The Turi or Torai are a sub-tribe of the KarlaniPashtun tribe, inhabiting the Kurram Valley, in Kurram Agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan, with a smaller number living across the Durand line in the Paktia province of Afghanistan. They speak Pashto and are adherents of the Twelver Shia sect of Islam.
The Turis came into prominence by the end of the 15th century. They use to wander in nomadic fashion between Aryob Valley of Paktia and Kurram Valley. They would migrate in the winter, cross the Kurram Valley which was then inhabited by the Bangash, and travel as far as the Indus River. From Narr'ra, on the bank of Indus River near, tehsil jand, Attock, the Turis appear to have migrated annually during the hot weather back to the Kurram Valley.The Mughal Emperor Babur mentions the Turis in Kurram in his diary of 1506.
In the 18th century, the Turi and their cousin tribe Zazi came into quarrel with the Bangash of the Kurram Valley which was then part of Durrani Empire (Kurram came under the British Raj after the Second Anglo-Afghan War of 1879-80). The Turis succeeded to capture the Paywar Pass, Shalozan and Malana, pushed the Bangash of the area southeastwards towards the Miranzai Valley, and eventually the Turis settled in the upper Kurram Valley.
After the annexation of Kohat to British India, the Turis, in league with other clans, repeatedly harassed the Miranzai border, attacking the Bangash and Khattak villages in Kohat. In 1854 they made a treaty, but their raids continued, though punitive measures were not resorted to, as the tribe was held to be under the control of the Amir of Afghanistan.
However their raids increased in audacity, and in 1856 a force under Brigadier-General Neville Bowles Chamberlain entered the valley. Following this, compensation (the payment of which was guaranteed by the governor Ghulam Jan) was exacted, the Turis agreeing to pay 8,630 rupees. In 1859 the Turis joined the British expedition against the Kabul Khel Wazirs, but their feud with that tribe subsequently gave much trouble, with reprisals being undertaken by Wazirs in British territory for Turi offenses. In 1816, serious disturbances arose between the Bangash of Lower Kurram and the British village of Thal out of a boundary dispute. In 1877 the Turis were discontented with the oppressive administration of Shahbaz Khan, governor of Kurram, and when the Amir demanded from them a contribution of 50,000 rupees (a poll tax of 5 rupees on every adult female) and 6,000 recruits for his war against the British, they revolted and fled to the hills.
Attempts to pacify the tribe were unsuccessful for a time, but the Turis at last agreed to send a jirga to Kabul and pay a benefaction of 25,000 rupees, while Shahbaz Khan was recalled by the Amir.
In November 1878, a column under General Roberts entered Kurram from Thal, and occupied Kurram Fort on the 25th of that month. Following on from subsequent British conquests the Turis now co-operated with the British expedition against the Zaimukhts, whose hostility had been marked by the murder of Lieutenant Kinloch, and Kurram was held without further disturbance until its evacuation in October, 1880. The Turis throughout furnished supplies, their levies were employed in escorting convoys, and they, with the Bangash, petitioned that the British should take over the valley and free them from Afghan rule; but the British elected to evacuate the country and the tribe was declared independent.
Internal feuds broke out in a few months, and throughout 1882-4 the Turis were constantly fighting among themselves, as well as with the Jajis and Zaimukhts. The administration of the valley was finally undertaken by the British Government, at the request of the Turis themselves, in 1892.
Although their early dealings with the British government were inclined to turbulence, and they were involvedin the Miranzai expeditions of 1851 and 1855, the only expedition specially sent against them was the Kurram expedition of 1856. After this they settled down and engaged in trade. During the Second Afghan War they supplied Sir Frederick Roberts with guides and provisions. In 1892 they voluntarily accepted British administration and furnished a large part of the tribal militia in the Kurram Valley.
The Turi have had a long history of conflict with Jihadist groups. During the Soviet–Afghan War, Sunni Mujahideen attacked the Turis and other Shias of Kurram. Kurram was the launching pad for Mujahideen attacks into Afghanistan and the Shias were uncooperative, preventing the Mujahideen from passing through their areas in order to fight in Afghanistan. — added to which are intertribal tensions. Major battles were fought in 2007 and fighting continues.More recently, the conflict with the Turi has extended to the Taliban and Al Qaeda and Haqqani network supporters in the area. As well as a religious aspect (the Taliban follow a hardline Sunni sect, scornful of Shi'as), the Turi territory is strategically important to cross-border trade and raids into Afghanistan
The Turis, who are also called Turizais, have five divisions. These are known as Hamza Khel, Mastu Khel, Ghondi Khel, Alizai and Duparzai. These are grouped into two main group or clans. The Hamza Khel and Mastu Khel are known as Sargullai, whereas the remaining three are called "Chardari". [ citation needed ] Detail of each division and the area occupied by them are given below:
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Parachinar or Pāṛačinār is a small town which is the capital of Kurram District in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Parachinar is situated on a neck of Pakistani territory west of Peshawar, that juts into the Logar and Nangarhar provinces of Afghanistan. With a distance of 110 kilometres (68 mi) from the Afghan capital Kabul, Parachinar is the closest point in Pakistan to Kabul. It is one of two urban areas in Kurram District, the other one being Sadda, and has shrank considerably in population over the past few decades, becoming the least populous urbanized area in Kohat Division. Major Tribes are 1. Mangal 2. Maqbal 3. Para Chamkini 4. Zazi 5. Turi
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The Miranzai Valley, also Hangu, is a mountainous valley situated in the Kohat and Hangu districts in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. It is made up of two valleys, draining from the southwest into the Kurram and northeast into the Kohat Tai. It is divided into upper and lower Miranzai. It extends from the Bangash and Orakzai hills to the Bangashs. It is 40 miles (64 km) in length and is 546 square miles (1,410 km2) in area. East of Hangu there are numerous smaller valleys; west of Hangu, consisting of all of the upper portion of the valley, there is a broad and open plain, bare of trees. There are many ravines in this and the surrounding area, with many inhabitants, predominantly the Bangash and Orakzai peoples.
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Orakzai is a Pashtun tribe native to the Orakzai Agency and parts of Kurram Agency located in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. They speak the language Pashto.
Kurram District is a district in Kohat Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan.The name Kurram comes from the river Kuramá in Pashto which itself derives from the Sanskrit name Krumuḥ.
Pakthas are an ancient people that find reference in Sanskrit and likely in Greek sources as a people living in the region which includes south-eastern province in Afghanistan and northern parts of Pakistan. In the Rigveda, the Kurram is mentioned as "Kruma". Pachytyans were in charge of all "elephants" used in battle fields. Elephant hoarders or boarders or they took care of elephants. Today, the Kurram Valley is mostly inhabited by the Bangash and Turi Pashtun tribes, and because of that the ancient Pakhtas are believed to be part of the modern-day Pashtun confederation.
"The Pakthas, Bhalanases, Vishanins, Alinas, and Sivas were the five frontier tribes. The Pakthas lived in the hills from which the Kruma originates. Zimmer locates them in present-day eastern Afghanistan, identifying them with the modern Pakthun."
Garmsir District is located in the southern part of Helmand Province, Afghanistan. The district is large, but all the villages are along the Helmand River. The rest is a desert. The district capital, Garmsir, is located in the northwestern part of the district on the east bank of Helmand River.
The Kurram Agency War began on 6 April 2007 in Kurram Agency, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan when a Sunni gunman on a Friday prayer held by Shia in Parachinar. It left more than 40 people dead and more than 150 people wounded . Tension had been brewing in the area adjacent to the Afghan border since April 1 when the sectarian group Ahl-e-Sunnat Wal Jamaat taking part in Mawlid when some of Sunni people having guns shot the Shia people.
Alizai is a Pashtun tribe in southern Afghanistan, and Balochistan, Pakistan. It belongs to the Panjpai confederation of the larger Durrani tribe of Ahmad Shah Durrani. Alizai's are usually bilingual in Pashto and Persian language.
Naryab(نرياب) is a town and union council of Hangu District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It belongs to Kohat Division. Its history dates back hundreds of years.
The Sulaimankhel, or Suleiman Khel, are a Pashtun sub-tribe of the Ghilji tribe of Bettani confederation of Pashtuns. In the early 20th century, the tribe was recognised as generally pastoral.
The Baizai are a sub-tribe of the Bangash tribe. Believed to be the first amongst the Bangash tribesmen, along with the Miranzai, to have come down from their traditional home in the Kurram Valley to oust the Orakzais from Kohat, with assistance from Khattak tribesmen in the surrounding areas, and settle in their stead.
The Kurram Militia is a unit of the Frontier Corps of the paramilitary forces of Pakistan. It was originally raised by the British in 1892 to operate in the North-West Frontier Province, and carried in that role following Pakistan's independence in 1947.
The Khan of Hangu, also known as Raees e Hangu, was the title of the tribal chiefs of Hangu valley. The first to take the title was Khan Mardu Khan in the 16th century. After him, his clan, the Mardukhel, ruled the valley for more than 400 years. They belong to the Miranzai sub-tribe of the larger Bangash tribe.