This is a list of countries by incarceration rate.
This list is initially sorted alphabetically. Click the sorting cell (with the
The chart source does not list an incarceration rate for the UK as a whole. In the list see Scotland, Northern Ireland, and England and Wales. If there is a rate for the United Kingdom in the table below it has been calculated by adding up the population of the constituent parts of the UK, and by adding up the prison populations.
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast, the Irish Sea to the south, and the North Channel to the southwest. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.
Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in several areas, and the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments".
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom. ’England and Wales’ forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows a single legal system, known as English law.
If South Korea is not found in the table below look for it listed as Republic of (South) Korea. For info on North Korea, see notes below.
World Prison Brief WPB) may or may not incorporate juvenile incarceration numbers into the totals for each country. See the individual WPB country pages for more information.
The World Prison Brief at PrisonStudies.org is an online database providing free access to information on prison systems around the world. It is now hosted by the Institute For Criminal Policy Research (ICPR), Birkbeck College, University of London.
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Prison population of Europe is approximately 1.2 millionof total 743 million population.
With a prison population of 42,000 and a total 2018 population of 25 million, Australia has an incarceration rate of 171 per 100,000 population, or 222 per 100,000 adult population.
In addition to its standard prisons, Australia also operates a separate system of immigration prisons to detain foreigners who have breached the terms of, or lack a visa.Some of these immigration detention centres are used to indefinitely detain asylum seekers and refugees, including children , often without trial, sometimes for several years. Immigration detainees are not included in the data for prison population and incarceration rates.
Additionally, the number of prisoners and incarceration rate differs for each Australian state and territory, with some having much higher or lower incarceration rates than the national average.
In addition to adult prisoners, on an average night in June 2017, there was 964 minors imprisoned in Australia.
China: World Prison Brief rate of 118 per 100,000 at mid-2015 is for 1,649,804 sentenced prisoners in Ministry of Justice prisons only. World Prison Brief states that in addition to the sentenced prisoners, there may be more than 650,000 held in detention centers. "A total prison population of 2,300,000 would raise the prison population rate to 164 per 100,000."
After 2015 there was a great increase in the number of people in the Xinjiang re-education camps. Hundreds of thousands to millions may have been detained. See also: Re-education through labor, and Laogai.
Prison population of India has been 419,623 by Dec 31, 2015, the latest publicly available information. According website National Prison Portal, prisoner population of India around 480,000 currently
North Korea. Little information exists regarding North Korea's incarceration rate. The U.S. Committee for Human Rights in North Korea estimates 150,000 to 200,000 incarcerated based on testimony of defectors from the state police bureau, which roughly equals 600-800 people incarcerated per 100,000.[ when? ] For more info see Prisons in North Korea.
United Kingdom. Main chart source only provides rates for the constituent parts of the UK.In the above table see Scotland, Northern Ireland, and England and Wales. If they are not listed separately, then they can be found listed under the UK listing.
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placement, 1997–2015. US
United States. Incarceration rate (per 100,000 population of all ages) is for inmates held in adult facilities in the United States. It does not include inmates in the custody of correctional facilities operated by departments of corrections in U.S. territories (American Samoa, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands) and U.S. commonwealths (Northern Mariana Islands and Puerto Rico).
In addition, there were 48,043 juveniles in juvenile detention in 2015.For more juvenile detention information and numbers, see Youth incarceration in the United States.
The incarceration rate in the U.S. varies by U.S. state, with some such as Oklahoma and Louisiana, being around 1 and 2/3rds higher than the national average. See: List of U.S. states by incarceration and correctional supervision rate.
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Incarceration in the United States is one of the main forms of punishment and rehabilitation for the commission of felony and other offenses. The United States has the largest prison population in the world, and the highest per-capita incarceration rate. In 2016 in the US, there were 655 people incarcerated per 100,000 population. This is the US incarceration rate for adults or people tried as adults. In 2016, 2.2 million Americans have been incarcerated, which means for every 100,000 there are 655 that are currently inmates. This costs the United States government $80 billion dollars a year.
Prison rape commonly refers to the rape of inmates in prison by other inmates or prison staff. In 2001, Human Rights Watch estimated that at least 140,000 inmates had been raped while incarcerated in the United States. A United States Department of Justice report, Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, states that "In 2011–12, an estimated 4.0% of state and federal prison inmates and 3.2% of jail inmates reported experiencing one or more incidents of sexual victimization by another inmate or facility staff in the past 12 months or since admission to the facility, if less than 12 months." However, advocates dispute the accuracy of the numbers, saying they seem to under-report the real numbers of sexual assaults in prison, especially among juveniles.
The Penal system of Japan is part of the criminal justice system of Japan. It is intended to resocialize, reform, and rehabilitate offenders. The penal system is operated by the Correction Bureau of the Ministry of Justice.
Incapacitation in the context of criminal sentencing philosophy is one of the functions of punishment. It involves capital punishment, sending an offender to prison, or possibly restricting their freedom in the community, to protect society and prevent that person from committing further crimes. Incarceration, as the primary mechanism for incapacitation, is also used as to try and deter future offending.
The penal system in China is mostly composed of an administrative detention system and a judicial incarceration system. As of mid 2015, it is reported prisoners held in prisons managed by Ministry of Justice is 1,649,804, result in a population rate of 118 per 100,000. Detainees in Ministry of Public Security facilities is 650,000 as of 2009, which combined would result in a population rate of 164 per 100,000. China also retained the use of death penalty with the approval right reserved to the Supreme People's Court, and have a system of death penalty with reprieve where the sentence is suspended unless the convicted commit another major crime within two years while detained. There are discussion urging increased use of community correction, and debate are ongoing to have Ministry of Justice oversee administrative detainees as well to prevent police from having too much power.
The Federal Detention Center, Honolulu is a United States federal prison facility in Hawaii which holds male and female prisoners of all security levels prior to or during court proceedings in Hawaii Federal District Court, as well as inmates serving brief sentences. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice.
In September 2013, the incarceration rate of the United States of America was the highest in the world, at 716 per 100,000 of the national population. While the United States represents about 4.4 percent of the world's population, it houses around 22 percent of the world's prisoners. Corrections cost around $74 billion in 2007 according to the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol, penitentiary, detention center, remand center, or internment facility, is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most commonly used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until their trial; those pleading or being found guilty of crimes at trial may be sentenced to a specified period of imprisonment. In simplest terms, a prison can also be described as a building in which people are legally held as a punishment for a crime they have committed.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) prisoners often face additional challenges compared to non-LGBT prisoners. According to Just Detention International, LGBT inmates are "among the most vulnerable in the prison population". 67% of LGBT prisoners in California report being assaulted while in prison. The vulnerability of LGBT prisoners has led some prisons to separate them from other prisoners, while in others they are housed with the general population.
The United States incarcerates more of its youth than any other country in the world through the juvenile courts and the adult criminal justice system, which reflects the larger trends in incarceration practices in the United States. In 2010, approximately 70,800 juveniles were incarcerated in youth detention facilities alone. Approximately 500,000 youth are brought to detention centers in a given year. This data does not reflect juveniles tried as adults. Around 40% are incarcerated in privatized, for-profit facilities.
Punishment in Australia arises when an individual has been convicted of breaking the law through the Australian criminal justice system. Australia uses prisons, as well as community corrections. The death penalty has been abolished, and corporal punishment is no longer used. Before the colonisation of Australia by Europeans, Indigenous Australians had their own traditional punishments, some of which are still practised.
A prisoner is a person who is deprived of liberty against his or her will. This can be by confinement, captivity, or by forcible restraint. The term applies particularly to serving a prison sentence in a prison. This term does not apply to defendants who are pre-trial.
Federal Penitentiary Service - is the official name of the Russian federal prison authority responsible for security and maintenance of prisons in Russia. The organization was founded in 2004 as the successor to the Main Directorate of the Penitentiary of the MVD, which has been transferred to the Ministry of Justice.
Prison overcrowding is a social phenomenon occurring when the demand for space in prisons in a jurisdiction exceeds the capacity for prisoners in the place.
Incarceration prevention refers to a variety of methods aimed at reducing prison populations and costs while fostering enhanced social structures. Due to the nature of incarceration in the United States today caused by issues leading to increased incarceration rates, there are methods aimed at preventing the incarceration of at-risk populations.
The United States has the highest prison and jail population, and the highest incarceration rate in the world. According to the World Prison Population List there were around 10.35 million people in penal institutions worldwide in 2015. The US had 2,173,800 prisoners in adult facilities in 2015. That means the US held 21.0% of the world's prisoners in 2015, even though the US represented only around 4.4 percent of the world's population in 2015.
The Korea Correctional Service is the corrections agency/prison service of South Korea. An agency of the Ministry of Justice, it is headquartered in Building #1 of the Government Complex-Gwacheon in Gwacheon, Gyeonggi-do in the Seoul metropolitan area.
Juvenile detention in the Northern Territory is administered by the Department of Correctional Services of the Government of the Northern Territory. Juvenile detention is mostly operated through two facilities - the Alice Springs Juvenile Holding Centre in Alice Springs, and the Don Dale Juvenile Detention Centre in eastern Darwin. A juvenile is a child between the age of 10 and 17.