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Wollongong, New South Wales
|Population||5,575 (2016 census)|
|LGA(s)||City of Wollongong|
|State electorate(s)||Shellharbour, Wollongong|
Kanahooka is a southern suburb in Wollongong City Council. It has a couple of shops and a playground. Situated on Lake Illawarra is a Park with a playground. It has a public (Hayes Park Public School) and high school(Kanahooka High School).
The establishment of the Dapto Smelting Works was an important part of Kanahooka's history. The Dapto Smelting Works came about through the ill-fated "Lake Illawarra Harbour Scheme". This scheme gave a great impetus to the growth of the town of Dapto in the early 1900s.
In 1890 a Parliamentary Act was passed authorising the Illawarra Harbour and Land Corporation to begin projects near Dapto that would involve an outlay of many hundreds of thousands of pounds. The scheme involved building a channel through Lake Illawarra to allow oceangoing vessels to come up to Elizabeth Point, a short distance north of Kanahooka Point. A railway was also built at a cost of 42,000 pounds to allow coal to be brought from a local colliery to be loaded onto the ships.
With the opening of the railway the Smelting Company of Australia Ltd. had been formed and with the backing of overseas capital a large smelting works was established. "The site chosen for the works was an elevated one, contiguous to Mullet Creek and about half a mile from its mouth. The more northerly of "the Twins" - two similar hills - was decapitated, thus providing a series of levels to which the ores would gravitate, in the various processes from bins to crushing and roasting plants, then to the blast furnaces before being sent to the refinery." (O'Malley, 1950, p. 6)
The works were operating at full production by 1899 and were prosperous for several years. They treated lead, silver, zinc, copper and gold from Broken Hill, Zeehan, Mount Morgan and Western Australia.
"The main plant of the smelting works consisted of three blast furnaces, roasting plant, refinery, sulphuric acid plant, steam engines, blowing engines, pumps and a foundry…The products from the works were Dore bullion (gold and silver conglomerate), soft lead and a high-grade copper matte containing gold silver and lead." (O'Malley, 1950, p. 8)
Numbers of employees at the plant peaked at between four and five hundred. Half of the employee population lived in tents and there was a group of fifty in the clump of swamp oaks just north of the works. The success of the smelting works lead to Dapto being a boom town in the early 1900s. The report of the Commissioner for Railways for 1903 declared Dapto the most valuable station on the Illawarra line, its goods transfer totalling 22,000 pounds.
Quite suddenly in 1905 everything folded, competition cut off the supply of ore from Western Australia and Broken Hill, an ambitious scheme for treating nickel from New Caledonia came to nothing and in 1905 the works closed. (McDonald, 1976; O'Malley, 1950)
The Lake Illawarra Authority has published two more books about the Lake in 2012 which focus on the suburb of Brownsville, its history and the role of John Brown in saving the islands known as Gooseberry and Hooka which lie not far from Kanahooka Point—though over towards Berkeley. The first book, "John Brown of Brownsville: his manuscripts, letterbook and the records of Dapto Show Society 1857-1904" edited by Joseph Davis, deals with the man who did most to protect the vegetation of the Lake Islands. The second of these books, titled "Gooseberry & Hooka: the island reserves of Lake Illawarra 1829-1947" edited by Joseph Davis, records by John Brown and others", deals with the history of these two islands and how they have survived to become nature refuges rather than recreation reserves. Davis also did an earlier lavishly illustrated book for The Lake Illawarra Authority entitled "Lake Illawarra: an ongoing history (Davis, Joseph, 1956- vi, 175 p. : ill. maps, ports., facsims) in 2005.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to extract a base metal. It is a form of extractive metallurgy. It is used to extract many metals from their ores, including silver, iron, copper, and other base metals. Smelting uses heat and a chemical reducing agent to decompose the ore, driving off other elements as gases or slag and leaving the metal base behind. The reducing agent is commonly a source of carbon, such as coke—or, in earlier times, charcoal.
ASARCO LLC is a mining, smelting, and refining company based in Tucson, Arizona, which mines and processes primarily copper. The company is a subsidiary of Grupo México. ASARCO is known for several environmental and health-related disasters.
Lake Illawarra, an open and trained intermediate wave dominated barrier estuary or large coastal lagoon, is located in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, situated about 100 kilometres (62 mi) south of Sydney, Australia.
Dapto is a suburb of Wollongong in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia, located on the western side of Lake Illawarra and covering an area 7.15 square kilometres in size. As at the 2016 census, the suburb had a population of 10,730.
Port Kembla is a suburb of Wollongong 8 km south of the CBD and part of the Illawarra region of New South Wales. The suburb comprises a seaport, industrial complex, a small harbour foreshore nature reserve, and a small commercial sector. It is situated on the tip of Red Point, first European sighting by Captain James Cook in 1770. The name "Kembla" is Aboriginal word meaning "plenty [of] wild fowl".
Copper extraction refers to the methods used to obtain copper from its ores. The conversion of copper consists of a series of physical and electrochemical processes. Methods have evolved and vary with country depending on the ore source, local environmental regulations, and other factors.
Dapto is an intercity train station located in Dapto, New South Wales, Australia, on the South Coast railway line.
Kanahooka High School is a government-funded co-educational comprehensive secondary day school, located in Kanahooka, 15 kilometres (9 mi) southwest of the city of Wollongong, in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia.
Mount Isa Mines Limited ("MIM") operates the Mount Isa copper, lead, zinc and silver mines near Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia as part of the Glencore group of companies. For a brief period in 1980, MIM was Australia's largest company. It has pioneered several significant mining industry innovations, including the Isa Process copper refining technology, the Isasmelt smelting technology, and the IsaMill fine grinding technology, and it also commercialized the Jameson Cell column flotation technology.
William "Bill" Beach was a professional Australian sculler. He was unbeaten as World Sculling Champion from 1884 to 1887.
Zinc smelting is the process of converting zinc concentrates into pure zinc. Zinc smelting has historically been more difficult than the smelting of other metals, e.g. iron, because in contrast, zinc has a low boiling point. At temperatures typically used for smelting metals, zinc is a gas that will escape from a furnace with the flue gas and be lost, unless specific measures are taken to prevent it.
The Sacramento Valley and Eastern Railway (SV&E) was a railway company that operated in Shasta County, California, from 1908 to the early 1930s.
The Chillagoe smelters is a heritage-listed refinery at Chillagoe-Mungana Caves National Park, Mareeba Mining District, Chillagoe, Shire of Mareeba, Queensland, Australia. It operated in the early 1900s. It is also known as Chillagoe State Smelters. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.
Plants for the production of lead are generally referred to as lead smelters. Primary lead production begins with sintering. Concentrated lead ore is fed into a sintering machine with iron, silica, limestone fluxes, coke, soda ash, pyrite, zinc, caustics or pollution control particulates. Smelting uses suitable reducing substances that will combine with those oxidizing elements to free the metal. Reduction is the final, high-temperature step in smelting. It is here that the oxide becomes the elemental metal. A reducing environment pulls the final oxygen atoms from the raw metal.
Port Kembla is a man-made cargo port or artificial harbour, with an outer harbour protected by breakwaters and an inner harbour constructed by dredging, located in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia.
The Bottom-blown Oxygen Converter or BBOC is a smelting furnace developed by the staff at Britannia Refined Metals Limited (“BRM”), a British subsidiary of MIM Holdings Limited. The furnace is currently marketed by Glencore Technology. It is a sealed, flat-bottomed furnace mounted on a tilting frame that is used in the recovery of precious metals. A key feature is the use of a shrouded lance to inject oxygen through the bottom of the furnace, directly into the precious metals contained in the furnace, to oxidize base metals or other impurities as part of their removal as slag.
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Norton Goldfield is a heritage-listed former mine at Norton Road, near Nagoorin, Boyne Valley, Gladstone Region, Queensland, Australia. It was built from 1870s to 1941. It is also known as Milton Goldfield. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 27 October 2006.
Mount Elliott Company Metallurgical Plant and Mill is a heritage-listed smelting works via Sheaffe Street, Cloncurry, Shire of Cloncurry, Queensland, Australia. It was built from 1926 to April 1927. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 17 June 2003.
Kuridala Township site is a heritage-listed mining camp in the locality of Kuridala, Shire of Cloncurry, Queensland, Australia. It was built from 1880s to 1920s. It is also known as Hampden Township, Hampden Smelter, Kuridala Smelter, and Friezeland Township. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 12 June 2009.