be 3- to 10-fold as potent as tamoxifen in inhibiting breast cancer cell growth in in vitro models. It is a derivative of afimoxifene (4-hydroxytamoxifen) in which an additional 4-isopropyl group is present in the β-phenyl ring.
Colestolone, also known as 5α-cholest-8(14)-en-3β-ol-15-one, is a potent inhibitor of sterol biosynthesis which is described as a hypocholesterolemic (lipid-lowering) agent. It was first reported in 1977 and was studied until at least 1988, but was never introduced for medical use.
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