Isle of Man TT

Last updated

Isle of Man TT.svg
Isle of Man Tourist Trophy
Region Isle of Man
Course Isle of Man TT Mountain Circuit
Type Public road course
Clerk of the CourseGary Thompson MBE BEM
Event OrganiserACU Events Ltd
Principal sponsorIsle of Man Department for Economic Development
History
First race1907
Number of race meetings101 (up to 2022)
First winner C. R. Collier (1907)
Most wins Joey Dunlop 26 (1977–2000)
Lap record Peter Hickman 16m 42.778s – 135.452 mph (217.989 km/h) (2018) [1]
Fatalities265

The Isle of Man TT or Tourist Trophy races are an annual motorcycle racing event run on the Isle of Man in May/June of most years since its inaugural race in 1907. The event is often called one of the most dangerous racing events in the world as many competitors have died. [2]

Contents

Overview

The Isle of Man TT is run in a time-trial format on public roads closed to the public by an Act of Tynwald (the parliament of the Isle of Man). The event consists of one week of practice sessions followed by one week of racing. It has been a tradition, perhaps started by racing competitors in the early 1920s, for spectators to tour the Snaefell Mountain Course on motorcycles during the Isle of Man TT on Mad Sunday, [3] an informal and unofficial sanctioned event held on the Sunday between Practice Week and Race Week. [4]

The first Isle of Man TT race was held on Tuesday 28 May 1907 and was called the International Auto-Cycle Tourist Trophy. [5] The event was organised by the Auto-Cycle Club over 10 laps of the Isle of Man St John's Short Course of 15 miles 1,470 yards for road-legal 'touring' motorcycles with exhaust silencers, saddles, pedals and mudguards.

From 1911, the Isle of Man TT transferred to the much longer Snaefell Mountain Course of 37.40 miles (60.19 km) (current length 37.73 miles (60.72 km)). Its elevation goes from near sea-level to 1,300 feet (400 m). [6] The race programme developed from a single race with two classes for the 1907 Isle of Man TT, expanding in 1911 to two individual races for the 350cc Junior TT motor-cycles and the Blue Riband event the 500cc Senior TT race. The race did not take place from 1915 to 1919 due to the First World War. It resumed in 1920. A 250cc Lightweight TT race was added to the Isle of Man TT programme in 1922, followed by a Sidecar TT race in 1923.

There was no racing on the Isle of Man between 1940 and 1945 due to the Second World War. It recommenced with the Manx Grand Prix in 1946 and the Isle of Man TT in 1947, with a greatly expanded format that included the new Clubman's TT races. The Isle of Man TT became part of the FIM Motor-cycle Grand Prix World Championship (now MotoGP) as the British round of the World Motor-Cycling Championship during the period 19491976. Following safety concerns with the Snaefell Mountain Course and problems over inadequate "start-money" for competitors, there was a boycott of the Isle of Man TT races from the early 1970s by many of the leading competitors, motorcycle manufacturers and national motorcycle sporting federations. [7]

It is regarded as the most dangerous motorsport event in the world; The New York Times said in 2017 that the number of deaths had risen "to 146 since it was first run in 1907; if one includes fatal accidents occurring during the Manx Grand Prix ... the figure rises above 250". [8] [9] An account of the 2003 race by Sports Illustrated writer Franz Lidz called the TT "a test of nerves and speed that may be sports' most dangerous event." [10]

In 1976, the Isle of Man TT lost its world championship status; this was transferred to the United Kingdom by the FIM and run as the British Grand Prix for the 1977 season. The Isle of Man TT Races then became an integral part of the new style TT Formula 1, Formula 2 and Formula 3 World Championships between 1977 and 1990 to develop and maintain the international racing status of the Isle of Man TT races. [11]

The event was redeveloped by the Isle of Man Department of Tourism as the Isle of Man TT Festival from 1989 onwards. This included new racing events for the new Isle of Man TT Festival programme, including the Pre-TT Classic Races in 1989 followed by the Post-TT Races from 1991, both held on the Billown Circuit. In 2013, the Isle of Man Classic TT was developed by the Isle of Man Department of Economic Development and the Auto-Cycle Union for historic racing motorcycles, and along with the Manx Grand Prix now forms part of the 'Isle of Man Festival of Motorcycling' held in late August of each year.

There has been criticism of the event. In 2007, an incident during the Senior Race resulted in the deaths of a rider and two spectators. [12] The resultant inquest made several recommendations and included several comments, such as: 'Senior Marshals may well have been elevated beyond the sphere of their competence'. [13] The coroner also noted that "I am more than aware of the fact that the witnesses from the Manx Motor Cycle Club and the marshals are all volunteers. They give their time freely and without paid reward. Having said that however, if it were suggested because they were volunteers there should be some allowance in the standards expected of them, then I regret I cannot agree." [14]

In 2018, a solo competitor was seriously injured during a head-on collision with an official Course Car being driven at high speed when conveying police officers to officiate at the scene of a fatality further along the course. He was one of seven riders who had been halted on the course and turned back by marshals, being instructed to proceed back to the paddock area in the reverse-direction after the red flag stoppage.

The 2020 and 2021 TT races were cancelled because of the COVID-19 pandemic. [15] [16]

Early Isle of Man TT race history (1904–1910)

Gordon Bennett and Tourist Trophy car races

Motor racing began on the Isle of Man in 1904 with the Gordon Bennett Eliminating Trial, restricted to touring automobiles. As the Motor Car Act 1903 placed a speed restriction of 20 mph (32 km/h) on automobiles in the UK, Julian Orde, Secretary of the Automobile Car Club of Britain and Ireland approached the authorities in the Isle of Man for the permission to race automobiles on the island's public roads. [17] The Highways (Light Locomotive) Act 1904 gave permission in the Isle of Man for the 52.15-mile (83.93 km) Highroads Course for the 1904 Gordon Bennett Eliminating Trial which was won by Clifford Earl (Napier) in 7 hours 26.5 minutes for five laps (255.5 mi or 411.2 km) of the Highroads Course. The 1905 Gordon Bennett Trial was held on 30 May 1905 and was again won by Clifford Earl driving a Napier automobile in 6 hours and 6 minutes for six laps of the Highroads Course. This was followed in September 1905 with the first Isle of Man Tourist Trophy Race for racing automobiles, now known as the RAC Tourist Trophy and was won by John Napier (Arrol-Johnston) in 6 hours and 9 minutes at an average speed of 33.90 mph (54.56 km/h). [18]

International Motor-Cycle Cup Race (1905)

For the 1905 Gordon Bennett Eliminating Trial it was decided to run an eliminating trial for motorcycles the day afterwards for a team to represent Great Britain in the International Motor-Cycle Cup Races. An accident at Ramsey Hairpin forced out one of the pre-race favourites, and the inability of the competitors to climb the steep Mountain Section of the course forced the organisers to use a 25-mile (40 km) section of the Gordon Bennett Trial course. This ran from Douglas south to Castletown and then north to Ballacraine along the primary A3 road and returning to the start at the Quarterbridge in Douglas via Crosby and Glen Vine along the current Snaefell Mountain Course in the reverse direction. The 1905 International Motor-Cycle Cup Race for five laps (125 mi or 201 km) was won by J.S. Campbell (Ariel) despite a fire during a pit stop [19] in 4 hours, 9 minutes and 36 seconds at an average race speed of 30.04 mph (48.34 km/h). [20]

Format of the races

Competitors line up at the start of the 2010 Senior TT race Start Senior TT 2010 IMG P0001185.jpg
Competitors line up at the start of the 2010 Senior TT race

The TT Races since the first race in 1907 have been in the format of time-trial. The races held on the Clypse Course during the period 1954–1959 were the more traditional full grid starts along with the 1924 Lightweight TT Race and Clubmen TT Races from 1948, which were also "mass-start" races. The current format is a "clutch start" and race competitors will be "started singly at 10-second intervals". [21]

Race procedure

Eligibility

Entrants must be in possession of a valid National Entrants or FIM Sponsors Licence for Road Racing.

Entrants must also cite pre-filled documentation of completion of a UK driver's licence or motorcycle certification, or a driver's licence from a comparable country that is recognised by UK comparable department of transportation standards and may withhold due to any pre race or post race suspensions.

Race classes

Current
Former

Superbike TT

The 2015 specification for entries into the Superbike TT race are defined as:

  • Any machine complying with the following specifications:
    • TT Superbike: (Machines complying with the 2015 FIM Superbike Championship specifications)
      • Over 750 cc up to 1000 cc 4 cylinders 4-stroke
      • Over 750 cc up to 1000 cc 3 cylinders 4-stroke
      • Over 850 cc up to 1200 cc 2 cylinders 4-stroke

Minimum Weight 165 kg (364 lb). Other machines admitted at the discretion of the Organisers [22]

Supersport TT

The 1911 Isle of Man TT was the first time the Junior TT race took place, open to 300 cc single-cylinder and 340 cc twin cylinder motorcycles, contested over five laps of the new 37.5-mile (60.4 km) Snaefell Mountain Course. The first event on the new course was the Junior TT Race contested by 35 entrants, won by Percy J. Evans riding a Humber motor-cycle at an average race speed of 41.45 mph (66.71 km/h). The 1912 event was the first to limit the Junior TT to only 350 cc machines and this engine capacity prevailed until 1976, after which the category was dropped. The event was instead run for 250 cc machines until 1994 when replaced by the 600 cc Supersport class.

  • 1911 For single cylinder motorcycles not exceeding 300 cc engine capacity and 340 cc twin cylinder motorcycles.
  • 1912–1948 For motorcycles not exceeding 350 cc engine capacity.
  • 1949–1953 FIM World Championship event for motorcycles not exceeding 350 cc engine capacity and held on the Snaefell mountain course.
  • 1954–1959 FIM World Championship event for motorcycles not exceeding 350 cc engine capacity and held on the Clypse Course.
  • 1960–1976 FIM World Championship event for motorcycles not exceeding 350 cc engine capacity and held on the Mountain Course.
  • 1977–1994 for motorcycles not exceeding 250 cc engine capacity and held on the Mountain Course.
  • 1995 onwards for motorcycles not exceeding 600 cc engine capacity and held on the Mountain Course.

The 2015 specifications for entries into the Supersport TT race are:

  • Over 400 cc up to 600 cc 4 cylinders 4-stroke
  • Over 600 cc up to 675 cc 3 cylinders 4-stroke
  • Over 600 cc up to 750 cc 2 cylinders 4-stroke

Minimum Weight 161 kg [23]

Superstock TT

The 2015 specifications for entries for the Superstock TT, an event for production based motorcycles racing with treaded road tyres, are based on the FIM Superstock Championship specifications, as follows:

  • Superstock TT: (Machines complying with the 2012 FIM Superstock Championship specifications)
    • Over 750 cc up to 1000 cc 4 cylinders 4-stroke
    • Over 750 cc up to 1000 cc 3 cylinders 4-stroke
    • Over 850 cc up to 1200 cc 2 cylinders 4-stroke

Minimum (Dry) Weight 170 kg [24]

Lightweight TT

Ryan Farquhar's 650 cc Kawasaki at the start line of the 2012 Lightweight TT. He went on to win that year's race. Start lightweight TT IMG 0018.jpg
Ryan Farquhar's 650 cc Kawasaki at the start line of the 2012 Lightweight TT. He went on to win that year's race.

The 1922 event was the first time the Lightweight TT race took place, won by a motorcycle-journalist Geoff S. Davison, riding a Levis at an average speed of 49.89 mph (80.29 km/h) for seven laps of the Snaefell Mountain Course. In the changes following the loss of FIM World Championship status after the 1976 event, the Lightweight TT event was dropped with the 250 cc machines running for the Junior TT in place of the now defunct 350 cc formula. The Lightweight TT returned in 1995 before being split into two distinct events from 1999, dropping from the schedule again after 2003. As with the Ultra-Lightweight TT Race, it was reintroduced 2008–2009 when held on the Billown short road circuit and then dropped again from the race schedule on cost grounds.

  • 1924–1948 For motorcycles not exceeding 250 cc engine capacity.
  • 1949–1953 FIM World Championship event for motorcycles not exceeding 250 cc engine capacity, held on the Snaefell mountain course.
  • 1954–1959 FIM World Championship event for motorcycles not exceeding 250 cc engine capacity, held on the Clypse Course.
  • 1960–1976 FIM World Championship event for motorcycles not exceeding 250 cc engine capacity, held on the Mountain Course.
  • 1977–1994 event not run (250 cc formula run as Junior TT).
  • 1995–1998 for 2-stroke motorcycles not exceeding 250 cc engine capacity and 4-stroke motorcycles not exceeding 400 cc, held on the Mountain Course.
  • 1999–2003 Lightweight 400 TT for 4-stroke motorcycles not exceeding 400 cc engine capacity, held on the Mountain Course.
  • 1999–2002 Lightweight 250 TT for 2-stroke motorcycles not exceeding 250 cc engine capacity, held on the Mountain Course (the category running within Junior TT in 2003).
  • 2008–2009 for motorcycles not exceeding 250 cc engine capacity, held on the Billown Circuit.
  • 2012– The event was re-introduced from the 2012 event for water-cooled four-stroke twin cylinder not exceeding an engine capacity of 650 cc and complying with the ACU Standing Regulations. [25]

The 2019 specifications for entries into the Lightweight TT race are:

  • Machines must comply with general technical rules as per ACU Standing Regulations and 2019 Isle of Man TT race regulations.
    • Any four-stroke twin cylinder motorcycle originally sold for road use with a water-cooled engine of up to 650 cc engine capacity.
    • Eligible machines must be from models homologated for UK road use 2009 or later.

Mininium weight for the Lightweight TT class is 161 kilograms (355 lb). [26]

Sidecar TT

Sidecar TT race competitors line up to start the race 2013 Isle of Man TT 14.jpg
Sidecar TT race competitors line up to start the race

The 1923 TT was the first time the Sidecar TT race was run, over three laps (113 mi or 182 km) of the Mountain Course and was won by Freddie Dixon and passenger Walter Denny with a Douglas and special banking-sidecar at an average race speed of 53.15 mph (85.54 km/h). For the 1926 event the Sidecar and Ultra-Lightweight TT classes were dropped due to lack of entries.

The Sidecar race was re-introduced from the 1954 event for Sidecars not exceeding 500 cc engine capacity, run on the Clypse Course. A non-championship 750 cc class for sidecars was introduced at the 1968 event. For the 1976 event the race was held over two-legs. From 1975, the previous 500 cc and 750 cc classes for Sidecars were replaced by a 1000 cc engine capacity class.


The new FIM Formula 2 class for Sidecars was introduced for the 1990 Isle of Man TT.

  • 1954–1959 FIM World Championship Event for Side-Cars not exceeding 500 cc engine capacity. Race held on the Clypse Course.
  • 1960–1976 FIM World Championship Event held on Mountain Course.
  • 1968–1974 Non-Championship event for Sidecars not exceeding 750 cc.
  • 1975–1989 Sidecars not exceeding 1000 cc engine capacity.
  • 1990– FIM Formula 2 Sidecar race for two-stroke engines not exceeding 350 cc or four-stroke engines not exceeding 600 cc.

The 2015 specifications for entries into the Sidecar TT race are:

  • Machines must comply with general technical rules as per ACU Standing Regulations and 2015 Isle of Man TT regulations.
    • Engine Types
      • 501 – 600 cc, 4 stroke, 4 cylinder, Production based motorcycle engines.

Senior TT

Ian Hutchinson on the start-line of the Senior TT Race on 11 June 2010 2010 senior TT IMG 1188.JPG
Ian Hutchinson on the start-line of the Senior TT Race on 11 June 2010

For the 1911 Isle of Man TT, the first TT event using the Snaefell Mountain Course or Mountain Course, two separate races were introduced. The first event was a four lap Junior TT race and a separate Senior TT race for 500 cc single-cylinder and 585 cc twin-cylinder motorcycles, over five laps of the new 37.5-mile (60.4 km) Snaefell Mountain Course. The new technical challenges of the Mountain Course forced changes on entrants and motorcycle manufacturers alike. The American Indian motorcycle factory fitted a two-speed gearbox and chain-drive. This proved to be the winning combination when Oliver Godfrey won the 1911 Senior TT race riding an Indian at an average speed of 47.63 mph (76.65 km/h). Fitted with a six-speed belt drive [27] Charlie Collier riding a Matchless motorcycle finished second in the 1911 Senior TT race and was later disqualified for illegal refuelling. During an early morning practice session for the 1911 Isle of Man TT races, Victor Surridge died after crashing his Rudge motorcycle at Glen Helen, the first death of a competitor on the Snaefell Mountain Course and the first death in the Isle of Man of a person in an automotive accident. [28]

  • 1911 For single cylinder motorcycles not exceeding 500 cc engine capacity and 585 cc twin cylinder motorcycles.
  • 1912–1939 For motorcycles not exceeding 500 cc engine capacity.
  • 1947–1948 For motorcycles not exceeding 500 cc engine capacity and a ban on engine supercharging.
  • 1949–1976 FIM World Championship event for motorcycles not exceeding 500 cc engine capacity.
  • 1977–1984 for motorcycles not exceeding 500 cc engine capacity.
  • 1985–2004 for motorcycles complying with ACU TT Formula 1 rules not exceeding 1,010 cc engine capacity.
  • 2004 onwards for motorcycles complying with ACU/FIM Superbike rules not exceeding 1,000 cc engine capacity.

The 2015 specifications for entries into the Senior TT race are:

  • TT Superbike: (Machines complying with the 2015 FIM Superbike Championship specifications) [29]
    • Over 750 cc up to 1000 cc 4 cylinders 4-stroke
    • Over 750 cc up to 1000 cc 3 cylinders 4-stroke
    • Over 850 cc up to 1200 cc 2 cylinders 4-stroke
  • Supersport Junior TT (without limitation of tyre choice)
    • TT Superstock (without limitation of tyre choice)
    • Other machines admitted at the discretion of the Organisers.

TT Zero

Starting from the 2010 races, the TT Zero event over one lap (37.73 mi or 60.72 km) of the Snaefell Mountain Course replaced the TTXGP. The TT Zero event as an officially sanctioned TT race is for racing motorcycles where "The technical concept is for motorcycles (two wheeled) to be powered without the use of carbon based fuels and have zero toxic/noxious emissions". [30] The Isle of Man Government offered a prize of £10,000 for the first entrant to exceed the prestigious 100 mph (160 km/h) (22 minutes and 38.388 seconds) average speed around the Mountain Course. This was achieved by Michael Rutter of team MotoCzysz in the 2012 race, [31] and has been exceeded every year since.

In 2019, a moratorium on further events in this class was announced, due to the slow take-up in electric motorcycles. Speaking about the future of the event, Enterprise Minister Alex Allinson has ruled out further competition in this class until at least 2024. [32]

Discontinued race classes

Ultra-Lightweight TT

1924 was the first time the Ultra-Lightweight TT race took place for motorcycles not exceeding 175 cc engine capacity. It was won by Jock Porter, riding a New Gerrard motorcycle at an average speed of 51.21 mph (82.41 km/h) over three laps of the Snaefell mountain course. The Ultra-Lightweight class was re-introduced in 1951 for motorcycles not exceeding 125 cc until discontinued in 1974, and then re-introduced for 1989, again for two-stroke 125 cc motorcycles, until dropped again due to lack of entries after 2004. The event was reintroduced 2008–2009 held on the four-mile Billown Circuit and then dropped from the race schedule on cost grounds for the 2010 races.

  • 1924–1925 For motorcycles not exceeding 175 cc engine capacity.
  • 1951–1953 FIM World Championship event for motorcycles not exceeding 125 cc engine capacity, held on the Snaefell mountain course.
  • 1954–1959 FIM World Championship event for motorcycles not exceeding 125 cc engine capacity, held on the Clypse Course.
  • 1960–1974 FIM World Championship event for motorcycles not exceeding 125 cc engine capacity, held on the Mountain Course.
  • 1989–2004 for motorcycles not exceeding 125 cc engine capacity, held on the Mountain Course.
  • 2008–2009 for motorcycles not exceeding 125 cc engine capacity, held on the Billown Circuit.
  • 50 cc race 1962–1968, an additional World Championship event for Ultra-Lightweight motorcycles not exceeding 50 cc engine capacity, held on the Mountain Course.

Clubman TT and Production TT

The Clubman races with Lightweight, Junior and Senior classes were held for production motorcycles from 1947 until 1956. [33] A Senior 1000 cc class provided an opportunity for Vincent motorcycles. [34] The riders were little-known, but as the stars were barred from entering the class, it provided a stepping-stone for future-stars but resulted in less spectator-interest. The series became dominated by one model – the BSA Gold Star, [35] [36] [37] and with little competition from other manufacturers, was discontinued. When previewing the impending re-introduction of a specification-controlled, roadster-based class in March 1967, David Dixon wrote: "lack of inter-make rivalry probably put the final nail in the coffin". [35]

Writing in UK monthly magazine Motor Cyclist Illustrated, racing journalist Ray Knight, who had achieved a lap speed of nearly 88 mph on a Triumph Tiger 100 roadster-based racing motorcycle in the Manx Grand Prix, [38] [39] [40] commented in early 1965 that the ACU had refused a request from manufacturers to run a production TT race, which he thought was a missed opportunity, particularly considering the dwindling support for the 500 cc race. [41]

A Production TT for roadster-based motorcycles having classes for maximum engine capacities of 250 cc, 500 cc and 750 cc was introduced from 1967 until 1976 when the class was discontinued.

The Production TT was reintroduced for the 1984 races in three classes, reduced to two classes on safety grounds for the 1990 races. For the 2005 races the Superstock class replaced the previous 1000 cc and 600 cc Production TT classes that had been part of the race schedule since 1989.

TT course official vehicles

After the completion of a practice or race period, an official course vehicle displaying the notice Roads Open proceeds around the Mountain Course, passing each point opening the roads including side-access junctions to public use. On the Snaefell mountain road section from Ramsey to Douglas, the official vehicle displays the notice Roads Open One Way.

Travelling Marshals

Originally introduced in 1935, there are eight machines positioned around the course to provide a rapid response to any incidents. Selected riders have previous race experience and are first-aid trained, with machines carrying medical equipment that can assist in managing a casualty. They also have other duties such as course inspection, observation of machines on the course for visible faults, and review and report any course incidents. [42]

Crossing places during practice and races

The 1982 Road Racing Act (Isle of Man) and the supplementary TT Road Races Orders allow vehicles and pedestrians to cross the Snaefell Mountain Course at certain points between scheduled race periods under the supervision of a police officer. Several permanent pedestrian overbridges have been erected. These points include:

In Douglas

Elsewhere

TT Course access road

Part of the access road passing under the A1 Peel Road Steam Heritage Trail Isle of Man Geograph 2112551.jpg
Part of the access road passing under the A1 Peel Road

The TT Access Road runs parallel to a section of the A1 Peel Road, which is part of the Snaefell Mountain Course, and operates during practice and race periods to enable vehicles to pass from inside of the race course to the outside. It runs along a section of former railway line on the historic Douglas to Peel route, from the junction of the A5 New Castletown Road at the Quarter Bridge, passing under the course at Braddan Bridge, to an exit at Braddan School Road in Douglas outskirts, near the former Braddan Railway Halt and the A23/Ballafletcher Road junction. The access road is a narrow, single-track width with passing places and is restricted to cars and light vans below a weight limit of 3,500 kilograms (3.4 long tons; 3.9 short tons). When used for vehicular traffic, pedestrian access is prohibited, but at other times it is part of a system of nature trails. [43] [44]

Safety

Between 1907 and 2022, there have been 155 fatalities during official practices or races on the Snaefell Mountain Course, and 265 total fatalities (this number includes the riders killed during the Manx Grand Prix, and Clubman TT race series of the late 1940s/1950s). [8] [45] [46] In 2016, 5 riders died on the course during official practices or races. [47] [48] [9] [49] There were six fatalities among competitors in the 1970 Isle of Man TT, making it the deadliest year in the history of the event. [50] [51]

2018 Course Car incident

Sidecars returning to Paddock past Sarah's Cottage in reverse direction to a normal race after a red flag caused by a competitor's crash in 2009 Sarah's Cottage 2009 uphill.JPG
Sidecars returning to Paddock past Sarah's Cottage in reverse direction to a normal race after a red flag caused by a competitor's crash in 2009

On 30 May 2018, an experienced TT rider, Steve Mercer, [52] [53] was seriously injured during a head-on collision with an official Course Car at Ballacrye. The car, being driven at high speed, [54] [55] was conveying police officers to officiate at the scene of a fatality involving Dan Kneen. Mercer was unconscious for five days and hospitalised for five months due to multiple injuries. He was one of seven riders who had been halted on the course and turned back by marshals, being instructed to proceed back to the TT Grandstand area in the reverse direction after the red flag stoppage. [56] [57] Immediately after the accident the organisers changed their protocols, requiring that returning riders must be controlled by motorcycle-mounted travelling marshals to the front and rear. [58] [59] An independent inquiry into the circumstances was arranged by ACU Events, the event organisers. [60]

The Auto-Cycle Union, the Isle of Man Department for Enterprise, and the inquiry report author, lawyer Rob Jones, a former chief executive of the Motor Sports Association, all refused to release the report as it was confidential and privately owned by the ACU. [55] [57] [61] [62]

The ACU admitted liability for the accident, but instructed that any legal claim for compensation by Mercer must be filed in the Isle of Man. The ACU stated that Mercer was receiving financial assistance through its "extensive insurance arrangements". [53] [63] [64]

In 2019, it was reported that the driver of the car in the collision had quit after criticism that he exceeded a newly introduced speed limit recorded by a GPS tracking device when he drove to attend a fatality involving Chris Swallow at Ballaugh in August's Senior Classic TT. Gary Thompson, Clerk of the Course and an ACU employee, had been criticised in 2018 for also fulfilling the role of Safety Officer; consequently a new incumbent was in place for 2019. [55] [65] [66]

Cancellations

World Wars I and II

From 1915 to 1919, and 1940 to 1946, no TT events took place, due to the outbreak of World Wars I and II. [67] Events continued from 1920 to 1939 and 1947 to 2000.

Since TT 1947, the Isle of Man TT has only been cancelled three times; 2001, 2020 and 2021, all of which were due to viral outbreaks.

2001 cancellation

The 2001 Isle of Man TT races were cancelled because of the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the UK in the spring and summer of 2001. Disinfecting 40,000 spectators and competitors (and their motorcycles) to ensure the disease was kept off the island proved difficult.

2020 and 2021 cancellations

In March 2020, the Isle of Man Government announced the cancellation of the 2020 TT due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. [68] The Classic TT was subsequently cancelled in May, [69] and in December 2020, it was announced that 2021's TT races would also not go ahead, due to the continued worldwide spread of the virus. [70] In 2020, the Isle of Man Government lost an estimated £4.8 million of its annual projected revenue due to the cancellation of the TT races. [71]

The event returned in 2022 after a two-year absence. [72]

Total overall race winners

[73]

RiderWins
Joey Dunlop 26
John McGuinness 23
Michael Dunlop 21
Dave Molyneux 17
Ian Hutchinson 16
Mike Hailwood 14
Bruce Anstey, Ben Birchall, Tom Birchall 12
Steve Hislop, Phillip McCallen 11
Giacomo Agostini, Robert Fisher, Ian Lougher, Stanley Woods 10
Mick Boddice, Dave Saville, David Jefferies, Siegfried Schauzu, Peter Hickman 9
Jim Moodie, Chas Mortimer, Phil Read, Dan Sayle, Charlie Williams 8
Mick Grant, Wolfgang Kalauch, Tony Rutter 7
Chas Birks, Geoff Duke, Jimmie Guthrie, Rick Long, Jim Redman, Michael Rutter, John Surtees 6
Alec Bennett, Nick Crowe, Robert Dunlop, Brian Reid, Carlo Ubbiali 5
Klaus Enders, Freddie Frith, Wal Handley, Trevor Ireson, Benga Johansson, Dave Leach, Chris Palmer, Ray Pickrell, Tarquinio Provini, Horst Schneider, Barry Smith, Bill Smith, Jock Taylor, John Williams,4
Ray Amm, Adrian Archibald, Graeme Crosby, Harold Daniell, Max Deubel, Ralf Engelhardt, Ryan Farquhar, Patrick Farrance, Carl Fogarty, Alex George, Tom Herron, Darren Hope, Emil Hörner, Alan Jackson, Tony Jefferies, Geoff Johnson, Klaus Klaffenböck, Rob McElnea, Bob McIntyre, Phil Mellor, Dave Morris, Clive Pollington, Walter Schneider, Ian Simpson, Rolf Steinhausen, Hans Strauss, Luigi Taveri, Don Williams, Barry Woodland Dean Harrison3
Fergus Anderson, Hugh Anderson, Manliff Barrington, Artie Bell, Geoff Bell, Lowry Burton, Kel Carruthers, Bernard Codd, Charlie Collier, Keith Cornbill, Mark Cox, Steve Cull, Pat Cushnahan, Howard R Davies, Freddie Dixon, Charlie Dodson, Cameron Donald, Iain Duffus, Karl Ellison, Bob Foster, Dick Greasley, Manfred Grunwald, Hermann Hahn, Craig Hallam, Shaun Harris, John Hartle, Pete Hill, Fritz Hillebrand, Mac Hobson, Gary Hocking, John Holden, Josef Huber, Tim Hunt, Bill Ivy, Gary Johnson, Alistair King, Con Law, Eddie Laycock, Ivan Lintin, Bill Lomas, Nick Long, Graeme McGregor, Trevor Nation, Gary Padgett, Steve Plater, Jock Porter, Nick Roche, Cecil Sandford, Dave Saville, Tom Sheard, Edwin Twemlow, Malcolm Uphill, Dave Wells, Eric Williams, Paul Williams, Andrew Winkle, Michael Wynn,2
Steve Abbott, Dario Ambrosini, Frank A Applebee, Ivor Arber, Reg Armstrong, Kenny Arthur, Stewart Atkinson, Georg Auerbacher, Mike Aylott, Mark Baldwin, Rob Barber, W. Harry Bashall, Ian Bell, Phillip Biggs, Eric Bliss, Dieter Braun, Eric Briggs, Norman Brown, Ralph Bryans, Jimmy Buchan, Trevor Burgess, Roger Burnett, Mick Burns, Florian Camathias, Maurice Cann, Neil Carpenter, Phil Carpenter, Phil Carter, Harold Clark, Rod Coleman, Harry A Collier, Stuart Collins, Syd Crabtree, Dave Croxford, J.D. Daniels, Leo Davenport, Geoff Davison, Tommy de la Hay, Ernst Degner, Walter Denny, George Douglas, Eddie Dow, Percy Evans, Helmut Fath, Jack Findlay, John Flaxman, Frank Fletcher, Rem Fowler, John Gibbard, Sid Gleave, Oliver Godfrey, Les Graham, Stuart Graham, Werner Haas, Dave Hallam, Roy Hanks, Colin Hardman, Bernard Hargreaves, Conrad Harrison, Ron Haslam, Ronnie Hazlehurst, Chris Heath, Alfred Herzig, Freddie Hicks, James Hillier, Robert Holden, Rupert Hollaus, Colin Hopper, Ken Horstman, Clive Horton, Eric Housley, Dennis Ireland, Mitsuo Itoh, Brian Jackson, Nick Jefferies, Doug Jewell, Lee Johnston, C. W. Johnston, Ken Kavanagh, Bob Keeler, Neil Kelly, Basil Keys, John Kidson, Ewald Kluge, Ray Knight, David Lashmar, Monty V. Lockwood, Frank Longman, Heinz Luthringshauser, Jack Marshall, Keith Martin, Hugh Mason, Cromie McCandless, Georg Meier, Ted Mellors, Mark Miller, Derek Minter, Brian Morrison, Les Nutt, George O'Dell, Eric Oliver, Mat Oxley, Len Parker, Philip Parker, Denis Parkinson, Graham Penny, Alex Phillip, Derek Powell, Cyril Pullin, Brian Purslow, Richard Quayle, Johnny Rea, Harry Reed, Tim Reeves, Brett Richmond, Tommy Robb, John Robinson, Mike Rogers, Nigel Rollason, Dave Roper, Gordon Russell, Fritz Scheidegger, Martyn Sharpe, Dave Simmonds, Bill Simpson, Jimmie Simpson, Cyril Taft, Omobono Tenni, Steve Tonkin, George Tucker, Kenneth Twemlow, Henry Tyrell-Smith, Chris Vincent, Terry Vinicombe, Graham Walker, Frank Whiteway, Cyril Williams, Peter Williams, Alfred Wohlgemuth, Tim Wood, Tommy Wood, Stan Woods1

FIM Motorcycle Grand Prix World Championship Rounds (1949–1976)

Isle of Man TT
Isle of Man TT Course (OpenStreetMap).svg
Grand Prix motorcycle racing
Venue Snaefell Mountain Course
First race1949
Last race1976
Most wins (rider) Mike Hailwood (12)
Most wins (manufacturer) MV Agusta (33)

The Isle of Man TT was part of the FIM Motorcycle Grand Prix World Championship (now MotoGP) between 1949 and 1976. During this period the Isle of Man TT Races counted as the United Kingdom round including the Sidecar TT, 50 cc Ultra-Lightweight TT, 125 cc Lightweight TT, 250 cc Lightweight TT, 350 cc Junior TT and 500 cc Senior TT races counted towards the FIM Motor-Cycle Grand Prix World Championship. After the 1972 races, multiple world champion and dominant motorcycle racer of his time Giacomo Agostini announced he would never race again at the Isle of Man, declaring it too dangerous for international competition and that it was outrageous that such a race should ever be part of a scenario professional riders were forced into; at this point the Isle of Man TT was not suited to the growing professionalism and business aspects of Grand Prix motorcycle racing. More and more riders joined his boycott, and after 1976 the race was stricken from the championship and replaced by the British Grand Prix.

Multiple winners (riders)

# WinsRiderWins
CategoryYears won
12 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Mike Hailwood 500 cc1961, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967
350 cc1962, 1967
250 cc1961, 1966, 1967
125 cc1961
10 Flag of Italy.svg Giacomo Agostini 500 cc1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972
350 cc1966, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1972
6 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg John Surtees 500 cc1956, 1958, 1959, 1960
350 cc1958, 1959
Flag of Rhodesia (1964-1968).svg Jim Redman 350 cc1963, 1964, 1965
250 cc1963, 1964, 1965
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Phil Read 350 cc1961
250 cc1971, 1972
125 cc1965, 1967, 1968
5 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Geoff Duke 500 cc1950, 1951, 1955
350 cc1951, 1952
Flag of Italy.svg Carlo Ubbiali 250 cc1956
125 cc1955, 1956, 1958, 1960
4 Flag of Italy.svg Tarquinio Provini 250 cc1958, 1959
125 cc1957, 1959
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Chas Mortimer 350 cc1976
250 cc1975
125 cc1971, 1972
3 Flag of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1953-1963).svg Ray Amm 500 cc1953, 1954
350 cc1953
Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Luigi Taveri 125 cc1962, 1964
50 cc1965
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Charlie Williams 350 cc1975
250 cc1973, 1974
2 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Fergus Anderson 250 cc1952, 1953
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Bill Lomas 350 cc1955
250 cc1955
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Cecil Sandford 250 cc1957
125 cc1952
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Bob McIntyre 500 cc1957
350 cc1957
Flag of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1953-1963).svg Gary Hocking 500 cc1962
250 cc1960
Flag of New Zealand.svg Hugh Anderson 125 cc1963
50 cc1964
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Bill Ivy 250 cc1968
125 cc1966
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Kel Carruthers 250 cc1969, 1970
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Tony Rutter 350 cc1973, 1974
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Tom Herron 500 cc1976
250 cc1976

Multiple winners (manufacturers)

# WinsManufacturerWins
CategoryYears won
33 Flag of Italy.svg MV Agusta 500 cc1956, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972
350 cc1958, 1959, 1960, 1962, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1972
250 cc1956, 1958, 1959, 1960
125 cc1952, 1953, 1955, 1956, 1958, 1959, 1960
21 Flag of Japan.svg Yamaha 500 cc1974, 1976
350 cc1973, 1974, 1975, 1976
250 cc1968, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976
125 cc1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973
18 Flag of Japan.svg Honda 500 cc1966, 1967
350 cc1963, 1964, 1965, 1967
250 cc1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967
125 cc1961, 1962, 1964
50 cc1965, 1966
12 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Norton 500 cc1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1961
350 cc1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1961
7 Flag of Italy.svg Moto Guzzi 350 cc1955, 1956
250 cc1949, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1955
Flag of Japan.svg Suzuki 500 cc1973
125 cc1963, 1970
50 cc1962, 1963, 1964, 1967
3 Flag of Italy.svg Mondial 250 cc1957
125 cc1951, 1957
Flag of Italy.svg Gilera 500 cc1955, 1957
350 cc1957
2 Flag of Germany.svg NSU 250 cc1954
125 cc1954
Flag of Italy.svg Benelli 250 cc1950, 1969
Flag of Japan.svg Kawasaki 500 cc1975
125 cc1969

By year

Year50 cc (Ultra-Lightweight TT)125 cc (Lightweight TT)250 cc (Lightweight TT)350 cc (Junior TT)500 cc (Senior TT)Report
RiderManufacturerRiderManufacturerRiderManufacturerRiderManufacturerRiderManufacturer
1976 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Tom Herron Yamaha Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Chas Mortimer Yamaha Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Tom Herron Yamaha Report
1975 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Chas Mortimer Yamaha Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Charlie Williams Yamaha Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Mick Grant Kawasaki Report
1974 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Charlie Williams Yamaha Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Tony Rutter Yamaha Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Phil Carpenter Yamaha Report
1973 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Tommy Robb Yamaha Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Charlie Williams Yamaha Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Tony Rutter Yamaha Flag of Australia (converted).svg Jack Findlay Suzuki Report
1972 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Chas Mortimer Yamaha Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Phil Read Yamaha Flag of Italy.svg Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Flag of Italy.svg Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Report
1971 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Chas Mortimer Yamaha Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Phil Read Yamaha Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Tony Jefferies Yamsel Flag of Italy.svg Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Report
1970 Flag of Germany.svg Dieter Braun Suzuki Flag of Australia (converted).svg Kel Carruthers Yamaha Flag of Italy.svg Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Flag of Italy.svg Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Report
1969 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Dave Simmonds Kawasaki Flag of Australia (converted).svg Kel Carruthers Benelli Flag of Italy.svg Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Flag of Italy.svg Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Report
1968 Flag of Australia (converted).svg Barry Smith Derbi Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Phil Read Yamaha Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Bill Ivy Yamaha Flag of Italy.svg Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Flag of Italy.svg Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Report
1967 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Stuart Graham Suzuki Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Phil Read Yamaha Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Mike Hailwood Honda Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Mike Hailwood Honda Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Mike Hailwood Honda Report
1966 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Ralph Bryans Honda Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Bill Ivy Yamaha Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Mike Hailwood Honda Flag of Italy.svg Giacomo Agostini MV Agusta Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Mike Hailwood Honda Report
1965 Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Luigi Taveri Honda Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Phil Read Yamaha Flag of Rhodesia (1964-1968).svg Jim Redman Honda Flag of Rhodesia (1964-1968).svg Jim Redman Honda Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Mike Hailwood MV Agusta Report
1964 Flag of New Zealand.svg Hugh Anderson Suzuki Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Luigi Taveri Honda Flag of Rhodesia (1964-1968).svg Jim Redman Honda Flag of Rhodesia (1964-1968).svg Jim Redman Honda Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Mike Hailwood MV Agusta Report
1963 Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg Mitsuo Itoh Suzuki Flag of New Zealand.svg Hugh Anderson Suzuki Flag of Rhodesia (1964-1968).svg Jim Redman Honda Flag of Rhodesia (1964-1968).svg Jim Redman Honda Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Mike Hailwood MV Agusta Report
1962 Flag of Germany.svg Ernst Degner Suzuki Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg Luigi Taveri Honda Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Derek Minter Honda Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Mike Hailwood MV Agusta Flag of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1953-1963).svg Gary Hocking MV Agusta Report
1961 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Mike Hailwood Honda Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Mike Hailwood Honda Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Phil Read Norton Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Mike Hailwood Norton Report
1960 Flag of Italy.svg Carlo Ubbiali MV Agusta Flag of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1953-1963).svg Gary Hocking MV Agusta Flag of the United Kingdom.svg John Hartle MV Agusta Flag of the United Kingdom.svg John Surtees MV Agusta Report
1959 Flag of Italy.svg Tarquinio Provini MV Agusta Flag of Italy.svg Tarquinio Provini MV Agusta Flag of the United Kingdom.svg John Surtees MV Agusta Flag of the United Kingdom.svg John Surtees MV Agusta Report
1958 Flag of Italy.svg Carlo Ubbiali MV Agusta Flag of Italy.svg Tarquinio Provini MV Agusta Flag of the United Kingdom.svg John Surtees MV Agusta Flag of the United Kingdom.svg John Surtees MV Agusta Report
1957 Flag of Italy.svg Tarquinio Provini Mondial Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Cecil Sandford Mondial Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Bob McIntyre Gilera Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Bob McIntyre Gilera Report
1956 Flag of Italy.svg Carlo Ubbiali MV Agusta Flag of Italy.svg Carlo Ubbiali MV Agusta Flag of Australia (converted).svg Ken Kavanagh Moto Guzzi Flag of the United Kingdom.svg John Surtees MV Agusta Report
1955 Flag of Italy.svg Carlo Ubbiali MV Agusta Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Bill Lomas Moto Guzzi Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Bill Lomas Moto Guzzi Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Geoff Duke Gilera Report
1954 Flag of Austria.svg Rupert Hollaus NSU Flag of Germany.svg Werner Haas NSU Flag of New Zealand.svg Rod Coleman AJS Flag of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1953-1963).svg Ray Amm Norton Report
1953 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Leslie Graham MV Agusta Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Fergus Anderson Moto Guzzi Flag of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1953-1963).svg Ray Amm Norton Flag of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1953-1963).svg Ray Amm Norton Report
1952 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Cecil Sandford MV Agusta Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Fergus Anderson Moto Guzzi Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Geoff Duke Norton Flag of Ireland.svg Reg Armstrong Norton Report
1951 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Cromie McCandless Mondial Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Tommy Wood Moto Guzzi Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Geoff Duke Norton Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Geoff Duke Norton Report
1950 Flag of Italy.svg Dario Ambrosini Benelli Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Artie Bell Norton Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Geoff Duke Norton Report
1949 Flag of Ireland.svg Manliff Barrington Moto Guzzi Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Freddie Frith Velocette Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Harold Daniell Norton Report

Current lap records

CategoryRider(s)MachineTyresYearTimeAverage speedSource [74]
mphkm/h
Outright (all categories) Peter Hickman BMW S1000RR Dunlop201816:42.778135.452217.989 [1]
Superbike TTDean HarrisonKawasakiMetzeler201816:50.384134.432216.347 [75]
Supersport TT Michael Dunlop Yamaha YZF-R6 Dunlop202217:29.070129.475208.370 [76]
Lightweight TT Michael Dunlop Paton 201818:26.543122.750197.547 [77]
Ultra-Lightweight TTChris Palmer Honda RS125 200420:20.87110.52177.86
Senior TTPeter HickmanBMW S1000RRDunlop201816:42.778135.452217.989 [78]
Superstock TT Peter Hickman BMW S1000RRDunlop201816:50.601134.403216.301 [79]
TT Zero Michael Rutter Mugen Shinden201918:34:172121.91196.20 [80]
Sidecar TT Ben Birchall and
Tom Birchall
Honda CBR SidecarAvon201818:59.018119.250191.914 [81]

Current race records

CategoryLapsRider(s)MachineTyresYearRace timeAverage speed
mphkm/h
Superbike TT6 Michael Dunlop BMW S1000RR Dunlop201801:44:13.398130.324209.736 [75]
Supersport TT4Dean Harrison Kawasaki ZX6-R Metzeler201801:11:28.059126.703203.909 [82]
Lightweight TT4 Michael Dunlop Paton 650Metzeler201801:15:05.032120.601194.088 [77]
Lightweight TT3Ivan LintinKawasaki ER650Metzeler201557:06.070118.936191.409 [83]
Senior TT6 Peter Hickman BMW S1000RR201801:43:08.065131.700211.951 [78]
Senior TT4John McGuinnessHonda CBR1000RRDunlop201501:09:23.903130.481209.989
Superstock TT4 Peter Hickman BMW S1000RRDunlop201801:08:49.976131.553211.714 [79]
TT Zero1 Michael Rutter Mugen Shinden201918:34.172121.91196.20 [80]
Sidecar TT3 Ben Birchall and
Tom Birchall
Honda CBR SidecarAvon201857:25.040118.281190.355 [81]

Race awards

Race winner trophies

RaceTrophyRider(s)MachineTyresYearAverage speed
mphkm/h
Senior TTSenior Tourist Trophy 1 Michael Dunlop Suzuki GSX-R1000 Dunlop2017130.456209.949
TT SuperbikeTT Superbike TrophyMichael Dunlop BMW S1000RR Dunlop2018130.324209.736 [75]
TT SuperstockJohn Hartle Trophy Peter Hickman BMW S1000RRDunlop2018131.553211.714 [79]
TT Supersport Race 1Junior Tourist TrophyMichael Dunlop Honda CBR600RR Dunlop2018126.027202.821 [76]
TT Supersport Race 2Classic TT TrophyIan HutchinsonYamaha YZF-R6Metzeler2016125.905202.624 [84]
TT LightweightLightweight TT Trophy Michael Rutter Paton S1Dunlop2017118.645190.941
TT Sidecar Race 1Fred W. Dixon Trophy Ben Birchall and
Tom Birchall
Honda CBR SidecarAvon2018117.987189.882 [81]
TT Sidecar Race 2Sidecar TT TrophyBen Birchall and
Tom Birchall
LCR Honda 600 ccAvon2017115.760186.298

Fastest lap awards

RaceTrophyRider(s)MachineYearAverage speedTime
mphkm/h
OverallJimmy Simpson Trophy Michael Dunlop Suzuki GSX-R1000 2017132.903213.88717:02.009
Senior TTNorman Brown TrophyMichael DunlopSuzuki GSX-R10002017132.903213.88717:02.009
TT SuperbikeJohn Williams TrophyDean Harrison Kawasaki Ninja ZX-10R 2018134.432216.34716:50.384 [1]
TT SuperstockDon Ryder Trophy Peter Hickman BMW S1000RR 2018134.403216.30116:50.601 [79]
TT Supersport RaceFormula 2 TT TrophyPeter Hickman Triumph Daytona 675 2017126.848204.14217:50.792
TT Sidecar RaceJock Taylor Trophy Ben Birchall and
Tom Birchall
LCR Honda 600 Sidecar2017117.119188.48519:19.746

Special awards

AwardTrophyRider(s)MachineYear
TT Solo ChampionshipJoey Dunlop Trophy Ian Hutchinson BMW S1000RR
Yamaha YZF-R6
2016 [85]
TT Privateer's ChampionTT Privateer's ChampionDaniel Hegarty Kawasaki Ninja ZX-10R
Kawasaki Ninja ZX-6R
2016 [85]
Overall Sidecar ChampionshipRAC Sidecar TrophyJohn Holden and
Andrew Winkle
LCR Suzuki 600 cc2016 [86]
Sidecar Passenger ChampionshipCraig TrophyAndrew WinkleLCR Suzuki 600 cc2016 [86]
Supersport ChampionshipTT Supporters' Club Trophy Ian Hutchinson Yamaha YZF-R62016
Sidecar Chassis ChampionshipFred Hanks TrophyJohn Holden and
Andrew Winkle
LCR Suzuki 600 cc2016 [86]
Newcomers Sidecar Driver ChampionshipPeter Chapman TrophyLionel MansuyWindle 600 cc2015
Newcomers Sidecar Passenger ChampionshipDave Wells TrophyMatty RamsdenLCR 600 cc2015
British competitor
British manufacturer
Joe Craig Trophy Guy Martin Triumph 675 cc2015
Irish (North or South) solo competitorMartin Finnegan Trophy Michael Dunlop BMW S1000RR2016 [85] [87]
Isle of Man solo competitorGavin Lee Trophy Conor Cummins Honda CBR1000RR 2016 [87]
International Team Award – USADwight Mitchell [88]
Garett King
Stephen John
Kawasaki Ninja ZX-6R

Honda CBR 600
Honda CBR 600

1999 [89] [90] [91]

Other Special awards

  • Fastest Newcomer – The Vernon Cooper Trophy
Rider(s)MachineYearAverage speedTime
mphkm/h
Lukas MaurerKawasaki 1000 cc2019123.645198.98718:18.529 [92]
  • Most Meritorious Female – The Susan Jenness Trophy is awarded yearly by the Executive Committee of the TT Supporters' Club, in recognition of the "most meritorious performance by a female competitor" during the previous TT meeting. [93]
Rider(s)Race CategoryYear
Jenny Tinmouth solo competitor2010
Fiona Baker-Milliganas passenger, Sidecar 600 cc2011 [94]
Debbie Baronas driver, Ireson Kawasaki Sidecar 600 cc2012 [95]
Estelle Leblondas driver, Sidecar 600 cc2013 [96]
Estelle Leblondas driver, Sidecar 600 cc2014 [97]
Fiona Baker-Milliganas passenger, Sidecar 600 cc2015 [98]
Maria Costellosolo competitor2016 [99]
Estelle Leblond & Melanie FarnierSidecar 600 cc2017 [100]
Julie Canipaas passenger, Sidecar 600 cc2018 [101]
(undecided)2019

Video games

There have been numerous videogames based on the Isle of Man TT, the first being the 1995 Sega arcade game Manx TT Super Bike, which was later ported to the Sega Saturn in 1997. [102] Several other games have followed since, including Suzuki TT Superbikes (2005), TT Superbikes: Real Road Racing Championship and TT Superbikes Legends (both 2008), all of which were released exclusively for the PlayStation 2, and developed by Jester Interactive.

Bigben Interactive has since revived the TT game license, releasing TT Isle Of Man: Ride on the Edge in 2018 and TT Isle Of Man: Ride on the Edge 2 in 2020. [103] [104]

See also

Parliament Square, Ramsey on a race day in 2008 Parliament Square Ramsey memorial with bibbed photographers.jpg
Parliament Square, Ramsey on a race day in 2008

Notes

Citations

  1. 1 2 3 "Isle of Man TT results: Peter Hickman becomes the world's fastest rider with record-breaking Senior TT victory". Isle of Man TT. Duke Marketing Limited. 2 June 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2018. Peter Hickman produces an astonishing record final lap to win the Senior TT at the Isle of Man TT to pip race-long leader Dean Harrison in one of the closest races ever seen.
  2. The Manx Experience. A Souvenir Guide to the Isle of Man. page 66-67 Gordon N.Kniverton 8th edition The Manx Experience (1987) Mannin Publishing Ltd
  3. Isle of Man Examiner page 2 12 November 1921
  4. Here Is the News: A Chronicle of the 20th Century, Volume 1 page 78 Gordon N.Kniverton & Terry Cringle Manx Heritage Foundation (1999) The Manx Experience ISBN   9781873120460
  5. Official Programme – International Auto-Cycle Tourist Trophy 28 May 1907 pages 1–3 The Auto-Cycle Club (1907). Reproduction (2007) Isle of Man Post Office
  6. Huber, Tim. "Everything You Need To Know About: The Isle of Man TT". RideApart.com.
  7. Motor-Cycle pages 1 & 6 14 June 1972
  8. 1 2 KEH, ANDREW (7 June 2017). "Take a Lap in the World's Most Dangerous Race". New York Times . Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  9. 1 2 DeGroot, Nick (5 June 2016). "Two fatalities in a single day rock the 2016 Isle of Man TT". Motorsport.com. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  10. Lidz, Franz (8 September 2003). "38 Miles of Terror - Every year riders roar around the Isle of Man in the Tourist Trophy, a test of nerves and speed that may be sports' most dangerous event". Sports Illustrated - Vault.
  11. Isle of Man's Big 3 Race Events : The Spectator Guide. TT (Tourist Trophy), Festival of Motorcycling (incorporating Manx Grand Prix), Southern 100 page 43 Trevor Barret (2014) Lily Publication ISBN   1907945237
  12. "3 Dead After 2017 Isle of Man TT Crashes: Lambert, Hoek, Bonner". Ultimate Motorcycling. 7 June 2017.
  13. CORONER OF INQUESTS (20 March 2008). "RAMSBOTHAM and JACOB and KENZIG, part 2". Isle of Man Judgments Online. Isle of Man Courts.
  14. CORONER OF INQUESTS (20 March 2008). "RAMSBOTHAM and JACOB and KENZIG, part 1". Isle of Man Judgments Online. Isle of Man Courts.
  15. "Coronavirus: Isle of Man cancels TT races amid virus outbreak". BBC News. 16 March 2020.
  16. "2021 TT Festival: Covid-19 fears force Manx government to cancel event". BBC Sport. 30 November 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  17. Island Racer 2004 pp 112–113 Mortons Media Group Ltd. ISBN   9780954244224
  18. TT Pioneers – Early Car Racing in the Isle of Man by Robert Kelly p68 The Manx Experience (1996) The Alden Press ISBN No 1 873120 61 3
  19. The Motor Cycle pp545 dated 19 June 1905
  20. Island Racer 2003 p89 Mortons Media Group Ltd ISBN   0954244222
  21. 2015 International Tourist Trophy Regulations page 22 ACU Events Isle of Man Limited (2015) Isle of Man Department of Economic Development
  22. 2015 International Tourist Trophy Regulations ACU Events Isle of Man Limited page 5 and page 58 Appendix A
  23. 2015 International Tourist Trophy Regulations page 2 & Appendix C ACU Events Isle of Man Limited
  24. International Tourist Trophy Regulations 2015 page 5/Appendix D page 34 ACU Events (Isle of Man) Limited (2015) Isle of Man Department of Economic Development
  25. International Isle of Man TT Regulations 2012 page 41-42 Appendix-E ACU Events (Isle of Man) Ltd (2012) Isle of Man Department of Economic Development
  26. 2019 Technical Regulations International Isle of Man Tourist Trophy page 131 & 135 Appendix E Lightweight TT Technical Regulations. ACU Events (Isle of Man) Limited (2019) Isle of Man Department of Economic Development.
  27. Motocourse History of the Isle of Man TT Races 1907–1989 page 18-19 and 23 (Mick Woollett Technical Notes) Nick Harris © Hazelton Securities Ltd (1990) Graficas Esatalla SA ISBN   0-905138-71-6
  28. TT Topics and Tales by David Wright – Amulree Publications (4 April 2006) ISBN   1901508099
  29. 2010 International Tourist Trophy Regulations page 2 ACU Events Isle of Man Limited
  30. REGULATIONS TT ZERO – 2010 International Tourist Trophy – Isle of Man 29 May – 11 June p27 ACU Events Ltd (2010)
  31. "History is made in the 2012 SES TT Zero". iomtt.com. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  32. "No TT Zero races in 2022 or 23 | iomtoday.co.im". 10 December 2021.
  33. 1947 TT races, overview IoM TT.com. Retrieved 26 September 2015
  34. 1950 Clubman TT 1000 cc class results IoM TT.com. Retrieved 26 September 2015
  35. 1 2 Motor Cycle, 9 March 1967, pp.284–286 Roadsters on the Magic Lap. A Production-TT Recce in Manxland by David Dixon. Accessed 26 September 2015
  36. 1956 Clubman TT Junior class results IoM TT.com. Retrieved 26 September 2015
  37. 1956 Clubman TT Senior class results IoM TT.com. Retrieved 26 September 2015
  38. 1963 Senior race results, Competitor Ray Knight, Hughes Triumph Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine , Manx Grand Prix.Org official website, Retrieved 19 October 2015
  39. 1964 Senior race results, Competitor Ray Knight, Hughes Triumph Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine , Manx Grand Prix.Org official website, Retrieved 19 October 2015
  40. Ray Knight, Competitor Profile, IoM TT.com official website, Retrieved 19 October 2015
  41. Motor Cyclist Illustrated, January 1965, p.41 More Production racing. Accessed 19 October 2015
  42. Yamaha keep travelling marshals on Road and Track iomtt.com, 29 May 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2020
  43. TT roads closure notice 2016 Archived 15 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 1 June 2016
  44. TVIM, 28 August 2013, Retrieved 12 December 2015
  45. "World's fastest way to die: Motorbike race that's killed 246". News.com.au — Australia's Leading News Site. 2 July 2015.
  46. Brown, Aaron (7 June 2017). "3 Riders Killed in Separate Incidents at 2017 Isle Of Man TT". The Drive. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
  47. Backus, Richard (March–April 2017), "ISLE OF MAN", Motorcycle Classics , pp. 50–56
  48. "Two more motorcyclists killed at Isle of Man TT races" . The Telegraph. 11 June 2016. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  49. Lieback, Ron (13 June 2016). "2016 Isle of Man TT Recap – Winners & Fatalities". Ultimate MotorCycling. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  50. "World's fastest way to die: The most dangerous race on the planet". news.com.au. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  51. "Two more deaths take Isle of Man TT Festival toll to five". express.co.uk. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  52. Race results, Steve Mercer iomtt.com Retrieved 25 January 2020
  53. 1 2 Isle of Man TT outlines changes after Mercer course car collision Autosport , 18 April 2019, Retrieved 26 January 2020
  54. Isle of Man TT 2018: Injured Steve Mercer thanks fans for support BBC News , 5 December 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2020
  55. 1 2 3 TT organisers refuse to reveal contents of serious crash investigation BBC News , 7 December 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2020
  56. Stricken Isle of Man TT racer Steve Mercer says 'it can't end like this' Belfast Newsletter , 9 April 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2020
  57. 1 2 Mercer crash report still unavailable one year on bikesportnews, 10 June 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2020
  58. Derbyshire, Adrian (6 June 2018). "What we know so far about Mercer's crash". Isle of Man Today. Tindle Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  59. "Red flag procedure with immediate effect". Isle of Man Today. 31 May 2018.
  60. White, Kyle (19 June 2018). "TT 2018: Ex-Motorsport Association chief will lead independent inquiry into Steve Mercer incident". The News Letter .
  61. Steve Mercer denied access to official report into head-on collision at Isle of Man TT Belfast Newsletter , 11 April 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2020
  62. They won't even tell Mercer what went wrong iomtoday, 5 April 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2020
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  66. ACU official stands down in tracker row iomtoday.co.im, 6 September 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2020
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Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Manx Grand Prix</span> Motorsport Event

The Manx Grand Prix motorcycle races are held on the Isle of Man TT Course every year for a two-week period, usually spanning the end of August and early September. New for 2022 is a period reduction from 14 to 9 days.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Isle of Man TT Mountain Course</span> Motorcycle circuit on the Isle of Man

The Isle of Man TT Mountain Course or TT Course is a street and public rural road circuit located in the Isle of Man, used for motorcycle racing. The motorcycle TT Course is used principally for the Isle of Man TT Races and also the separate event of the Isle of Man Festival of Motorcycling for the Manx Grand Prix and Classic TT Races held in September of each year. The start-line for the Isle of Man TT Mountain Course is located on Glencrutchery Road in the town of Douglas, Isle of Man.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Senior TT</span>

The Senior Tourist Trophy is a motorcycle road race that takes place during the Isle of Man TT festival, an annual event traditionally held over the last week in May and the first week in June. The Senior TT is the Blue Riband event of the festival that takes place on the Friday of race week, with "The Marquis de Mouzilly St. Mars trophy" awarded to the winner.

The 1925 Isle of Man Tourist Trophy was the second and final year of the Ultra-Lightweight class for motorcycles of 175 cc capacity. This was the third year of the Sidecar race, which was also dropped after 1925.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Junior TT</span>

The Junior TT is a motorcycle road race that takes place during the Isle of Man TT festival; an annual event at the end of May and beginning of June. Between 1949 and 1976 this race was part of the Grand Prix motorcycle racing season.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lightweight TT</span> Motorcycle race on the Isle of Man

The Lightweight TT is a motorcycle road race that is a part of the Isle of Man TT festival - an annual motorcycle event traditionally held over the last week of May and first week of June.

The Ultra-Lightweight TT was a motorcycle road race that took place during the Isle of Man TT festival, an annual event at the end of May and beginning of June. Between 1951 and 1974 this race was part of the Grand Prix motorcycle racing season at world-level, representing the British round. The Ultra-Lightweight TT and the Lightweight TT races were both dropped from the 2005 Isle of Man TT race calendar due to lack of entries, but were later reinstated to the 2008 and 2009 TT race schedules held on the 4.25 mi (6.84 km) Billown Circuit.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sidecar TT</span>

The Sidecar TT is a motorcycle-with-sidecar road race competition held over two legs which takes place during the Isle of Man TT festival, an annual event at the end of May and beginning of June. Between 1954 and 1976 this race was part of the Grand Prix motorcycle racing world championship.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dave Molyneux</span>

Dave Molyneux is a Manx professional Sidecar racer. He is the most successful Sidecar competitor in the history of the Isle of Man TT races, achieving 17 TT victories and 30 podium finishes. His race wins place him fourth on the all-time wins list, behind solo bike racers Joey Dunlop, John McGuinness (23) and Michael Dunlop.

The Verandah, Isle of Man is a series of four bends which motorcyclists negotiate at high speed during road racing on the Snaefell Mountain Course on the Isle of Man.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2010 Isle of Man TT</span>

The 2010 Isle of Man TT Festival was held between Saturday 29 May and Friday 11 June on the 37.73-mile Isle of Man TT Mountain Course. The 2010 races again included a second 600 cc Supersport Junior TT race. The Lightweight TT and Ultra-Lightweight TT race class previously held on the 4.25-mile (6.84 km) Billown Circuit in the Isle of Man for the 2008 Isle of Man TT and 2009 Isle of Man TT were dropped from the 2010 race schedule. The 2010 Isle of Man TT Races included the one-lap TT Zero for racing motorcycles "to be powered without the use of carbon based fuels and have zero toxic/noxious emissions." which replaced the TTXGP and also a Suzuki 50th Anniversary Lap of Honour and the TT Classic Parade which were held before the main Senior TT race.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2010 Manx Grand Prix</span>

The 2010 Manx Grand Prix races were held between Saturday 21 August and Friday 3 September 2010 on the 37.733-mile Mountain Course.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">TT Zero</span>

TT Zero – an electric motorsport event introduced for the 2010 Isle of Man TT races – replaced the similar TTXGP race as a 1-lap circuit of the Snaefell Mountain Course. The TT Zero event as an officially sanctioned Isle of Man TT race is for racing motorcycles where "The technical concept is for motorcycles to be powered without the use of carbon based fuels and have zero toxic/noxious emissions." The Isle of Man Government offered a prize of £10,000 for the first entrant to exceed the prestigious 100 mph average speed around the Mountain Course.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2011 Isle of Man TT</span>

The 2011 Isle of Man TT Festival was scheduled to be held between Monday 30 May and Friday 10 June 2011 on the 37.73-mile Snaefell Mountain Course in the Isle of Man. The main celebration for the 2011 Isle of Man TT Races the Milestones of the Mountain Course special parade lap held on 10 June 2011 to commemorate the centenary of the Isle of Man TT Mountain Course included the former FIM World Champions Giacomo Agostini and Phil Read. The 2011 Isle of Man TT Festival also included the Pre-TT Classic Races on 27, 28 and 30 May 2011 and the Post-TT Races on 11 June 2011 and both events held on the Billown Circuit.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2012 Isle of Man TT</span>

2012 Isle of Man TT were held between Saturday 26 May and Saturday 9 June 2012 on the 37.73-mile Isle of Man TT Mountain Course. The 2012 Isle of Man TT Festival also included the Pre-TT Classic Races on 25, 26 & 28 May 2012 and the Post-TT Races on 9 June 2012 and both events held on the Billown Circuit.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2012 Manx Grand Prix</span>

2012 Manx Grand Prix Festival and Races were held between Saturday 18 August and Friday 31 August 2012 on the 37.73-mile Snaefell Mountain Course.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Superstock TT</span>

The Superstock TT is a motorcycle road race that takes place during the Isle of Man TT festival. The event for production based motor-cycles racing on treaded road tyres is based on the FIM Superstock 1000 Championship specifications.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2014 Isle of Man TT</span> Motorcycle road race

The 2014 Isle of Man TT Festival was held between Saturday 24 May and Friday 6 June 2014 on the 37.73-mile Isle of Man TT Mountain Course. The main races were six solo motorcycle races and two sidecar races. The festival also included Pre-TT Classic Races held on 23, 24 & 26 May 2014 at the Billown Circuit in Castletown. Post-TT races scheduled for 7 June 2014 were cancelled by race organisers on safety grounds due to a thunderstorm and heavy overnight rain.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of the Isle of Man TT Races 1920–1929</span>

The Isle of Man TT and other motorcycle racing in the island did not restart after the end of the First World War until 1920. Changes were made to the Snaefell Mountain Course causing competitors to turn left and proceed up the hill at Cronk-ny-Mona to follow the primary A18 Snaefell Mountain Road through to Governor's Bridge with a new start/finish line at Glencrutchery Road lengthening the course to 37¾ miles.

Colin Hardman was a British motorcycle racer who competed in both the solo and sidecar classes.

References

Coordinates: 54°10′02″N4°28′44″W / 54.16722°N 4.47889°W / 54.16722; -4.47889