This article is largely based on an article in the out-of-copyright Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, which was produced in 1911. It should be brought up to date to reflect subsequent history or scholarship (including the references, if any). When you have completed the review, replace this notice with a simple note on this article's talk page. (January 2011)
The Zaimukhts is a Pashtun sub-tribe of Orakzai living on the northwest frontier of Pakistan, to the south of the Turi on the Kohat border of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Orakzai is a Pashtun tribe native to the Orakzai Agency and parts of Kurram Agency located in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. They speak the language Pashto or Pushto.
Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.
Kohat, is a city in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan which serves as the capital of the Kohat District. The city is regarded as a centre of the Bangash tribe of Pashtuns, who have lived in the region since the late 15th century. Kohat's immediate environs were the site of frequent armed skirmishes between British colonialist forces and local tribesmen in the mid to late 19th century. Modern Kohat is now a medium-sized city with a population of approximately 270,000 people, and centres on a British-era fort, various bazaars, and a military cantonment.
The Zaimukhts inhabit the hills to the south of the Turis between the Miranzai and Kurram valleys. Their country may be described as a triangle, with the range of hills known as the Samana as its base, and the village of Thal in the Kurram valley as its apex. The Zaimukhts are a fine-looking powerful race, who at the start of the 20th century had a fighting strength of some 3,000 men.
The Miranzai Valley, also Hangu, is a mountainous valley situated in the Kohat and Hangu districts in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. It is made up of two valleys, draining from the southwest into the Kurram and northeast into the Kohat Tai. It is divided into upper and lower Miranzai. It extends from the Bangash and Orakzai hills to the Bangashs. It is 40 miles (64 km) in length and is 546 square miles (1,410 km2) in area. East of Hangu there are numerous smaller valleys; west of Hangu, consisting of all of the upper portion of the valley, there is a broad and open plain, bare of trees. There are many ravines in this and the surrounding area, with many inhabitants, predominantly the Bangash and Orakzai peoples.
Johann Karl Wilhelm Vatke, known as Wilhelm Vatke was a German Protestant theologian, born in Behnsdorf, near Magdeburg. After acting as Privatdozent in Berlin, he was appointed in 1837 professor extraordinarius.
French Somaliland was a French colony in the Horn of Africa. It existed between 1883 and 1967.
Bannu District is a district in Bannu Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. It was recorded as a district in 1861 during the British Raj. It is one of 26 districts that make up the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It borders North Waziristan to the northwest, Karak to the northeast, Lakki Marwat to the southeast, and South Waziristan to the southwest. It is represented in the provincial assembly by four MPAs. The district's main city is Bannu City.
The Bangash are one of the Karlani Pashtun tribe of the border region of eastern Afghanistan and North Western Pakistan. They primarily inhabit the Kohat, Hangu, Doaba, Thall, and districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, as well as portions of the Kurram Agency and Orakzai Agency in FATA. A large number of Bangash are also found in the northeastern section of the Paktia and Paktika Province in Afghanistan. Descendants of Bangash are also found in the Uttar Pradesh state of India, particularly in the city of Farrukhabad which was founded by Muhammad Khan Bangash in 1714.
The Tochi Valley, also known as Dawar ., is a fertile area located in the North Waziristan agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. In 1881, Nawab of Sarhad Nawab Gulmaizar Khan established the North Waziristan Tribal Agency with its headquarters at Miramshah in the valley.
Feira de Santana is a city in Bahia, Brazil. It is the second-most populous city in the state, with a population of 610,000 according to IBGE's estimate. It is located 100 km northwest of Salvador, Bahia's capital city. These cities are connected by BR-324, a four-lane divided highway.
Cherat is a hill station dating from the 1860s that is located immediately above the villages of Chapri, Saleh Khana and Dak Ismail Khel in the Nowshera District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Cherat lies 34 miles south east from the city of Peshawar at an elevation of 4,500 feet on the west of the Khattak range, which divides the district of Nowshera from Kohat District.
The Lushai (Pron: ˌlʊˈʃaɪ) Hills are a mountain range in Mizoram and Tripura, India. The range is part of the Patkai range system and its highest point is 2,157 m high Phawngpui, also known as 'Blue Mountain'.
The Tirah Campaign, often referred to in contemporary British accounts as the Tirah Expedition, was an Indian frontier war during 1897–98. Tirah is a mountainous tract of country in what is now a federally administered tribal area of Pakistan.
Buner District is a district in Malakand Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. Before becoming a district in 1991, it was a tehsil within Swat District. The predominant language is Pashto, which is spoken natively by 96.6% of the population.
The Turi or Torai are a sub-tribe of the Karlani Pashtun tribe, inhabiting the Kurram Valley, in Kurram Agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan, with a smaller number living across the Durand line in the Paktia province of Afghanistan. They speak Pashto and are adherents of the Twelver Shia sect of Islam.
Kurram District is a district in Kohat Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. Until 2018, it was an agency of Federally Administered Tribal Areas, with merger of FATA with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, it became a district. Geographically, it covers the Kurram Valley region which is a valley in the northwestern part of Pakistan. Most of the population is Pashtun and the main religion is Islam. Major tribes living in Kurram Agency are Turi, Bangash, Mamozai, Muqbal, Orakzai, Zazai (JAJI), Mangal, Ghilzai and Para Chamkani, Khoshi tribe
Pakthas are an ancient people that find reference in Sanskrit and Greek sources as a people living in the region which includes south-eastern province in Afghanistan and northern parts of Pakistan. In the Rigveda, the Kurram is mentioned as "Kruma". Pachytyans were in charge of all "elephants" used in battle fields. Elephant hoarders or boarders or they took care of elephants. Today, the Kurram Valley is mostly inhabited by the Bangash and Turi Pashtun tribes, and because of that the ancient Pakhtas are believed to be part of the modern-day Pashtun confederation.
"The Pakthas, Bhalanases, Vishanins, Alinas, and Sivas were the five frontier tribes. The Pakthas lived in the hills from which the Kruma originates. Zimmer locates them in present-day eastern Afghanistan, identifying them with the modern Pakthun."
Kushalgarh is a village in the Kohat District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
The March of Verona and Aquileia was a vast march of the Holy Roman Empire in northeastern Italy during the Middle Ages, centered on the cities of Verona and Aquileia. Seized by King Otto I of Germany in 952, it was held by the Dukes of Bavaria; from 976 in personal union with the Duchy of Carinthia. The margravial regime ended with the advent of the Lombard League in 1167.
The Doon Valley is an unusually wide, long valley within the Shivalik Hills in the Lesser Himalayas, in the Indian states of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana. Within the valley lies the city of Dehradun, the capital of Uttarakhand state.
The Garhwal Himalayas are mountain ranges located in the state of Uttarakhand, India. The mountain ranges cross two regions: Garhwal division and Kumaon division.
The Kurram Militia is a unit of the Frontier Corps of the paramilitary forces of Pakistan. It was originally raised by the British in 1892 to operate in the North-West Frontier Province, and carried in that role following Pakistan's independence in 1947.
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The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (1910–11), is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries.
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