|Synonyms||9α-Fluoro-11β,17α-dihydroxy-16α-methyl-21-methyl-21-thiapregna-1,4-dien-3,20-dione; S-Methyl 9α-fluoro-11β,17α-dihydroxy-16β-methyl-3-oxoandrosta-1,4-diene-17β-carbothioate;|
|Drug class||Corticosteroid; Glucocorticoid|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||408.53 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Timobesone is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid which was never marketed.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones. Glucocorticoids are corticosteroids that bind to the glucocorticoid receptor that is present in almost every vertebrate animal cell. The name "glucocorticoid" is a portmanteau and is composed from its role in regulation of glucose metabolism, synthesis in the adrenal cortex, and its steroidal structure. A less common synonym is glucocorticosteroid.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones. Two main classes of corticosteroids, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including stress response, immune response, and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and behavior.
Pheneturide, also known as phenylethylacetylurea, is an anticonvulsant of the ureide class. Conceptually, it can be formed in the body as a metabolic degradation product from [[phenobarbital]]. It is considered to be obsolete, and is now seldom used. It is marketed in Europe, including in Poland, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Pheneturide has a similar profile of anticonvulsant activity and toxicity relative to phenacemide, but is less toxic in comparison, despite still being a toxic drug. As such, it is only used in cases of severe epilepsy when other, less-toxic drugs have failed. Pheneturide inhibits the metabolism and thus increases the levels of other anticonvulsants, such as phenytoin.
Dienestrol, also known as dienoestrol (BAN), is a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen of the stilbestrol group which is or was used to treat menopausal symptoms in the United States and Europe. It has been studied for use by rectal administration in the treatment of prostate cancer in men as well. The medication was introduced in the U.S. in 1947 by Schering as Synestrol and in France in 1948 as Cycladiene. Dienestrol is a close analogue of diethylstilbestrol. It has approximately 223% and 404% of the affinity of estradiol at the ERα and ERβ, respectively.
Oxatomide, sold under the brand name Tinset among others, is a first-generation antihistamine of the diphenylmethylpiperazine family which is marketed in Europe, Japan, and a number of other countries. It was discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1975. Oxatomide lacks any anticholinergic effects. In addition to its H1 receptor antagonism, it also possesses antiserotonergic activity similarly to hydroxyzine.
Drostanolone, or dromostanolone, is an anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) of the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) group which was never marketed. An androgen ester prodrug of drostanolone, drostanolone propionate, was formerly used in the treatment of breast cancer in women under brand names such as Drolban, Masteril, and Masteron. This ester has also been used non-medically for physique- or performance-enhancing purposes.
Acecarbromal (INN), also known as acetylcarbromal and acetyladalin, is a hypnotic and sedative drug of the ureide (acylurea) group discovered by Bayer in 1917 that was formerly marketed in the United States and Europe. It is also used in combination with extract of quebracho and vitamin E as a treatment for erectile dysfunction under the brand name Afrodor in Europe. Acecarbromal is structurally related to the barbiturates, which are basically cyclized ureas. Prolonged use is not recommended as it can cause bromine poisoning.
Prothipendyl, also known as azaphenothiazine or phrenotropin, is an anxiolytic, antiemetic, and antihistamine of the azaphenothiazine group which is marketed in Europe and is used to treat anxiety and agitation in psychotic syndromes. It differs from promazine only by the replacement of one carbon atom with a nitrogen atom in the tricyclic ring system. Prothipendyl is said to not possess antipsychotic effects, and in accordance, appears to be a weaker dopamine receptor antagonist than other phenothiazines.
Oxymesterone, also known as methandrostenediolone, as well as 4-hydroxy-17α-methyltestosterone or 17α-methylandrost-4-en-4,17β-diol-3-one, is an orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS). It was known by 1960.
Stenbolone is an anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) of the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) group which was never marketed. A C17β ester prodrug of stenbolone, stenbolone acetate, is used as an AAS for depot intramuscular injection under the brand names Anatrofin and Stenobolone.
Butidrine (INN), or butedrine or butydrine, also known as hydrobutamine or idrobutamine, is a beta blocker related to pronethalol and propranolol that was developed in the 1960s. Similarly to certain other beta blockers, butidrine also possesses local anesthetic properties.
Penmesterol (INN), or penmestrol, also known as 17α-methyltestosterone 3-cyclopentyl enol ether, is a synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) that was developed in the early 1960s. It is the 3-cyclopentyl enol ether of methyltestosterone.
Broparestrol (INN), also known as α-bromo-α,β-diphenyl-β-p-ethylphenylethylene (BDPE), is a synthetic, nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of the triphenylethylene group that has been used in Europe as a dermatological agent and for the treatment of breast cancer. The drug is described as slightly estrogenic and potently antiestrogenic, and inhibits mammary gland development and suppresses prolactin levels in animals. It is structurally related to clomifene and diethylstilbestrol. Broparestrol is a mixture of E- and Z- isomers, both of which are active and are similarly antiestrogenic but, unlike broparestrol, were never marketed.
Flumexadol (INN) is a drug described and researched as a non-opioid analgesic which was never marketed. It has been found to act as an agonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptors and, to a much lesser extent, of the 5-HT2A receptor. According to Nilsson (2006) in a paper on 5-HT2C receptor agonists as potential anorectics, "The (+)-enantiomer of this compound showed [...] affinity for the 5-HT2C receptor (Ki) 25 nM) [...] and was 40-fold selective over the 5-HT2A receptor in receptor binding studies. Curiously, the racemic version [...], also known as 1841 CERM, was originally reported to possess analgesic properties while no association with 5-HT2C receptor activity was mentioned." It is implied that flumexadol might be employable as an anorectic in addition to analgesic. Though flumexadol itself has never been approved for medical use, oxaflozane is a prodrug of the compound that was formerly used clinically in France as an antidepressant and anxiolytic agent.
Stenbolone acetate (USAN), also known as 2-methyl-4,5α-dihydro-δ1-testosterone 17β-acetate or as 2-methyl-5α-androst-1-en-17β-ol-3-one 17β-acetate, is a synthetic, injected anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and derivative of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which has been marketed in Spain. It is the C17β acetate ester of stenbolone, which is structurally related to 1-testosterone and to drostanolone (2α-methyl-DHT).
Triphenylbromoethylene, also known as bromotriphenylethylene or as phenylstilbene bromide, is a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen of the triphenylethylene group that was marketed in the 1940s similarly to the closely related estrogen triphenylchloroethylene.
Clomifenoxide (INN), also known as clomifene N-oxide, is a nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of the triphenylethylene group that is described as an antiestrogen and "gonad stimulant" and was never marketed. It is an active metabolite of clomifene.
Androstenediol dipropionate, or 5-androstenediol 3β,17β-dipropionate, also known as androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol 3β,17β-dipropionate, is a synthetic anabolic–androgenic steroid and an androgen ester – specifically, the dipropionate diester of 5-androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol) – which has been marketed in Europe, including in Spain, Italy, and Austria.
Isoflupredone, also known as deltafludrocortisone and 9α-fluoroprednisolone, is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid which was never marketed.
Cortobenzolone, also known as betamethasone salicylate, is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid and corticosteroid ester which is marketed in Spain.
Pirenperone (INN, USAN, BAN; developmental code names R-47456, R-50656) is a serotonin receptor antagonist described as an antipsychotic and tranquilizer which was never marketed. It is a relatively selective antagonist of the serotonin 5-HT2 receptors and has been used in scientific research to study the serotonin system. In the 1980s, the drug was found to block the effects of the lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in animals, and along with ketanserin, led to the elucidation of the 5-HT2A receptor as the biological mediator of the effects of serotonergic psychedelics.
Estrone methyl ether, or estrone 3-methyl ether, is a synthetic estrogen and estrogen ether – specifically, the C3 methyl ether of estrone – which was never marketed. It has been used to synthesize mestranol.
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