Ford River Rouge Complex
|Location||Dearborn, Michigan, United States|
|Area||900 acres (360 ha) (landmarked area)|
|NRHP reference No.||78001516|
|Added to NRHP||June 2, 1978|
|Designated NHLD||June 2, 1978|
|Designated MSHS||December 14, 1976|
The Ford River Rouge Complex (commonly known as the Rouge Complex, River Rouge, or The Rouge) is a Ford Motor Company automobile factory complex located in Dearborn, Michigan, along the River Rouge, upstream from its confluence with the Detroit River at Zug Island. Construction began in 1917, and when it was completed in 1928, it was the largest integrated factory in the world, surpassing Buick City, built in 1904.
It inspired the Île Seguin Renault factory in 1920,the GAZ factory built in the 1930s in the Soviet Union, as well as the later Hyundai factory complex in Ulsan, South Korea, which was developed beginning in the late 1960s. Designed by Albert Kahn, River Rouge was designated as a National Historic Landmark District in 1978 for its architecture and historical importance to the industry and economy of the United States.
The Rouge Complex measures 1.5 miles (2.4 km) wide by 1 mile (1.6 km) long, including 93 buildings with nearly 16 million square feet (1.5 km2) of factory floor space. With its own docks in the dredged Rouge River, 100 miles (160 km) of interior railroad track, its own electricity plant, and integrated steel mill, the titanic Rouge was able to turn raw materials into running vehicles within this single complex, a prime example of vertical-integration production.[ citation needed ]
Some of the River Rouge buildings were designed by architect Albert Kahn. His Rouge glass plant was regarded at the time as an exemplary and humane factory building, with ample natural light provided through windows in the ceiling. Since the late 20th century, several buildings at the Rouge complex have been renovated and converted to "green" structures with a number of environmentally friendly features.
In the summer of 1932, through Edsel Ford's support, Mexican artist Diego Rivera was invited to study the facilities at the Rouge. These studies informed his set of murals known as Detroit Industry .[ citation needed ]
The plant's first products were Eagle Boats, World War I anti-submarine warfare boats produced in Building B. The original Building B, a three-story structure, is part of the legendary Dearborn Assembly Plant, which started producing Model A's in the late 1920s and continued production through 2004. After the war, production turned to Fordson tractors. Although the Rouge produced nearly all the parts of the Model T, assembly of that vehicle remained at Highland Park. It was not until 1927 that automobile production began at the Rouge, with the introduction of the Ford Model A.
During World War II the Rouge complex produced jeeps, aircraft engines, aircraft components and parts, tires and tubes, armor plate, and tractors.
Other Rouge products included the 1932 Model B, the original Mercury, the Ford Thunderbird, Mercury Capri, and four decades of Ford Mustangs. The old assembly plant was idled with the construction and launch of a new assembly facility on the Miller Road side of the complex, currently producing Ford F-150 pickup trucks.
The River Rouge Complex manufactured most of the components of Ford vehicles, starting with the Model T. Many of the vehicles were compiled into "knock-down kits", then sent by railroad to various assembly locations across the United States to be locally assembled, using local supplies as necessary.After the 1960s, Ford began to decentralize manufacturing, building several factories in major metropolitan centers. The Rouge was downsized, with units (including the famous furnaces and docks) sold off to independent companies, many still operating independently to this day.
On May 26, 1937, a group of workers attempting to organize a union at the Rouge were severely beaten, an event later called the Battle of the Overpass. Peter E. Martin's respect for labor led to Walter Reuther, a UAW leader, allowing Martin to be the only Ford manager to retrieve his papers or gain access to the plant.
The Rouge was one of only three locations where Ford manufactured the Mustang; the other sites were Metuchen Assembly and Milpitas Assembly in San Jose, California.
By 1987, only Mustang production remained at the Dearborn Assembly Plant (DAP). In 1987 Ford planned to replace that car with the front wheel drive Ford Probe, but public outcry quickly turned to surging sales. With the fourth-generation Mustang a success, the Rouge was saved as well. Ford decided to modernize its operations. A gas explosion on February 1, 1999 killed six employees and injured two dozen more, resulting in the idling of the power plant. Michigan Utility CMS Energy built a state-of-the-art Power Plant across Miller Road to replace the electricity and steam production, as well as the blast furnace waste gas consumption of the original power plant.As it ended production, Dearborn Assembly Plant was one of six plants within the Ford Rouge Center. The plant was open from 1918 to May 10, 2004, with a red convertible 2004 Ford Mustang GT being the last vehicle built at the historic site. Demolition of the historic DAP facility was completed in 2008. All that remains is a 3000 place parking lot to hold light truck production from the new Dearborn Truck Plant.
Today, the Rouge site is home to Ford's Rouge Center. This industrial park includes six Ford factories on 600 acres (2.4 km2) of land, as well as steelmaking operations run by AK Steel, a U.S. steelmaker. The new Dearborn Truck factory famously features a vegetation-covered roof and rainwater reclamation system designed by sustainability architect William McDonough. This facility is still Ford's largest factory and employs some 6,000 workers. Mustang production, however, has moved to the Flat Rock Assembly Plant in Flat Rock, Michigan.
Tours of the Rouge complex were a long tradition. Free bus tours of the facility began in 1924 and ran until 1980, at their peak hosting approximately a million visitors per year. They resumed in 2004 in cooperation with The Henry Ford Museum with multimedia presentations, as well as viewing of the assembly floor. The Ford Rouge Factory Tour had 148,000 visitors in 2017.
Hourly workers from both Ford and AK Steel facilities at the complex are represented by UAW Local 600.[ citation needed ]
A fleet of three Ford-owned Great Lakes freighters initially named for the Ford grandsons and later renamed for top company executives, was based at the River Rouge Plant. The deckhouse of the SS Benson Ford was transported by crane barge to Put-in-Bay, Ohio and placed on an 18-foot cliff as a private home above Lake Erie.
In September, 2020 Ford announced construction[ clarification needed ] of the new Rouge Electric Vehicle Center, where their electric vehicles will be produced. In 2021, the vehicle center[ clarification needed ] opened, and Ford's first all electric truck, the Ford F-150 Lightning, will be the first vehicle model produced there.
In 1999, architect William McDonough entered into an agreement with Ford Motor Company to redesign its 85-year-old, 1,212-acre (490 ha) Rouge River facility. The roof of the 1.1-million-square-foot (100,000 m2) Dearborn truck assembly plant was covered with more than 10 acres (4.0 ha) of sedum, a low-growing groundcover. The sedum retains and cleanses rainwater and moderates the internal temperature of the building, saving energy.
The roof is part of an $18 million rainwater treatment system designed to collect and clean rainwater annually, sparing Ford from a $50 million mechanical treatment facility.
Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products in a constant flow, including and especially on assembly lines. Together with job production and batch production, it is one of the three main production methods.
Albert Kahn was the foremost American industrial architect of his day. He is sometimes called the "architect of Detroit", designing such major industrial works as the Ford River Rouge Complex, the largest in the world when built; as well as skyscrapers and office buildings in the city, and mansions in the suburbs. He built a practice with hundreds of architects; in 1937 his firm designed 19 percent of all architect-designed factories in the U.S.
Flat Rock Assembly Plant, formerly known as Ford's Michigan Casting Center (MCC) (1972–81), Mazda Motor Manufacturing USA (1987–92) and AutoAlliance International (1992–2012), is a Ford Motor Company assembly plant located at 1 International Drive in Flat Rock, Michigan in Metro Detroit.
The Highland Park Ford Plant is a former Ford Motor Company factory located at 91 Manchester Avenue in Highland Park, Michigan. It was the second American production facility for the Model T automobile and the first factory in history to assemble cars on a moving assembly line. It became a National Historic Landmark in 1978.
The Henry Ford is a large indoor and outdoor history museum complex and a National Historic Landmark in the Detroit suburb of Dearborn, Michigan, United States. The museum collection contains the presidential limousine of John F. Kennedy, Abraham Lincoln's chair from Ford's Theatre, Thomas Edison's laboratory, the Wright Brothers' bicycle shop, the Rosa Parks bus, and many other historical exhibits. It is the largest indoor–outdoor museum complex in the United States and is visited by over 1.7 million people each year. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1969 as Greenfield Village and Henry Ford Museum and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1981 as "Edison Institute".
The Ford Piquette Avenue Plant is a former factory located within the Milwaukee Junction area of Detroit, Michigan, in the United States. Built in 1904, it was the second center of automobile production for the Ford Motor Company, after the Ford Mack Avenue Plant. At the Piquette Avenue Plant, the company created and first produced the Ford Model T, the car credited with initiating the mass use of automobiles in the United States. Prior to the Model T, several other car models were assembled at the factory. Early experiments using a moving assembly line to make cars were also conducted there. It was also the first factory where more than 100 cars were assembled in one day. While it was headquartered at the Piquette Avenue Plant, Ford Motor Company became the biggest U.S.-based automaker, and it would remain so until the mid-1920s. The factory was used by the company until 1910, when its car production activity was relocated to the new, bigger Highland Park Ford Plant.
Chicago Assembly is currently Ford Motor Company's oldest continuously operated automobile manufacturing plant. It is located at E. 130th Street and Torrence Avenue in the Hegewisch section of Chicago, Illinois. Chicago Assembly currently builds the sixth-generation Ford Explorer and the second-generation Lincoln Aviator.
San Jose Assembly Plant was a Ford Motor Company manufacturing site in Northern California, outside of San Jose in what is now the town of Milpitas. It was the automaker's primary factory in that region from 1955 to 1983, replacing the Richmond Assembly facility. Numerous vehicles were produced at the plant including the Ford Falcon, Ford Maverick and Ford Mustang. It was also the West Coast manufacturing location of the Ford Fairlane, Ford Torino, Ford Pinto, Ford Escort and the short lived Edsel Ranger and Edsel Pacer. Mercury products such as the Mustang-based Cougar, Montego, Comet, Bobcat, Capri and the Lynx were also assembled there. Ford F-series trucks were produced there, from shortly after the inception of the plant until its closure in 1983.
Michigan Assembly Plant, formerly known as Michigan Truck Plant, is a Ford Motor Company assembly plant in Wayne, Michigan. The plant employs approximately 2800 hourly employees and 200 salary employees, comprises three main buildings with 5,000,000 sq ft (460,000 m2) of factory floor space and is located adjacent to Wayne Stamping & Assembly. The plant was built in 1957 and has seen many expansions and upgrades. The plant manufactured the third generation, North American Ford Focus from December 14, 2010 until May 4th, 2018.
The Oakville Assembly Complex is a Ford Motor Company of Canada automobile factory in Oakville, Ontario, spanning 487 acres. This landmark occupies the same site as, and combines, the former Ontario Truck plant and Oakville Assembly Plant. Clearly visible from the Queen Elizabeth Way and the Lakeshore West GO Train line, it relies on the nearby railway service to transport parts and vehicles throughout the country.
The Ford Motor Company is an American automaker, the world's fifth largest based on worldwide vehicle sales. Based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit, it was founded by Henry Ford on June 16, 1903. Ford Motor Company would go on to become one of the largest and most profitable companies in the world, as well as being one of the few to survive the Great Depression. The largest family-controlled company in the world, the Ford Motor Company has been in continuous family control for over 110 years. Ford now encompasses two brands: Ford and Lincoln. Ford once owned 5 other luxury brands: Volvo, Land Rover, Jaguar, Aston Martin, and Mercury. Over time, those brands were sold to other companies and Mercury was discontinued.
The Boss 429 Mustang is a high performance Ford Mustang variant that was offered by Ford in 1969 and 1970.
Île Seguin is an island on the Seine river between Boulogne-Billancourt and Sèvres, in the west suburbs of Paris, France. It has a surface area of approximately 11.5 hectares, and is positioned opposite Meudon, a short distance downstream from the Île Saint-Germain. Administratively Meudon and the island are included as part of Boulogne-Billancourt, on the river's right bank, rather than of Sèvres on the left bank.
The Cuautitlan Stamping and Assembly Plant (CSAP) is a Ford Motor Company manufacturing facility located in Cuautitlán Izcalli, Mexico. The 202-acre (0.82 km2) site opened in 1964 and currently manufactures the Fiesta, prior to most recently manufacturing trucks. Ford has also announced in 2019 that the upcoming Mustang Mach-E will be manufactured in Cuautitlan beginning in 2020.
Ford Dagenham is a major automotive factory located in Dagenham, London, operated by the Ford of Britain subsidiary of Ford Motor Company. The plant opened in 1931 and has produced 10,980,368 cars and more than 39,000,000 engines in its history. It covers around 475 acres and has received over £800 million of capital investment since 2000.
Ford Motor Company, commonly known as Ford, is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand, and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford also owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors. It also has joint-ventures in China, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, and Russia. The company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family; they have minority ownership but the majority of the voting power.
This steelmaking plant was originally part of the Ford Motor Company, which created an integrated manufacturing complex to produce all major vehicle components at one large facility called The Rouge. In 1989, Ford's steel mill assets were divested and became known as Rouge Industries with the steel operations trading as Rouge Steel Company in Dearborn, Michigan, outside of Detroit.
Long Beach Assembly is a former Ford Motor Company assembly plant located at the Cerritos Channel on Terminal Island, at 700 Henry Ford Avenue in Long Beach, Southern California. It operated from 1930 through 1958.
Edison Assembly, also known as Metuchen Assembly, was a Ford Motor Company manufacturing plant in Edison, New Jersey. It was located at 939 U.S. Route 1 and occupied over 100 acres when it was open. The factory began operations in 1948 and was closed in 2004. Several popular Ford products were manufactured there, such as the Ford Mustang, Ford Ranger, and the Ford Pinto. When the plant opened, it manufactured the new Mercury branded and Lincoln vehicles. It was one of three Ford manufacturing facilities in New Jersey and was built two years before the Mahwah Assembly plant was opened in 1950.
The Ford Pilot Plant facility, located at 17000 Oakwood Boulevard in Allen Park, Michigan, was opened in the summer of 1956 as the original location for the newly created Continental Division, where all Continental Mark II cars were assembled. It was renamed the Edsel Division Headquarters until 1959, when Edsel was discontinued and later became the New Model Programs Development Center facility, where new models are tested and developed. The role of the pilot plant is to test manufacture new products for the first time, documenting the steps and procedures, before assembly line production begins at the designated factory. The location can manufacture several vehicles at one time, where products are moved from station to station on mobile carriages until the process is complete.
Ford 1922 My Life and Work.
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|Chassis||Various||Model T||Model A||1932 Ford||1935 Ford||1937 Ford||1941 Ford|
|Touring||Model B||Model F|
|Model K||Model T|
|Full-size||Model T||Model A||Model B||Model 18||Model 40||Model 48||Standard||Standard|
|Model 68||De Luxe||Deluxe|
|Pickup Truck||Model TT||Model AA||Model BB||Model 48||Standard||Standard|
|Model T||Model A||Model B||Model 18||Model 40||Model 68||De Luxe||Deluxe|
|Full-size||Deluxe||Ford||Deluxe||Mainline||Mainline||Custom, Custom 300||Custom 300||Fairlane||Galaxie Mainliner||300||Custom||Custom||Custom||Custom (cdn)|
|Super Deluxe||Custom Deluxe||Customline||Customline||Fairlane||Fairlane||Fairlane 500||Galaxie||Custom 500||Custom 500||Custom 500|
|Crestline||Fairlane||Fairlane 500||Galaxie||Galaxie 500||Galaxie 500||Galaxie 500|
|Galaxie 500 XL||Galaxie 500 XL||XL||XL|
|Galaxie 500 LTD||LTD||LTD||LTD|
|Station wagon||Parklane||Del Rio|
|Ranch Wagon||Ranch Wagon||Ranch Wagon||Ranch Wagon||Ranch Wagon||Ranch Wagon|
|Country Sedan||Country Sedan||Country Sedan||Country Sedan||Country Sedan|
|Country Squire||Country Squire||Country Squire||Country Squire||Country Squire||Country Squire|