Muhammadzai (Hashtnagar)

Last updated
LocationHashtnagar, Charsadda District, Pakistan
LanguagePashto
Religion Islam

The Muhammadzai (also Mohammadzai, Mohammedzai, Mohmandzai, Mamanzai, etc.) [1] is a Pashtun tribe residing in Charsadda, modern day Pakistan. There should not be confused with the Muhammadzai of the Barakzai Durrani, who were for many years the ruling family of Afghanistan. This group of Muhammadzai is located in (Charsadda) modern day Pakistan, has an altogether different Pashtun lineage, son of Zamand third son of Kharshbun.

Contents

Origins

According to Pashtun genealogy, the Muhammadzai are descended from Qais Abdur Rashid through his son Sarbani, and his son Kharshbun. The Afghan Muhammadzai (Barakzai) are descendants of Sharkhbun and Kharshbun is his brother. Kharshbun had three sons, Kand, Zamand, and Kasi. Muhammad, was Zamand son so they popular with the Muhammadzai tribe (see chart below). [2] [3]

Location

The Muhamamdzai are found primarily in Hashtnagar, an area in today's Charsadda District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan that borders the Swat River's left bank. They were originally said to have resided in Afghanistan, but moved to Charsadda region and were given the Hashtnagar by the Yusufzai. [4] Their geography is integral to the tribe's internal organization, because the branches of the tribe and the villages they each inhabit share the same names. The following breakdown comes from an 1878 report on what was then part of the Peshawar District: [5] Tangi (Barazai and Nasratzai), Sherpao, Umarzai, Turangzai, Utmanzai, Dargai, these all tribes living in Charsadda, and Prang. Rose's tribal glossary adds that "with them are settled a few descendants of Muhammad's brothers, from one of whom, Kheshgi, one of their principal villages is named." [6] Their irrigated, rice-bearing lands along the Swat River are known as the lowlands or sholgira, while the high lands are referred to as the maira. [7] One sub division of Muhammadzai Hashtnagar arrived Ghwarband valley of district shangla and settled there. [8]

Although mainly located in the Hashtnagar area of Charsadda, the Muhammadzai are also based in Akora Khattak, Peshawar and Islamabad.

Politics and Influence

The most famous Muhammadzai tribesmen were the Pashtun leaders Dr Khan Sahib and his brother Abdul Ghaffar Khan, his son Khan Abdul Wali Khan and his grandson Asfandyar Wali Khan. They are originally from Utmanzai, where their father was a well-to-do landlord and village khan. Aftab Ahmad Khan Sherpao is another well known leader and a chairman of QWP. [9] [10]

The Muhammadzai are a highly influential and educated Pashtun tribe and have been in various senior positions in the Pakistani bureaucracy, judiciary, politics and military.

Related Research Articles

Abdul Ghaffar Khan Pashtun independence activist against British colonial rule in India

Abdul Ghaffār Khān, also known as Bādshāh Khān, Frontier/Simant Gandhi or Bāchā Khān and honourably addressed as Fakhr-e-Afghan, was a Pashtun independence activist against British colonial rule in India. He was a political and spiritual leader known for his nonviolent opposition and lifelong pacifism; he was a devout Muslim and an advocate for Hindu−Muslim unity in the Indian subcontinent. Due to his similar ideologies and close friendship with Mahatma Gandhi, Khan was nicknamed Sarhadi Gandhi by his close associate Amir Chand Bombwal. In 1929, Khan founded the Khudai Khidmatgar, an anti-colonial nonviolent resistance movement. The Khudai Khidmatgar's success and popularity with the Indian people eventually prompted the colonial government to launch numerous crackdowns against Khan and his supporters; the Khudai Khidmatgar experienced some of the most severe repression of the entire Indian independence movement.

Yusufzai Ethnic Pashtun tribe

The Yusufzai or Yousafzai, also referred to as the Esapzai or Yusufzai Afghans historically, are one of the largest tribes of the ethnic Pashtun people. The tribe's origin is Kandahar, Afghanistan.

Afridi Farsi tribe mostly present in Pakistan

The Afridi are a tribe of Pashtuns. Their traditional homeland is in Khyber and Darra Adam Khel in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

The Shalmani or Shilmani is a Pashtun tribe primarily concentrated in the Shalman Valley in Khyber Agency near Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Shalmani is also known as Sulemani a variant of Shalmani(Pashto: سليمانى‎) in Abbottabad, Mansehra and Haripur. The tribe is present in different parts of Pakistan. In Pakistan, the tribe lives in Swat, Upper Dir, Lower Dir, Bajour, Buner, Shangla, Malakand District, Dargai, Charsadda (Hashtnagar).

Asfandyar Wali Khan Pakistani politician

Asfandyar Wali Khan is a Pakistani politician. A democratic socialist and Pashtun nationalist, he is President of the Awami National Party in Pakistan.

Khan Abdul Ghani Khan Pashtun poet

Khan Abdul Ghani KhanSI was a Pashtun philosopher, poet, artist, writer and politician. He was a son of Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a prominent British Raj-era Indian independence activist. Throughout his life as a poet in both British India and Pakistan, Khan was known by the titles Lewanay Pālsapay and Da īlam Samander.

Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan Pioneer in Indian Independence and politician

Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan, popularly known as Dr. Khan Sahib, was a pioneer in the Indian Independence Movement and a Pakistani politician. He was the elder brother of the Pashtun independence activist Bacha Khan, both of whom opposed the partition of India, favouring a united country.

Hashtnagar

Hashtnagar is one of the two constituent parts of Charsadda District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the name Hashtnagar is derived from Sanskrit अष्टनगरम् aṣṭanagaram, n., "The eight towns" from Sanskrit aṣṭa, num. card., "Eight" and नगर nagara, n., "settlement, locality, town". There was an unrelated town of the same name near Kabul in 17th century. It was the home to the Roshani Movement which gave rise to the modern Pashtun identity. The descriptive later being influenced by the Pashto asht, num., "eight". The etymology "Eight Towns", refers to the eight major settlements situated in this region. These are:

Utmanzai, Charsadda Town in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Utmanzai is a town in Charsadda tehsil of Charsadda District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is located at the border between Mohmand Agency and Charsadda District.

Hayat Mohammad Khan Sherpao, simply known as Hayat Sherpao, was a left-wing intellectual and socialist, serving as the fifteenth Governor of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan, as well as vice-chairman of Pakistan Peoples Party. Sherpao held important executive offices, including served as the Interior minister and had held a number of provincial ministries of the North West Frontier Province. He was assassinated in 1975, and his death was blamed on a rival political party in the province - the Awami National Party of Khan Abdul Wali Khan.

The Sherpao family is a cadet branch of the Kheshgi family.

The Ghoryakhel is a Pashtun supertribe which consists of tribes led by the son of Kand, son of Kharshbun, son of Sarban, and son of Qais Abdur Rashid, who lived in Ghwara Marghay Arghistan Qandahar but mostly settled in Ghazni on the basin of Tarnak River and Nangarhar, Logar, Kabul, Kunar, Paktia,Kunduz of Afghanistan. Daudzai are also been living in Kabul, Afghanistan which is the largest Pashtun tribe living in Kabul.

The Pathans of Punjab (Punjabi: پنجابی پٹھان; Pashto: د پنجاب پښتانه‎; also called Punjabi Pathans are originally Pashtun people who have settled in the Punjab region of Pakistan. Most of these Pashtun communities are scattered throughout the Punjab and have over time assimilated into the Punjabi society and culture.

History of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

The History of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa refers to the history of the modern-day Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, including the former Federally Administered Tribal Areas, which has colloquially been referred to as Pashtunistan. The earliest evidence from the region indicates that trade was common via the Khyber Pass; originating from the Indus Valley Civilization. The early people of the region were a Vedic people known as the Pakthas, identified with the modern day Pakhtun peoples. The Vedic culture reached its peak between the 6th and 1st centuries B.C under the Gandharan Civilization, and was identified as a center of Hindu and Buddhist learning and scholarship.

Kakazai

The Kakazai, also known as Loi or Loye Mamund, a division of the Mamund clan, are part of the larger Tarkani (ترکاڼي) tribe who are primarily settled in Bajaur Agency, Pakistan, but originally hailed from the Laghman province of Afghanistan. However, it has grown and scattered around to such an extent that it is recognized as tribe of its own.

Utmanzai (Sarbani tribe)

Utmanzai, also spelled Uthmanzai or Atmaanzai, is a Pashtun sub-tribe of the larger Kheshgi family in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Utmanzai or Utmankhail tribe was a fighter against the Sikh empire and were the allies of Mir Painda Khan to combat Maharajah Ranjit SinghThey played a considerable part in fighting against the other Pashtun Tribe i.e Yosufzai, Swatis they also support Nawab Khan Zaman Khan Tanoli in the Battle of Chamla.

Kharshbun and Sharkhbun are brothers son of Sarban, the first son of the legendary Pashtun ancestor Qais Abdur Rashid. The Sarbani tribes, all supposed descendants of Sarban, form one of the major lineage branches of the Pashtun tribes. Kharshbun's progeny compose the eastern Pashtuns, and he had three sons Kand, Zamand, Kasi, whereas his brother Sharkhbun's progeny compose the Western Pashtuns, the most famous of these latter Pashtuns being the Durrani or Abdali tribes. The following is a genealogical breakdown of Kharshbun's sons and the tribes that are said to be their descendants, as found in Olaf Caroe's history, The Pathans.

Kheshgi

The Kheshgi, Khaishgi, Kheshagi, Khweshgi, or Kheshki is a prominent Sarbani Pashtun tribe and Imperial dynasty in South Asia.

The Akakhel, pronounced Akaa Khel or Akakhail, are a Pashtun sub-tribe of the Ghilji/Ghilzais confederation. Their mother language is Pashto. In the early 20th century, the tribe was generally pastoral. The Akakhel are one of the largest Ghilji Pashtun subtribes. A reasonable majority of those who were living on the Durand Line migrated since 1900 into Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan and Punjab provinces of Pakistan to Sikander Abad Charsadda,Peshawar, Swat(Barikot) Abbottabad, Nowshera, Mardan, Attock, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Gujranwala, Gojra, Faisalabad, Lahore, Multan, Hyderabad, Karachi and Quetta. The exact population number of this clan is not known; however, it is estimated to be around 2 million all around the world The population of this tribe primarily lives in Pakistan and Afghanistan. 85 % live in Pakistan and about 1% or 2% live in Afghanistan and remaining 13% lives in England, Germany, United Arab Emirates, China, Malaysia, Canada and United States of America.

References

  1. Murray, James Wolfe. "A Dictionary of the Pathan Tribes on the North-West Frontier of India . Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent, Government Printing, India, 1899. 157.
  2. Caroe, Olaf. The Pathans, 550 B.C. - A.D. 1957. London: Macmillan & Co LTD, 1965. 12-13.
  3. Rose, H. A. A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, Volume 3. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1990. 251.
  4. Elphinstone, Mountstuart. An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul, and its Dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and India . London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown; and J. Murray, 1815. 333.
  5. Hastings, E. G. G., Report of the Regular Settlement of the Peshawar District of the Punjab . Lahore: Central Jail Press, 1878. 103-108.
  6. Rose H. A. A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, Volume 3 . New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1990. 251.
  7. Imperial gazetteer of India, Provincial Series, Volume 20, North-West Frontier Province. Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, 1908. 162.
  8. Book:{7th edition date:2018}″ پښتانه ده تاریخ په آئینه کښ″ author:Sayed Bahadarshah zafar kakakhel.publisher: University book agency khyber bazar peshawar. page:679
  9. Schofield, Victoria. Afghan se Frontier: Feuding and Fighting in Central Asia. London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2003. 218.
  10. Easwaran, Eknath. Nonviolent Soldier of Islam: Badshah Khan, a Man to Match his Mountains. Tomales, CA: Nilgiri Press, 1999. 29-30.