Battle of Vuhledar

Last updated

Battle of Vuhledar
Part of the eastern Ukraine campaign in the Russian invasion of Ukraine
Vuhledar (2023-02-14) 01.jpg
Ukrainian soldiers in a destroyed building in Vuhledar, February 2023
Date28 October 2022 – present
(1 year, 5 months, 3 weeks and 3 days)
Location 47°47′N37°15′E / 47.783°N 37.250°E / 47.783; 37.250
Status

Ongoing

  • First main assault ends in a Ukrainian victory; [1] [2] small-scale assaults continue around Vuhledar [3] [4]
Belligerents

Flag of Russia.svg  Russia

Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine
Commanders and leaders
Flag of Russia.svg Rustam Muradov
Flag of Russia.svg Sukhrab Akhmedov
Flag of Russia.svg Mikhail Gudkov [5]
Flag of Ukraine.svg Nazarii Khiszak [6]
Flag of Ukraine.svg Vladyslav Bayak [7] [8]
Units involved

Banner of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (obverse).svg  Russian Armed Forces

Ensign of the Ukrainian Armed Forces.svg  Ukrainian Armed Forces

Strength
Main Battle:
20,000 troops
90 main battle tanks
180 IFVs
100 artillery pieces [18] [19]
Unknown
Casualties and losses

Ukrainian claim:

  • 58th CAA
    • 155th Brigade: ~5,000 killed, wounded or captured
      130 armored vehicles destroyed, including 36 tanks [20] [21]
    • 72nd Brigade:
      30 tanks and BMPs destroyed [22]
  • 5th Brigade: 304 killed, 22 wounded
    [11] [23]
Confirmed losses:
88+ armored vehicles, including 25+ tanks [24]
Ukrainian claim:
"As many as" 60 killed or wounded a day (September only) [6]
100 killed or wounded (one battalion; Nov. '22–Feb. '23) [25]
Russian claim:
200 killed or wounded (January 24–25) [12]
Equipment losses:
20 armored vehicles destroyed, including two tanks [26]
60 civilians killed [27]

The battle of Vuhledar is a military engagement in the eastern theatre of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, around the town of Vuhledar in western Donetsk Oblast, near the pre-invasion line of contact between Ukraine and the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic. Ukrainian commanders have described it as the largest tank battle of the Russo-Ukrainian War to date.

Contents

Prelude and prior skirmishes

March–October 2022: Unsuccessful Russian assaults

In early March following the start of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Russian and DPR forces captured the town of Volnovakha and began cementing a siege on Mariupol, connecting with troops in Zaporizhzhia Oblast and effectively seizing much of southern Ukraine. In Vuhledar, just north of Volnovakha, Ukrainian forces prepared defenses, with Russia attacking the town on 13 and 14 March. [28] [29] The attack failed however, with the frontline stabilizing just south of Vuhledar through the rest of March and into early April. On 6 April, Russian forces shelled a humanitarian warehouse in Vuhledar, killing two people and injuring five. [30] A Russian assault the following day saw fighting break out inside Vuhledar itself, but Ukrainian troops repulsed the attack by the end of the day. [31]

Three civilians were killed by Russian shelling in Vuhledar on 2 May. [32] Russian and DPR forces also launched an offensive towards Vuhledar and Kurakhove on 16 May, without success. Through June, much of the fighting was contained to drawn-out air and artillery battles near the town. One Ukrainian soldier was killed during these battles. [33] On 21 June, Ukrainian forces launched a localized counter-attack in the area around Vuhledar, recapturing Pavlivka and Mykilske with minimal casualties. [34] Ukrainian forces also recaptured Shevcheko on the following day, [35] and reached Yehorivka on 27 June. [36]

Throughout much of July, sporadic shelling and the occasional offensive occurred near Vuhledar. Russia and DPR forces launched two assaults on 12 July and 18 July, without success. On 10 August, Russian forces heavily shelled Vuhledar and the surrounding settlements, and attempted to launch an offensive but failed. [37] Further offensives continued on 27 and 28 August, albeit unsuccessfully. [38] [39] Russian assaults towards Vuhledar continued over the following months with little success. [40] [41] [42]

October 2022–January 2023: Capture of Pavlivka and approach towards Vuhledar

Russian forces launched a massive assault on Pavlivka with 6,000 troops, directly south of Vuhledar, in an effort to capture Vuhledar, on the night between 28 and 29 October. The assault started, and broke through Ukrainian defenses south of the town, with Russian and DPR troops entering the southeastern portion of Pavlivka on 29 October. [43] [44] Out of 60 men in a platoon from the Russian 155th Naval Infantry Brigade, about 40 were killed and only eight escaped serious injury during a one-day assault on the town during late October. [45] The Ukrainian general staff did not mention shelling of Pavlivka as per usual reports, indicating Russian presence at the vicinity or in the town. [46] By 1 November, battles raged for the northern half of Pavlivka, with Ukraine drawing troops from nearby villages to support those in Pavlivka. [47] By 6 November, the 155th Separate Naval Infantry Brigade had lost 63 men killed over just four days, and, along with the 40th Naval Infantry Brigade, had suffered another 240 casualties as well. [44] On 14 November, the Russian Ministry of Defense claimed the capture of Pavlivka. Despite the pyrrhic success in Pavlivka, dissent grew among Russian soldiers as they suffered severe losses. [48] In November 2022, the 155th Brigade was reportedly losing a hundred people a day during the assault on Pavlivka. [49]

Simultaneously, Russian forces struck civilian infrastructure in Vuhledar on 2 November. [46] On 20 December, Russian strikes killed two civilians in Vuhledar and Torske. [50] According to Nazarii Khiszak, a Ukrainian commander on the frontline in Vuhledar, his unit managed to kill 11 Russians on 27 December, and 400 within just four days a month before. [51] Other Ukrainian commanders in the area expressed concern about the stability of the town's defense, as local doctors received up to 60 Ukrainian casualties a day. The same source also claimed that the Russians were using a 2S4 Tyulpan self-propelled heavy mortar, which, at 240mm, is the largest currently in use. [51] In December, soldiers of Sergei Shoigu's PMC Patriot were spotted for the first time near Vuhledar. [15] Also in December, public information surfaced that Sukhrab Akhmedov, commander of the 155th Marine Brigade, could be removed from his position, along with brigade commander Mikhail Gudkov. [52] [53] [54] However, by June 2023, Akhmedov had been transferred to Kreminna. [55]

Main battle (24 January 15 February 2023)

Residential building in Vuhledar, February 2022 Vuhledar (2023-02-14) 02.jpg
Residential building in Vuhledar, February 2022

The largest assault on Vuhledar throughout the war began on the night of 24 January 2023. On 25 January, war correspondent Andriy Rudenko stated that Ukrainian troops had lost the first line of defence near the town and withdrawn to the city. [56] DNR spokesman Daniil Bezsonov claimed that the DPR's Kaskad Battalion had participated in an advance, along with members of the Russian 155th Naval Infantry Brigade. [56] [ failed verification ]

Localized offensives took place by Russian forces on 25 January, although British intelligence assessed it was unlikely that these assaults were able to hold any ground. [57] [58] The spokesman for the Ukrainian Eastern Command, Serhii Cherevatyi, claimed Russian troops fired at Vuhledar 322 times on 26 January, with 58 localized battles taking place. [59] Ukrainian troops also repulsed Russian attacks on the western part of the town on January 26, although Russian forces consolidated some positions around the eastern half. Cherevatyi also claimed 109 Russian troops were killed and 188 were wounded. [60] [61] That same day, Belarusian volunteer and activist Eduard Lobau was killed in action fighting near Vuhledar. [62]

On 27 January, Russian forces bombarded Vuhledar with a TOS-1 thermobaric rocket launcher. [63] In the following days, Russian forces suffered heavy casualties during the battle, with the 155th Naval Infantry Brigade taking the brunt of the losses. [64] By January 31, British intelligence claimed Russian advances in Vuhledar were unlikely to make any additional progress. [65]

According to Austrian-based analyst Tom Cooper from 2 February, the 155th Marine Brigade may have lost 200-230 men killed in action over the first three days of the operation, with the Ukrainians claiming to have shot down 5-6 Ka-52 helicopters between 24 and 28 January. He even mentioned a rumor “that all the involved Russian units suffered ‘up to 20,000 casualties’ (KIA, WIA, MIA) over the last week”. However, Cooper regarded the latter to be “wildly exaggerated”, and believed that a strike on 1,500 Russian reinforcements gathered in a single building in the nearby village of Kyryoovka (which reportedly inflicted ‘hundreds’ of casualties) may have caused the above reports of massive Russian losses in the Vuhledar area. [19]

In early February, videos emerged from Vuhledar alleging to show a destroyed Russian column near the town. [66] A Russian assault around 6 February saw 30 tanks and other heavy weapons destroyed by Ukrainian artillery. [67] In an interview by RFE/RL, relatives of killed soldiers stated that many Tatar volunteers from the Alga Battalion were killed in the 6 February attack. [68] These heavy losses saw the main fighting units in Vuhledar become the 72nd Motor Rifle Brigade, comprised predominantly of Tatars. [67] The town's deputy mayor, Maksym Verbovsky, stated that Russian troops were attempting to surround the town from two sides, having advanced to nearby villages although being forced to fall back by Ukrainian defenses. [69]

A Russian offensive was initiated against the Ukrainian defensive line during the second week of February. On 8 February, an offensive of tanks, infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs), and infantry failed with large losses, including the loss of nearly 30 armored vehicles, IFVs and tanks. [70] The Ukrainian military announced almost the entire Russian 155th Naval Infantry Brigade was destroyed and Russia has lost 130 units of equipment, including 36 tanks. In the same announcement, they also claimed that the Russians were losing 150-300 marines killed per day in the battle. [71] [21] General Rustam Muradov, commander of the Eastern Military District and of the Vuhledar offensive came under fire for the failure to achieve the objective. [72] On 13 February, a Russian soldier from the 3rd Company of the 155th Brigade said that 500 soldiers had been killed during one assault, and that he was one of only eight survivors from his 100-man company. [10] [73] On 15 February, Ben Wallace, the British Secretary of State for Defence, said that over 1,000 Russian troops had been killed over just two days, and that an entire Russian brigade had effectively been "annihilated". [74] In a video appeal to Russian President Vladimir Putin published on 25 March 2023, around 20 members of a unit tasked with assaulting Vuhledar, identified as the Storm Squad, the 5th Brigade of the 1st Corps of the Russian 8th Army, claimed that their commanders were utilizing anti-retreat troops to force them to advance. They stated that up to 304 of its members had been killed, including the company's commander, and that 22 had been wounded. [11]

Since February 2023

Destroyed buildings in Vuhledar, August 2023 Vuhledar (2023-08-04) 01.jpg
Destroyed buildings in Vuhledar, August 2023

The American Institute for the Study of War (ISW) assessed that between 15 and 23 February, Russian forces continued to launch assaults on Vuhledar, although with no significant territorial changes. [75] The ISW also claimed elements of the 155th Naval Infantry Brigade refused to participate in some assaults. [75] By late February, Russian troops had lost so many tanks and vehicles from the first battle that they shifted towards infantry attacks on the town. [76] Speaking to the New York Times, Vladislav Bayak, a commander in the 72nd Mechanized Brigade, claimed many Ukrainian counterattacks are done through ambushing the Russian vehicles using drones or waiting until the tanks are within range of Ukrainian anti-tank missiles. [76]

In March 2023, British intelligence claimed Russian military leadership had not abandoned the prospect of capturing Vuhledar, and that a second large offensive was plausible. [77] On 14 March, a Ukrainian soldier found a notebook apparently belonging to an as-yet unnamed Russian officer. The notebook seemed to provide a daily tally of manpower in a battalion-size assault group. A hundred soldiers attacked Ukrainian positions on 2 March, according to the notes. Just 16 came back. Two days later, 116 Russians attacked. Twenty-three survived. On 4 March, 103 soldiers left their bivouac. Just 15 came back. The next day, out of 115 attackers, three returned. According to the notes, that single Russian formation lost 377 troops in just a few days. [78]

On 15 April, Ukrainian Brigadier General Oleksandr Tarnavskyi posted a photo of at least four destroyed Russian tanks near Vuhledar. Along with the picture, he stated that "Orcs [Russian troops] are resting [i.e., lying dead – ed.] near Vuhledar. Defence forces are holding positions near the town and preventing the enemy from approaching [the city of – ed.] Avdiivka. Our artillery is working precisely, and every soldier in the foxholes performs at the highest level." [79] On 21 April, Ukrainian Commander-in-Chief Valerii Zaluzhnyi described how his forces had again defeated the 155th Separate Marine Brigade, and that the Ukrainian 35th Marine and 56th Brigades had captured more than twenty Russian marines during a counterattack. [80] Between 26 and 28 April, Ukrainian forces claimed to have destroyed at least four T-80 and T-72 tanks near Nevel's'ke, a town just 20 miles south of Vuhledar. [81]

In May 2023, Ukrainian soldiers on the frontline near Vuhledar stated that Ukrainian forces in the area were lacking in heavy weapons, and Russian forces still held a numerical advantage in terms of troops and weaponry. [82] Around this same time, the British Ministry of Defense stated the 155th Separate Marine Brigade had "likely been reduced to combat-ineffective status." [83]

Impact

In February 2023, Deputy Mayor Verbovsky stated that Vuhledar "was destroyed", with "one hundred percent of the buildings damaged;" [69] fewer than 500 civilians, and only one child, remained in the town once populated with 15,000 residents. [84] [85] The town no longer has running water or electricity because of the damage inflicted on it, with civilians being forced to collect rainwater to drink in February. [86]

On 26 March 2023, Russian media reported that Muradov was demoted from his position as Commander of Eastern Military District. [87] [88] While this news was not officially confirmed by the Russian government, head of Russian military analysis channel Rybar, Mikhail Zvinchuk, stated that Muradov had been given a vacation that is "almost tantamount to resignation". [89] Following this, Russian war correspondents claimed that he had been replaced as acting commander of the Eastern Military District by Lieutenant General Andrey Kuzmenko, despite officially remaining at its head. [90]

A May 2023 report by ReliefWeb stated that Vuhledar urban hromada, an administrative unit that contains Vuhledar and four other nearby villages, had only 1,100 civilians left out of a pre-war population of 26,000. Most of the civilians are elderly, and all services like food, water, electricity, and healthcare are nonexistent. [91] In June, RadioFreeEurope reported 60 civilians, including three children were killed since fighting began in Vuhledar. [92]

On 26 October 2023, the Institute for the Study of War , an American-based think-tank, assessed that Russian armored losses around Vuhledar prevented the Russian command from committing to sustained mechanized assaults elsewhere in Ukraine in the spring and winter of 2023. [93]

Analysis

Vuhledar is situated on a height above the operationally significant T0509 highway between Velyka Novosilka and Novotroitske, and is key to fire control of the highway. [94]

Ukrainian officials have called the battle of Vuhledar "the biggest tank battle of the war", with over 130 Russian tanks and APCs being damaged or destroyed in the course of the battle. [76] [95] Analysts believed many of the Russian casualties and loss of equipment stemmed from the makeup of the Russian brigades, being predominantly untrained mobilized recruits. [76] Military experts told the Wall Street Journal that the heavy Russian losses indicated that the soldiers likely lacked autonomy to adapt to events on the battlefield, possibly combined with poor training of recently mobilized troops. [96]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Russian Naval Infantry</span> Naval infantry arm of the Russian Navy

The Russian Naval Infantry, often referred to as Russian Marines in the West, operate as the naval infantry of the Russian Navy. Established in 1705, they are capable of conducting amphibious operations as well as operating as more traditional light infantry.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">72nd Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine)</span> Ukrainian Ground Forces formation

The 72nd Mechanized Brigade named after theBlack Zaporozhians is a formation of the Ukrainian Ground Forces. It was previously named the 29th Rifle Division and then the 72nd Guards Rifle Division of the Soviet Ground Forces. In 1957, it became a motor rifle division.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Ilovaisk</span> 2014 battle in the Donbas war

The Battle of Ilovaisk started on 7 August 2014, when the Armed Forces of Ukraine and pro-Ukrainian paramilitaries began a series of attempts to capture the city of Ilovaisk from pro-Russian insurgents affiliated with the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) and detachments of the Russian Armed Forces. Although Ukrainian forces were able to enter the city on 18 August, they were encircled between 24 and 26 August by overwhelming Russian military forces that crossed the border, joining the battle. After days of encirclement, Ukrainian forces rejected the DPR's proposal to open a humanitarian corridor on the condition that they abandon their armored vehicles and ammunition, and on the morning of 29 August 2014 began to leave Ilovaisk with their weapons. The Russian side opened fire on the evacuating Ukrainian soldiers, many of whom died whilst trying to escape.

This is the order of battle for the Russian invasion of Ukraine. It should not be considered completely up to date nor accurate, being based on open-source press reporting.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Southern Ukraine campaign</span> Theater of conflict in the Russian invasion of Ukraine

The southern Ukraine campaign is an ongoing theatre of operation in the Russian invasion of Ukraine, which began on 24 February 2022. From their base in Russian-occupied Crimea, the Russian Armed Forces attacked Kherson Oblast, Mykolaiv Oblast, and Zaporizhzhia Oblast in southern Ukraine, battling the Armed Forces of Ukraine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Territorial control during the Russo-Ukrainian War</span>

This page provides information on the most recently known control of localities in Ukraine during the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian War, which started in 2014 and escalated with the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022. It includes all larger localities across the country, as well as some smaller localities close to current or recent lines of contact.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Eastern Ukraine campaign</span> Ongoing military offensive in Ukraine

Ukraine's easternmost oblasts, Donetsk, Luhansk, and Kharkiv, are the site of a theatre of operation in the ongoing Russian invasion of Ukraine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Volnovakha</span> Engagement during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

The battle of Volnovakha was a military engagement which lasted from 25 February 2022 until 12 March 2022, as part of the Eastern Ukraine offensive during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. Russian and DPR forces engaged Ukrainian forces at the small city of Volnovakha in Donetsk Oblast, which is located close to the Ukrainian-DPR border.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Avdiivka (2023–2024)</span> Battle in the Russian invasion of Ukraine

The battle of Avdiivka was a major battle between the Russian and Ukrainian Armed Forces for control of Avdiivka, a city in Donetsk Oblast, during the Russian invasion of Ukraine. After more than a year and a half of intermittent fighting along the city's outskirts, Russian forces launched an offensive to capture Avdiivka on 10 October 2023, resulting in what was considered one of the bloodiest and fiercest battles of the war.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Donbas (2022)</span> Battle in the Russian invasion of Ukraine

The battle of Donbas was a military offensive that was part of the wider eastern Ukraine campaign of the Russian invasion of Ukraine. The offensive began on 18 April 2022 between the armed forces of Russia and Ukraine for control of the Donbas region. Military analysts consider the campaign to have been the second strategic phase of the invasion, after Russia's initial three-pronged attack into Ukraine.

The battle of Marinka was a battle for the city of Marinka between the Armed Forces of Russia and the Armed Forces of Ukraine during the larger eastern Ukraine campaign of the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Bakhmut</span> Battle in the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022 and 2023

The battle of Bakhmut was a major battle between the Russian Armed Forces and the Ukrainian Armed Forces for control of the city of Bakhmut, during the eastern Ukraine campaign, a theatre of the Russian invasion of Ukraine. It is regarded by military analysts to be the bloodiest battle since the end of World War II.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Soledar</span> Battle in the Russian invasion of Ukraine

The battle of Soledar was a series of military engagements in and around the urban-type settlement of Soledar during the battle of Donbas in the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Pisky</span> Battle during the Russian invasion of Ukraine

The battle of Pisky was a series of military engagements for control of the ghost town of Pisky, located just outside of the city of Donetsk, between the Armed Forces of Ukraine and the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and the allied separatist Donetsk People's Republic during the battle for Donbas of the eastern Ukraine campaign. Russian and separatist forces fully captured Pisky on 24 August 2022.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">3rd Army Corps (Russia)</span> Formation of the Russian Ground Forces (2022-present)

The 3rd Army Corps is a military formation of the Russian Ground Forces formed in June 2022 to participate in the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. The 3rd Corps was raised in response to the depletion of trained manpower during the early months of the invasion. It was formed exclusively by volunteers, as at that point Russia had not yet begun the process of partial mobilization and preferred to avoid or delay doing so. Recruitment was on a regional basis, with federal subject administrations and local authorities conducting recruitment campaigns. Its current effective strength estimated at 15,500–60,000 personnel as of January 2023, and originally belonged to the Western Military District, before moving under the command of the Central Military District in 2023.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Luhansk Oblast campaign</span> Military campaign within the Russian invasion of Ukraine since 2022

Since 19 September 2022, a military campaign has taken place along a 60-km frontline in western parts of Luhansk Oblast and far-eastern parts of Kharkiv Oblast amid the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Also known as the Svatove–Kreminna line or the Kupiansk–Svatove–Kreminna–Bilohorivka line after the major settlements along the front, the campaign began a day after the Ukrainian Army recaptured the nearby city of Lyman during the Kharkiv counteroffensive after of which the front line froze over the next few months.

Pavlivka is a village in the Volnovakha Raion of Donetsk Oblast in Ukraine. The population as of 2021 is 2,505 people, and the body of local self-government is the Vuhledar settlement hromada.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">155th Guards Naval Infantry Brigade</span> Military unit

The 155th Separate Guards Brigade of Naval Infantry is a brigade-sized formation of the Russian Naval Infantry. It is located in the city of Vladivostok and the village of Slovianka, Primorsky Krai. It is part of the Pacific Fleet. In Western sources the title is sometimes translated as "Marines."

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Omega group</span> Ukrainian special forces unit

Special Operations Center "Omega"(Ukrainian: Центр Спеціального Призначення «Омега»), also known as Omega group, is a special forces unit that is part of the National Guard of Ukraine. Originally intended for counterterrorism and bodyguard missions, the group has gained extensive combat experience conducting ambushes, raids and reconnaissance missions while behind enemy lines in Kharkiv and Donetsk during the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

Sukhrab Akhmedov is an officer in the Russian Armed Forces. He holds the rank of major general and commands the 20th Combined Arms Army.

References

  1. Belam, Martin; Chao-Fong, Léonie (2 March 2023). "Russia-Ukraine war at a glance: What we know on day 372 of the invasion". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 March 2023. Retrieved 15 March 2023.
  2. "Russia suffers substantial losses at Vuhledar". 13 February 2023. Archived from the original on 15 March 2023. Retrieved 15 March 2023.
  3. "Russians Preparing to Resume Offensive on Vuhledar - ISW Analysts | Ukrainian news". Archived from the original on 15 March 2023. Retrieved 15 March 2023.
  4. "Did the Ukrainian Army Kill 1,100 Russians in a Single Day? It's Certainly Possible". Forbes . Archived from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  5. 1 2 "'A day without dead Russians isn't a complete day'". Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  6. Kramer, Andrew E. (March 2023). "In an Epic Battle of Tanks, Russia Was Routed, Repeating Earlier Mistakes". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 March 2023. Retrieved 2 March 2023.
  7. "In Vuhledar, Russia Kept Falling into the Same Trap". Archived from the original on 2 March 2023. Retrieved 2 March 2023.
  8. "Smashed by Ukrainian Mines and Artillery, Russia's Winter Offensive Just Ground to a Halt Outside Vuhledar". Forbes . Archived from the original on 9 February 2023. Retrieved 9 February 2023.
  9. 1 2 Eckel, Mike (3 March 2023). "What Happened in Vuhledar? A Battle Points to Major Russian Military Problems". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 11 April 2023. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  10. 1 2 3 "'They threatened to shoot us if we didn't advance' — Russian soldiers deployed near Ukraine's Vuhledar ask Putin for help". Novaya Gazeta Europe (in Russian). 26 March 2023. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  11. 1 2 "Armed Forces of Ukraine lose first line of defence near Vuhledar". 25 January 2023. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  12. Bertina, Alec (27 June 2023). "PMC Veterans (60 OMSB Veteran): Putin's Loyalists". Grey Dynamics. Archived from the original on 12 July 2023. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  13. "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, August 21" (PDF). Institute for the Study of War . 21 August 2022. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2023.
  14. 1 2 "Shoigu deploys his Private Military Company, which competes with Wagner Group, to war against Ukraine". pravda.com.ua. Archived from the original on 11 February 2023. Retrieved 10 February 2023.
  15. "Attacking Vuhledar, Russia previews new push to seize southeast Ukraine - The Washington Post". The Washington Post . Archived from the original on 4 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  16. Funeral held for Belarusian activist killed in Ukraine - The Washington Post
  17. "'Like turkeys at a shooting range': Mauling of Russian forces in Donetsk hotspot may signal problems to come". CNN . 13 February 2023. Archived from the original on 19 February 2023. Retrieved 14 February 2023.
  18. 1 2 Ukraine War, 2 February 2023: Vuhledar
  19. Melkozerova, Veronika (12 February 2023). "Russia may have lost an entire elite brigade near a Donetsk coal-mining town". Politico . Archived from the original on 13 February 2023. Retrieved 13 February 2023. Russian forces also were losing 150-300 marines a day near Vuhledar, Dmytrashkivskyi said. He estimated the brigade to have comprised some 5,000 soldiers in all, whose members had been killed, wounded or taken prisoner.
  20. 1 2 "Elite Russian Marine Unit 'Nearly Destroyed' Near Ukraine's Vuhledar". 14 February 2023. Archived from the original on 29 March 2023. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  21. "Smashed by Ukrainian Mines and Artillery, Russia's Winter Offensive Just Ground to a Halt Outside Vuhledar". Forbes . Archived from the original on 9 February 2023. Retrieved 9 February 2023.
  22. Santora, Marc (16 February 2023). "Moscow's Military Capabilities Are in Question After Failed Battle for Ukrainian City - The New York Times". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 February 2023. Retrieved 16 February 2023.
  23. "Vuhledar Russian losses per Warspotting.net" . Retrieved 28 March 2023.
  24. Ukraine's counteroffensive struggles against Russian fortifications, airpower
  25. Top Russian General Dismissed After Vuhledar Defeat
  26. "Маріуполь – під шквалом російської реактивної артилерії, обстріли без упину. ВІДЕО". 1 March 2022. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  27. "Зведення Генерального штабу ЗСУ за 14 березня: головне". Слово і Діло (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 30 June 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  28. "Ukraine: Humanitarian Impact Situation Report (As of 12:00 p.m. (EET) on 8 April 2022) [EN/RU/UK] - Ukraine | ReliefWeb". reliefweb.int. 8 April 2022. Archived from the original on 6 July 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  29. "Enemy firing heavy artillery on contact line, battles ongoing in Vuhledar and Marinka in Donetsk region". www.ukrinform.net. 7 April 2022. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  30. "Russian troops shell Vuhledar in Donetsk region, killing three people". www.ukrinform.net. 3 May 2022. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  31. "До сліз зворушливий пост дружини загиблого на Донеччині воїна з Тернопільщини". ПЕРШИЙ онлайн (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 15 August 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  32. Gall, Carlotta; Lima, Mauricio (21 July 2022). "A Village Retaken, and a Confidence Boost for Ukraine's Troops". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331. Archived from the original on 21 July 2022. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  33. "General Staff of Armed Forces of Ukraine afternoon report". Facebook . 23 June 2022.
  34. "General Staff of Armed Forces of Ukraine morning report". Facebook . 27 June 2022. Archived from the original on 6 January 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  35. "Оперативная информация о российско-украинской войне на 11 августа 2022 года — Генштаб ВСУ". The Page (in Russian). 11 August 2022. Archived from the original on 15 August 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  36. "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, August 27". Critical Threats. Archived from the original on 3 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  37. "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, August 28". Critical Threats. Archived from the original on 26 January 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  38. "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, September 28". Critical Threats. Archived from the original on 26 November 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  39. "Ukrainian Armed Forces repel Russian attacks and hit 40 Russian targets General Staff report". news.yahoo.com. 21 September 2022. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  40. "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, October 8". Critical Threats. Archived from the original on 2 December 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  41. "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, October 29". Critical Threats. Archived from the original on 31 January 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  42. 1 2 "Russian Marines Are Getting Killed and Wounded by the Hundreds in Ukraine". Forbes . Archived from the original on 29 March 2023. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  43. Putin’s War: The Inside Story of a Catastrophe
  44. 1 2 "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, November 2". Critical Threats. Archived from the original on 2 December 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  45. "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, November 1". Critical Threats. Archived from the original on 2 December 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  46. "Russia's heavy Heavy casualties in Ukraine also spark outcry and rare Russian official response". Washington Post. ISSN   0190-8286. Archived from the original on 29 January 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  47. Defeated Several Times, The Russian 155th Brigade Finally Captured A Few Village Blocks. But Only Because Russian Snipers Forced It Forward.
  48. "Occupiers kill civilians in Vuhledar and Torske, Donetsk Oblast". news.yahoo.com. 21 December 2022. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  49. 1 2 region, Charlie Faulkner and Artur Chupryhin, Donetsk. "'A day without dead Russians isn't a complete day'". The Times . ISSN   0140-0460. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  50. "Attempted Copying Ukrainian Tactics: Russian Commanders Waste Entire Brigade In Pavlivka". Charter 97. 8 November 2022. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
  51. "'They're expendable — it's just a fact'". Novaya Gazeta Europe. 10 November 2022. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
  52. "Marine from Russia's Vladivostok shares thoughts about the war in Ukraine". Novaya Gazeta Europe. 18 December 2022. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
  53. "Institute for the Study of War". Institute for the Study of War. Archived from the original on 25 March 2022. Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  54. 1 2 Ernilin, Petr (25 January 2023). "Russia prepares to entrap Vuhledar as Ukrainian forces lose first defence line". Pravda.ru. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  55. Sabbagh, Dan (2 February 2023). "Russian forces could regain initiative as Ukraine war drags on". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  56. "Russians lie about successes near Vuhledar and Orikhiv British intelligence". news.yahoo.com. 27 January 2023. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  57. "Russians Launch Deadly Strike On Donetsk City As Fierce Fighting Rages In East". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  58. Herasimova, Tanya (27 January 2023). "During Yesterday's Assault on Vuhledar, More Than 100 Occupiers Killed - Cherevatyi". Ukranews. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  59. Vasilyeva, Nataliya; Barnes, Joe (27 January 2023). "'Hundreds' of Russian soldiers dying in battle for strategic Ukrainian town". The Telegraph. ISSN   0307-1235. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  60. "Funeral held for Belarusian activist killed in Ukraine". Washington Post. ISSN   0190-8286 . Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  61. "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, January 27, 2023". Critical Threats. Archived from the original on 28 January 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  62. Axe, David. "Russian Marines Just Attempted Another Frontal Assault On Ukrainian Positions Around Pavlivka. The Result Was Predictably Bloody". Forbes. Archived from the original on 11 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  63. "Major Russian assault in Vuhledar unlikely to yield breakthrough, UK says". Reuters. 31 January 2023. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  64. "Russian Armor Reportedly Repelled at Vuhledar". Atlas News. 7 February 2023. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  65. 1 2 Axe, David. "Smashed By Ukrainian Mines And Artillery, Russia's Winter Offensive Just Ground To A Halt Outside Vuhledar". Forbes. Archived from the original on 9 February 2023. Retrieved 9 February 2023.
  66. Eckel, Mike (20 February 2023). "What Happened In Vuhledar? A Battle Points To Major Russian Military Problems". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 11 April 2023. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  67. 1 2 Santora, Marc (5 February 2023). "Russia pushes to take Ukrainian town near a vital supply line". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  68. Russia likely lost dozens of armoured vehicles near Ukraine's Vuhledar: UK Archived 11 February 2023 at the Wayback Machine , Reuters, 10 February 2023.
  69. Melkozerova, Veronica (12 February 2023). "Russia may have lost an entire elite brigade near a Donetsk coal-mining town, Ukraine says". Politico. Archived from the original on 12 February 2023. Retrieved 12 February 2023.
  70. "Russian military commander Rustam Muradov under fire for failure in Ukraine's Vuhledar". EuroWeekly . 10 February 2023. Archived from the original on 10 February 2023. Retrieved 11 February 2023.
  71. "Top Russian General Dismissed After Vuhledar Defeat". 3 April 2023. Archived from the original on 4 April 2023. Retrieved 4 April 2023.
  72. Santora, Marc (16 February 2023). "Moscow's Military Capabilities Are in Question After Failed Battle for Ukrainian City". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 February 2023. Retrieved 16 February 2023.
  73. 1 2 "Institute for the Study of War". Institute for the Study of War. Archived from the original on 25 March 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2023.
  74. 1 2 3 4 Kramer, Andrew E. (1 March 2023). "In an Epic Battle of Tanks, Russia Was Routed, Repeating Earlier Mistakes". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2 March 2023. Retrieved 2 March 2023.
  75. Atlamazoglou, Stavros (12 March 2023). "Is Putin's Military Machine Ready to Go on Another Offensive in Ukraine?". 19FortyFive. Archived from the original on 15 March 2023. Retrieved 15 March 2023.
  76. Axe, David. "Did the Ukrainian Army Kill 1,100 Russians In A Single Day? It's Certainly Possible". Forbes. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  77. Petrenko, Roman (15 April 2023). "Ukrainian Armed Forces post photo of destroyed Russian tanks near Vuhledar". Ukrainska Pravda . Archived from the original on 18 April 2023. Retrieved 18 April 2023.
  78. Romanenko, Valentyna (21 April 2023). "Commander-in-Chief explains how Ukrainian marines destroyed Pacific Fleet near Vuhledar". Ukrainska Pravda . Archived from the original on 21 April 2023. Retrieved 21 April 2023.
  79. Axe, David (28 April 2023). "Russian Brigades Keep Sending Tanks Into The Same Drone Kill Zone Near Donetsk". Forbes . Archived from the original on 29 April 2023. Retrieved 29 April 2023.
  80. Schwirtz, Michael; Kozliuk, Stanislav (27 April 2023). "Ukrainian Troops Repel Russian Attacks, and Hope Western Arms Turn the Tide". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  81. Axe, David. "Two Damaged Russian Brigades Cling To the Minefields Near Vuhledar. The Ukrainians Have Them In Their Crosshairs". Forbes. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  82. "Evacuation efforts underway in Vuhledar: One child remaining in city". www.ukrinform.net. 7 February 2023. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  83. Santora, Marc (4 February 2023). "Russia Pushes to Take Ukrainian Town Near a Vital Supply Line". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2023.
  84. "Inside the town of Vuhledar on Ukraine's frontline where 'everything is bombed'". Sky News. Archived from the original on 2 March 2023. Retrieved 2 March 2023.
  85. Vasileva, Olga (26 March 2023). "Снят с должности командующий Восточной группировкой войск генерал Мурадов" [Commander of the Eastern Military District General Muradov removed from his post]. АНТИМАФИЯ. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  86. Kasumov, Natik (26 March 2023). "СМИ: Генерал Рустам Мурадов снят с должности" [Media: General Rustam Muradov was removed from office]. Report Information Agency  [ ru ] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 27 March 2023. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  87. "Расплата за Угледар? Инсайдеры сообщили новые подробности про отставку генерала Мурадова" [Atonement for Vuhledar? Insiders reported new details about the resignation of General Muradov]. Tsargrad TV (in Russian). 27 March 2023. Archived from the original on 25 April 2023. Retrieved 28 March 2023.
  88. Dostoevskaya, Varvara (27 March 2023). "РВ: Врио командующего группировкой войск "Восток" назначен генерал Кузьменко" [War correspondents: General Kuzmenko has been appointed Acting Commander of the Eastern Military District]. Смоленская народная газета (in Russian). Archived from the original on 28 March 2023. Retrieved 28 March 2023.
  89. "Ukraine: Deterioration of the humanitarian situation in Donetska oblast - Flash Update #3: Marinka, Vuhledar and Kurakhove (3 May 2023) [EN/RU/UK] - Ukraine | ReliefWeb". reliefweb.int. 3 May 2023. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  90. RFE/RL. "Living Amid The Ruins: Defiant Residents Of A Ukrainian Frontline Town Refuse To Flee". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  91. Bailey, Riley; Harward, Christina; Mappes, Grace; Wolkov, Nicole; Jhaveri, Ashka; Ganzeveld, Annika; Kagan, Frederick W. "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, October 26, 2023". Institute for the Study of War . Retrieved 29 October 2023.
  92. "What Happened In Vuhledar? A Battle Points To Major Russian Military Problems". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
  93. Reporting from Ukraine. 07 Mar: Ukrainians WIN THE BIGGEST TANK BATTLE OF THE WAR. 7 March 2023. YouTube. Archived 8 March 2023 at the Wayback Machine . "strategies and tactics they used to stop more than 200 hundred Russian tanks and armored vehicles."
  94. "How Russia Lost Dozens of Tanks in a Costly Battle in Eastern Ukraine". WSJ. 8 March 2023. Archived from the original on 9 March 2023. Retrieved 9 March 2023.