Grand Canyon National Park

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Grand Canyon National Park
IUCN category II (national park)
Dawn on the S rim of the Grand Canyon (8645178272).jpg
Grand Canyon from the South Rim at dawn
Usa edcp relief location map.png
Red pog.svg
Location in the United States
USA Arizona location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location in Arizona
Location Coconino and Mohave counties, Arizona, United States
Nearest city Fredonia, Arizona (North Rim)
Tusayan, Arizona (South Rim)
Coordinates 36°03′19″N112°07′19″W / 36.0552608°N 112.1218355°W / 36.0552608; -112.1218355 Coordinates: 36°03′19″N112°07′19″W / 36.0552608°N 112.1218355°W / 36.0552608; -112.1218355 [1]
Area1,217,262 acres (4,926.08 km2) [2]
EstablishedFebruary 26, 1919 (1919-02-26)
Visitors6,380,495(in 2018) [3]
Governing body National Park Service
Website Official website Blue pencil.svg
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Criteria Natural: vii, viii, ix, x
Reference 75
Inscription1979 (3rd Session)

Grand Canyon National Park, located in northwestern Arizona, is the 15th site in the United States to have been named a national park. The park's central feature is the Grand Canyon, a gorge of the Colorado River, which is often considered one of the Wonders of the World. The park, which covers 1,217,262 acres (1,901.972 sq mi; 4,926.08 km2) of unincorporated area in Coconino and Mohave counties, received more than six million recreational visitors in 2017, which is the second highest count of all American national parks after Great Smoky Mountains National Park. [3] The Grand Canyon was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979.

Arizona state of the United States of America

Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western and the Mountain states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico; its other neighboring states are Nevada and California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest.

National park park used for conservation purposes of animal life and plants

A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of 'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA), has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas.

Grand Canyon A steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States

The Grand Canyon is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States. The Grand Canyon is 277 miles (446 km) long, up to 18 miles (29 km) wide and attains a depth of over a mile.

Contents

History

1938 poster of the park Grand Canyon poster 1938.jpg
1938 poster of the park

"Grand Canyon" was officially designated a national park on February 26, 1919, [4] though the landmark had been well known to Americans for over thirty years prior. [5] In 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt visited the site and said: "The Grand Canyon fills me with awe. It is beyond comparison—beyond description; absolutely unparalleled through-out the wide world... Let this great wonder of nature remain as it now is. Do nothing to mar its grandeur, sublimity and loveliness. You cannot improve on it. But what you can do is to keep it for your children, your children's children, and all who come after you, as the one great sight which every American should see." [6]

Theodore Roosevelt 26th president of the United States

Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, sportsman, conservationist and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. He previously served as the 25th vice president of the United States from March to September 1901 and as the 33rd governor of New York from 1899 to 1900. As a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a driving force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. His face is depicted on Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln. In polls of historians and political scientists, Roosevelt is generally ranked as one of the five best presidents.

Despite Roosevelt's enthusiasm and strong interest in preserving land for public use, the Grand Canyon was not immediately designated as a national park. The first bill to establish Grand Canyon National Park was introduced in 1882 by then-Senator Benjamin Harrison, which would have established Grand Canyon as the third national park in the United States, after Yellowstone and Mackinac. Harrison unsuccessfully reintroduced his bill in 1883 and 1886; after his election to the presidency, he established the Grand Canyon Forest Reserve in 1893. Theodore Roosevelt created the Grand Canyon Game Preserve by proclamation on 28 November 1906, [7] and the Grand Canyon National Monument in 1908. [8] Further Senate bills to establish the site as a national park were introduced and defeated in 1910 and 1911, before the Grand Canyon National Park Act was finally signed by President Woodrow Wilson in 1919. The National Park Service, established in 1916, assumed administration of the park.

Conservation movement social and political advocacy for protecting natural resources

The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including animal and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.

Benjamin Harrison 23rd President of the United States

Benjamin Harrison was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 23rd president of the United States from 1889 to 1893. He was a grandson of the ninth president, William Henry Harrison, creating the only grandfather–grandson duo to have held the office. He was also the great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison V, a founding father. Before ascending to the presidency, Harrison established himself as a prominent local attorney, Presbyterian church leader, and politician in Indianapolis, Indiana. During the American Civil War, he served in the Union Army as a colonel, and was confirmed by the U.S. Senate as a brevet brigadier general of volunteers in 1865. Harrison unsuccessfully ran for governor of Indiana in 1876. The Indiana General Assembly elected Harrison to a six-year term in the U.S. Senate, where he served from 1881 to 1887.

Yellowstone National Park first national park in the world, located in the US states Wyoming, Montana and Idaho

Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho. It was established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872. Yellowstone was the first national park in the U.S. and is also widely held to be the first national park in the world. The park is known for its wildlife and its many geothermal features, especially Old Faithful geyser, one of its most popular features. It has many types of ecosystems, but the subalpine forest is the most abundant. It is part of the South Central Rockies forests ecoregion.

The creation of the park was an early success of the conservation movement. Its national park status may have helped thwart proposals to dam the Colorado River within its boundaries. (Later, the Glen Canyon Dam would be built upriver.) In 1975, the former Marble Canyon National Monument, which followed the Colorado River northeast from the Grand Canyon to Lee's Ferry, was made part of Grand Canyon National Park. In 1979, UNESCO declared the park a World Heritage Site. The 1987 the National Parks Overflights Act [9] found that "Noise associated with aircraft overflights at the Grand Canyon National Park is causing a significant adverse effect on the natural quiet and experience of the park and current aircraft operations at the Grand Canyon National Park have raised serious concerns regarding public safety, including concerns regarding the safety of park users." In 2010, Grand Canyon National Park was honored with its own coin under the America the Beautiful Quarters program. [10]

Conservation in the United States

Conservation in the United States can be traced back to the 19th century with the formation of the first National Park. Conservation generally refers to the act of consciously and efficiently using land and/or its natural resources. This can be in the form of setting aside tracts of land for protection from hunting or urban development, or it can take the form of using less resources such as metal, water, or coal. Usually, this process of conservation occurs through or after legislation on local or national levels is passed.

Glen Canyon Dam dam on the Colorado River, Arizona, USA

Glen Canyon Dam is a concrete arch-gravity dam on the Colorado River in northern Arizona, United States, near the town of Page. The 710-foot (220 m) high dam was built by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) from 1956 to 1966 and forms Lake Powell, one of the largest man-made reservoirs in the U.S. with a capacity of 27 million acre feet (33 km3). The dam is named for Glen Canyon, a series of deep sandstone gorges now flooded by the reservoir; Lake Powell is named for John Wesley Powell, who in 1869 led the first expedition to traverse the Colorado's Grand Canyon by boat.

Marble Canyon section of the Colorado River canyon from Lees Ferry to the confluence with the Little Colorado River

Marble Canyon is the section of the Colorado River canyon in northern Arizona from Lee's Ferry to the confluence with the Little Colorado River, which marks the beginning of the Grand Canyon.

Geography

Grand Canyon regional map NPS grand-canyon-regional-map.jpg
Grand Canyon regional map

The Grand Canyon, including its extensive system of tributary canyons, is valued for its combination of size, depth, and exposed layers of colorful rocks dating back to Precambrian times. The canyon itself was created by the incision of the Colorado River and its tributaries after the Colorado Plateau was uplifted, causing the Colorado River system to develop along its present path.

The Precambrian is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon. The Precambrian is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time.

Colorado Plateau plateau in the southwestern United States

The Colorado Plateau, also known as the Colorado Plateau Province, is a physiographic and desert region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States. This province covers an area of 336, 700 km2 (130,000 mi2) within western Colorado, northwestern New Mexico, southern and eastern Utah, and northern Arizona. About 90% of the area is drained by the Colorado River and its main tributaries: the Green, San Juan, and Little Colorado. Most of the remainder of the plateau is drained by the Rio Grande and its tributaries.

The primary public areas of the park are the South and North Rims, and adjacent areas of the canyon itself. The rest of the park is extremely rugged and remote, although many places are accessible by pack trail and backcountry roads. The South Rim is more accessible than the North Rim, and accounts for 90% of park visitation. [11]

The park headquarters are at Grand Canyon Village, not far from the south entrance to the park, near one of the most popular viewpoints.

South Rim

From Powell Point on the South Rim Grand Canyon Powell Point Evening Light 02 2013.jpg
From Powell Point on the South Rim

Most visitors to the park come to the South Rim, arriving on Arizona State Route 64. The highway enters the park through the South Entrance, near Tusayan, Arizona, and heads eastward, leaving the park through the East Entrance. [12] Interstate 40 provides access to the area from the south. From the north, U.S. Route 89 connects Utah, Colorado, and the North Rim to the South Rim. [13] Overall, some 30 miles of the South Rim are accessible by road.[ citation needed ]

North Rim

Sunset at Cape Royal Point, North Rim Cape Royal Sunset.jpg
Sunset at Cape Royal Point, North Rim

The North Rim area of the park located on the Kaibab Plateau and Walhalla Plateau, directly across the Grand Canyon from the principal visitor areas on the South Rim. The North Rim's principal visitor areas are centered around Bright Angel Point. The North Rim is higher in elevation than the South Rim, at over 8,000 feet (2,400 m) of elevation. Because it is so much higher than the South Rim, it is closed from December 1 through May 15 each year, due to the enhanced snowfall at elevation. Visitor services are closed or limited in scope after October 15. Driving time from the South Rim to the North Rim is about 4.5 hours, over 220 miles (350 km). [11]

Services

Grand Canyon Village is the primary visitor services area in the park. It is a full-service community, including lodging, fuel, food, souvenirs, a hospital, churches, and access to trails and guided walks and talks. [14]

Lodging

Several lodging facilities are available along the South Rim. Hotels and other lodging include: El Tovar, Bright Angel Lodge, Kachina Lodge, Thunderbird Lodge, and Maswik Lodge, all of which are located in the village area, and Phantom Ranch, located on the canyon floor. There is also an RV Park named Trailer Village. All of these facilities are managed by Xanterra Parks & Resorts, while the Yavapai Lodge (also in the village area) is managed by Delaware North. [15]

On the North Rim there is the historic Grand Canyon Lodge [15] managed by Forever Resorts and a campground near the lodge, managed by the national park staff. [16]

Climate

Grand Canyon National Park has a BSk (Köppen climate classification) - tropical and subtropical steppe type of climate consisting of dry, hot summers and cold winters.

Climate data for Grand Canyon National Park
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °F (°C)55.0
(12.8)
62.0
(16.7)
71.0
(21.7)
80.0
(26.7)
90.0
(32.2)
101.0
(38.3)
104.0
(40.0)
100.0
(37.8)
93.0
(33.9)
81.0
(27.2)
66.0
(18.9)
55.0
(12.8)
79.8
(26.6)
Average low °F (°C)35.0
(1.7)
39.0
(3.9)
45.0
(7.2)
52.0
(11.1)
60.0
(15.6)
70.0
(21.1)
74.0
(23.3)
72.0
(22.2)
66.0
(18.9)
55.0
(12.8)
43.0
(6.1)
36.0
(2.2)
53.9
(12.2)
Average rainfall inches (mm)1.1
(28)
0.9
(23)
0.9
(23)
0.5
(13)
0.3
(7.6)
0.2
(5.1)
0.9
(23)
1.5
(38)
1.0
(25)
0.9
(23)
0.7
(18)
0.8
(20)
9.7
(246.7)
Average snowfall inches (cm)0.1
(0.25)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
0.2
(0.5)
Average rainy days4.03.04.02.01.01.03.05.03.02.02.03.033
Mean daily sunshine hours 7.08.09.011.012.013.011.011.010.09.08.07.09.7
Percent possible sunshine 70737585868779858382807080
Source: Weather Atlas [17]
Climate data for Grand Canyon National Park
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Mean daily daylight hours10.011.012.013.014.015.014.013.012.011.010.010.012.1
Average Ultraviolet index 34681011111085326.8
Source: Weather Atlas [17]

Activities

North Rim

From Toroweap Overlook on the North Rim A124, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA, Toroweap overlook, 2004.jpg
From Toroweap Overlook on the North Rim

On the North Rim there are few roads, however, there are some notable vehicle accessible lookout points including Point Imperial, Roosevelt Point, and Cape Royal. Mule rides are also available that go to a variety of places including several thousand feet down into the canyon.

Many visitors to the North Rim choose to make use of the variety of hiking trails including the Widforss Trail, Uncle Jim's Trail, the Transept Trail, and the North Kaibab Trail, the latter of which can be followed all the way down to the Colorado River, and to across to the South Kaibab Trail and the Bright Angel Trail, which continue up to the South Rim of the Grand Canyon.

The Toroweap Overlook is located in the western part of the park on the North Rim. Access is via unpaved roads off Route 389 west of Fredonia, Arizona. The roads lead through Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument and to the overlook.

South Rim

From Desert View on the South Rim A252, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA, south rim, desert viewpoint, 2008.JPG
From Desert View on the South Rim

A variety of activities at the South Rim cater to park visitors. A driving tour (35 miles (56 km)) along the South Rim is split into two segments. The western drive to Hermit's Point is 8 miles (13 km) with several overlooks along the way, including Mohave Point, Hopi Point, and the Powell Memorial. [14] From March to December, access to Hermit's Rest is restricted to the free shuttle provided by the Park Service. The eastern portion to Desert View is 25 miles (40 km), and is open to private vehicles year round.

Walking tours include the Rim Trail, which runs west from the Pipe Creek viewpoint for about 8 miles (13 km) of paved road, followed by 7 miles (11 km) unpaved to Hermit's Rest. Hikes can begin almost anywhere along this trail, and a shuttle can return hikers to their point of origin. Mather Point, the first view most people reach when entering from the South Entrance, is a popular place to begin.

Private canyon flyovers are provided by helicopters and small airplanes out of Las Vegas, Phoenix, and Grand Canyon National Park Airport. Due to a crash in the 1990s, scenic flights are no longer allowed to fly within 1,500 feet (460 m) of the rim within the Grand Canyon National Park. [18] Flights within the canyon are still available outside of park boundaries. [19]

Development

The US government had halted development of a 1.6 million acres area including the national park from 1966 to 2009, during the Bennett Freeze, because of an ownership dispute between Hopi and Navajo. [20]

Grand Canyon Association

The Grand Canyon Association (GCA) is the National Park Service's official nonprofit partner. It raises private funds to benefit Grand Canyon National Park by operating retail shops and visitor centers within the park, and providing educational opportunities about the natural and cultural history of the region.

Grand Canyon - Hopi Point.JPG
A panoramic view from the South Rim

See also

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Grand Canyon at Wikimedia Commons (image gallery)

Related Research Articles

Bryce Canyon National Park national park in Garfield and Kane counties in Utah, United States

Bryce Canyon National Park is an American national park located in southwestern Utah. The major feature of the park is Bryce Canyon, which despite its name, is not a canyon, but a collection of giant natural amphitheaters along the eastern side of the Paunsaugunt Plateau. Bryce is distinctive due to geological structures called hoodoos, formed by frost weathering and stream erosion of the river and lake bed sedimentary rocks. The red, orange, and white colors of the rocks provide spectacular views for park visitors. Bryce Canyon National Park is much smaller, and sits at a much higher elevation than nearby Zion National Park. The rim at Bryce varies from 8,000 to 9,000 feet.

Walnut Canyon National Monument United States National Monument in Arizona

Walnut Canyon National Monument is a United States National Monument located about 10 mi (16 km) southeast of downtown Flagstaff, Arizona, near Interstate 40. The canyon rim elevation is 6,690 ft (2,040 m); the canyon's floor is 350 ft lower. A 0.9 mi (1.4 km) long loop trail descends 185 ft (56 m) into the canyon passing 25 cliff dwelling rooms constructed by the Sinagua, a pre-Columbian cultural group that lived in Walnut Canyon from about 1100 to 1250 CE. Other contemporary habitations of the Sinagua people are preserved in the nearby Tuzigoot and Montezuma Castle national monuments.

South Kaibab Trail geographical object

The South Kaibab Trail is a hiking trail in Grand Canyon National Park, located in the U.S. state of Arizona. Unlike the Bright Angel Trail which also begins at the south rim of the Grand Canyon and leads to the Colorado River, the South Kaibab Trail follows a ridge out to Skeleton Point allowing for 360-degree views of the canyon.

Bright Angel Trail

The Bright Angel Trail is a hiking trail located in Grand Canyon National Park in the U.S. state of Arizona.

Phantom Ranch

Phantom Ranch is a lodge inside Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona. It is on the north side of the Colorado River near its confluence with Bright Angel Creek and Phantom Creek. Built in 1922, Phantom Ranch is a member of Historic Hotels of America, the official program of the National Trust for Historic Preservation.

Arizona Strip part of Arizona north of the Colorado River, having more physical/cultural connections with southern Utah and Nevada than the rest of Arizona due to the difficulty of crossing the Grand Canyon, whose largest settlements are Colorado City and Fredonia

The Arizona Strip is the part of Arizona lying north of the Colorado River. The difficulty of crossing the Grand Canyon causes this region to have more physical and cultural connections with southern Utah and Nevada than with the rest of Arizona. The largest settlements in the Strip are Colorado City and Fredonia.

State Route 67 is a 43.4 mi (69.8 km) long, north–south state highway in northern Arizona. Also called the Kaibab Plateau – North Rim Parkway, SR 67 is the sole road that links U.S. Route 89A at Jacob Lake to the North Rim of Grand Canyon National Park. Along the route, the road heads through the national park as well as Kaibab National Forest and is surrounded by evergreen trees. The section inside the national park is maintained by the National Park Service (NPS), whereas the section north of the entrance, completely within Kaibab National Forest, is owned by the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT). The road was built in the late 1920s and improved through the 1930s. In 1941, the road received its number, and was given its designation as the parkway in the 1980s. The parkway has received designations as a National Forest Scenic Byway as well as a National Scenic Byway.

North Kaibab Trail

The North Kaibab Trail is a hiking trail in the North Rim side of the Grand Canyon, in Grand Canyon National Park, located in the U.S. state of Arizona.

Tonto Trail

The Tonto Trail is a hiking trail on the South Rim of the Grand Canyon in Grand Canyon National Park, located in the U.S. state of Arizona.

Clear Creek Trail

The Clear Creek Trail is a hiking trail on the North Rim of the Grand Canyon National Park, located in the U.S. state of Arizona.

The Plateau Point Trail is a hiking and pack trail located on the South Rim of the Grand Canyon National Park, located in the U.S. state of Arizona.

Tanner Trail hiking trail in Arizona

The Tanner Trail is a hiking trail located on the South Rim of the Grand Canyon National Park, located in the U.S. state of Arizona. The trailhead is located at Lipan Point, a prominent lookout located to the east of the Grand Canyon Village and it ends at the Colorado River at Tanner Rapids.

South Bass Trail

The South Bass Trail is a hiking trail located on the South Rim of the Grand Canyon National Park, located in the U.S. state of Arizona.

Kanab Creek Wilderness

Kanab Creek Wilderness is a 75,300-acre (305 km2) wilderness area located along the Coconino/Mohave County line in the U.S. state of Arizona, approximately 30 miles (48 km) south of Fredonia. 68,600 acres (278 km2) of the Wilderness are located in the North Kaibab Ranger District of the Kaibab National Forest, the remaining 6,700 acres (27 km2) are administered by the Arizona Bureau of Land Management.

North Rim, Arizona Unincorporated community in Arizona, United States

North Rim is a populated place in Coconino County, Arizona, United States. It is located adjacent to the Grand Canyon within Grand Canyon National Park.

The Great Western Trail is a north-south long distance multiple use route which runs from Canada to Mexico through five western states in the United States. The trail has access for both motorized and non-motorized users and traverses 4,455 miles (7,170 km) through Arizona, Utah, Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana. Designated a National Millennium Trail.

Toroweap Formation

The Middle Permian Toroweap Formation is a thin, darker geologic unit, between the brighter colored units of the Kaibab Limestone above, and Coconino Sandstone below. It is a prominent unit in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, found through sections of the South Rim, Grand Canyon, and the North Rim, of the Kaibab Plateau; also the Kaibab's southeast extension to Cape Royal, the Walhalla Plateau. The Colorado River of the Grand Canyon makes its excursion from due-south to due-west around the Walhalla Plateau, as it enters the east end of the Grand Canyon's interior, Granite Gorge. The formation is also found in southeast Utah.

Toroweap Overlook

Toroweap Overlook is a viewpoint within the Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona, United States. It is located in a remote area on the North Rim of the Grand Canyon, 55 miles (89 km) west of the North Rim Headquarters. The overlook is the only viewpoint in the National Park from where the Colorado River can be seen vertically below. The overlook stands 3,000 feet (910 m) above the river.

References

  1. "Grand Canyon National Park Visitor Center". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  2. "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011". Land Resource Division, National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
  3. 1 2 "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved 2019-03-07.
  4. Yanagihara, Wendy; Denniston, Jennifer (2008). Grand Canyon National Park. Lonely Planet. p. 95. ISBN   1741044839.
  5. Anderson, Michael F. "Polishing the Jewel: An Administrative History of Grand Canyon National Park" (PDF). Grand Canyon Association. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  6. Pryputniewicz, Vanya; Peterson, Peter. "Grand Canyon National Park Presents Living History Performance of President Theodore Roosevelt". nps.gov. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  7. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 2, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  8. 35  Stat.   2175
  9. https://www.nps.gov/grca/learn/nature/airoverflights_documents.htm
  10. "Grand Canyon Coin Introduced" (PDF). United States Mint . 2010. Retrieved 27 February 2015. The Grand Canyon National Park Quarter is the fourth coin of 2010 in the America the Beautiful Quarters® Program. The reverse image features a view of the granaries above the Nankoweap Delta in Marble Canyon near the Colorado River.
  11. 1 2 "North Rim". Grand Canyon National Park. National Park Service. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  12. Rand McNally; National Park Guide; Michael Frome; Rand McNally & Company, Chicago; 1970; pg 47
  13. Rand McNally (2010). Road Atlas. United States, Canada, Mexico.
  14. 1 2 National Park Service (1972). South Rim. Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona: US Government Printing Office.
  15. 1 2 "Lodging". National Park Service. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  16. "Campgrounds - North Rim". National Park Service. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  17. 1 2 "Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  18. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 29, 2017. Retrieved November 3, 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  19. Grand Canyon West. "Grand Canyon Helicopter & Aerial Tours".
  20. Kate Linthicum (November 5, 2009). "Trying to be rebuild after 40 frozen years" . Retrieved 5 March 2015.
External image
Searchtool.svg Public domain images from the National Park Service.