# Triangular tiling

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Triangular tiling

Type Regular tiling
Vertex configuration 3.3.3.3.3.3 (or 36)
Face configuration V6.6.6 (or V63)
Schläfli symbol(s) {3,6}
{3[3]}
Wythoff symbol(s) 6 | 3 2
3 | 3 3
| 3 3 3
Coxeter diagram(s)

=
Symmetry p6m, [6,3], (*632)
Rotation symmetry p6, [6,3]+, (632)
p3, [3[3]]+, (333)
Dual Hexagonal tiling
Properties Vertex-transitive, edge-transitive, face-transitive

In geometry, the triangular tiling or triangular tessellation is one of the three regular tilings of the Euclidean plane, and is the only such tiling where the constituent shapes are not parallelogons. Because the internal angle of the equilateral triangle is 60 degrees, six triangles at a point occupy a full 360 degrees. The triangular tiling has Schläfli symbol of {3,6}.

## Contents

English mathematician John Conway called it a deltille, named from the triangular shape of the Greek letter delta (Δ). The triangular tiling can also be called a kishextille by a kis operation that adds a center point and triangles to replace the faces of a hextille.

It is one of three regular tilings of the plane. The other two are the square tiling and the hexagonal tiling.

## Uniform colorings

There are 9 distinct uniform colorings of a triangular tiling. (Naming the colors by indices on the 6 triangles around a vertex: 111111, 111112, 111212, 111213, 111222, 112122, 121212, 121213, 121314) Three of them can be derived from others by repeating colors: 111212 and 111112 from 121213 by combining 1 and 3, while 111213 is reduced from 121314. [1]

There is one class of Archimedean colorings, 111112, (marked with a *) which is not 1-uniform, containing alternate rows of triangles where every third is colored. The example shown is 2-uniform, but there are infinitely many such Archimedean colorings that can be created by arbitrary horizontal shifts of the rows.

 111111 121212 111222 112122 111112(*) p6m (*632) p3m1 (*333) cmm (2*22) p2 (2222) p2 (2222)
 121213 111212 111112 121314 111213 p31m (3*3) p3 (333)

## A2 lattice and circle packings

The vertex arrangement of the triangular tiling is called an A2 lattice. [2] It is the 2-dimensional case of a simplectic honeycomb.

The A*
2
lattice (also called A3
2
) can be constructed by the union of all three A2 lattices, and equivalent to the A2 lattice.

+ + = dual of =

The vertices of the triangular tiling are the centers of the densest possible circle packing. [3] Every circle is in contact with 6 other circles in the packing (kissing number). The packing density is π12 or 90.69%. The voronoi cell of a triangular tiling is a hexagon, and so the voronoi tessellation, the hexagonal tiling, has a direct correspondence to the circle packings.

## Geometric variations

Triangular tilings can be made with the equivalent {3,6} topology as the regular tiling (6 triangles around every vertex). With identical faces (face-transitivity) and vertex-transitivity, there are 5 variations. Symmetry given assumes all faces are the same color. [4]

The planar tilings are related to polyhedra. Putting fewer triangles on a vertex leaves a gap and allows it to be folded into a pyramid. These can be expanded to Platonic solids: five, four and three triangles on a vertex define an icosahedron, octahedron, and tetrahedron respectively.

This tiling is topologically related as a part of sequence of regular polyhedra with Schläfli symbols {3,n}, continuing into the hyperbolic plane.

*n32 symmetry mutation of regular tilings: {3,n}
SphericalEuclid.Compact hyper.Paraco.Noncompact hyperbolic
3.3 33 34 35 36 37 38 3 312i39i36i33i

It is also topologically related as a part of sequence of Catalan solids with face configuration Vn.6.6, and also continuing into the hyperbolic plane.

 V3.6.6 V4.6.6 V5.6.6 V6.6.6 V7.6.6

### Wythoff constructions from hexagonal and triangular tilings

Like the uniform polyhedra there are eight uniform tilings that can be based from the regular hexagonal tiling (or the dual triangular tiling).

Drawing the tiles colored as red on the original faces, yellow at the original vertices, and blue along the original edges, there are 8 forms, 7 which are topologically distinct. (The truncated triangular tiling is topologically identical to the hexagonal tiling.)

Uniform hexagonal/triangular tilings
Fundamental
domains
Symmetry: [6,3], (*632)[6,3]+, (632)
{6,3} t{6,3} r{6,3} t{3,6} {3,6} rr{6,3} tr{6,3} sr{6,3}
Config. 633.12.12(6.3)26.6.6363.4.6.44.6.123.3.3.3.6
Triangular symmetry tilings
Wythoff 3 | 3 33 3 | 33 | 3 33 3 | 33 | 3 33 3 | 33 3 3 || 3 3 3
Coxeter
Image
Vertex figure

(3.3)3

3.6.3.6

(3.3)3

3.6.3.6

(3.3)3

3.6.3.6

6.6.6

3.3.3.3.3.3

There are 4 regular complex apeirogons, sharing the vertices of the triangular tiling. Regular complex apeirogons have vertices and edges, where edges can contain 2 or more vertices. Regular apeirogons p{q}r are constrained by: 1/p + 2/q + 1/r = 1. Edges have p vertices, and vertex figures are r-gonal. [5]

The first is made of 2-edges, and next two are triangular edges, and the last has overlapping hexagonal edges.

### Other triangular tilings

There are also three Laves tilings made of single type of triangles:

 Kisrhombille 30°-60°-90° right triangles Kisquadrille 45°-45°-90° right triangles Kisdeltile 30°-30°-120° isosceles triangles

## Related Research Articles

In geometry, the truncated octahedron is the Archimedean solid that arises from a regular octahedron by removing six pyramids, one at each of the octahedron's vertices. The truncated octahedron has 14 faces, 36 edges, and 24 vertices. Since each of its faces has point symmetry the truncated octahedron is a 6-zonohedron. It is also the Goldberg polyhedron GIV(1,1), containing square and hexagonal faces. Like the cube, it can tessellate 3-dimensional space, as a permutohedron.

In geometry, the hexagonal tiling or hexagonal tessellation is a regular tiling of the Euclidean plane, in which exactly three hexagons meet at each vertex. It has Schläfli symbol of {6,3} or t{3,6} .

In geometry, the square tiling, square tessellation or square grid is a regular tiling of the Euclidean plane. It has Schläfli symbol of {4,4}, meaning it has 4 squares around every vertex. Conway called it a quadrille.

In geometry, the truncated hexagonal tiling is a semiregular tiling of the Euclidean plane. There are 2 dodecagons (12-sides) and one triangle on each vertex.

In geometry, the truncated trihexagonal tiling is one of eight semiregular tilings of the Euclidean plane. There are one square, one hexagon, and one dodecagon on each vertex. It has Schläfli symbol of tr{3,6}.

In geometry, the rhombitrihexagonal tiling is a semiregular tiling of the Euclidean plane. There are one triangle, two squares, and one hexagon on each vertex. It has Schläfli symbol of rr{3,6}.

In geometry, the trihexagonal tiling is one of 11 uniform tilings of the Euclidean plane by regular polygons. It consists of equilateral triangles and regular hexagons, arranged so that each hexagon is surrounded by triangles and vice versa. The name derives from the fact that it combines a regular hexagonal tiling and a regular triangular tiling. Two hexagons and two triangles alternate around each vertex, and its edges form an infinite arrangement of lines. Its dual is the rhombille tiling.

In geometry, the snub hexagonal tiling is a semiregular tiling of the Euclidean plane. There are four triangles and one hexagon on each vertex. It has Schläfli symbol sr{3,6}. The snub tetrahexagonal tiling is a related hyperbolic tiling with Schläfli symbol sr{4,6}.

In geometry, the elongated triangular tiling is a semiregular tiling of the Euclidean plane. There are three triangles and two squares on each vertex. It is named as a triangular tiling elongated by rows of squares, and given Schläfli symbol {3,6}:e.

The cubic honeycomb or cubic cellulation is the only proper regular space-filling tessellation in Euclidean 3-space made up of cubic cells. It has 4 cubes around every edge, and 8 cubes around each vertex. Its vertex figure is a regular octahedron. It is a self-dual tessellation with Schläfli symbol {4,3,4}. John Horton Conway called this honeycomb a cubille.

The tetrahedral-octahedral honeycomb, alternated cubic honeycomb is a quasiregular space-filling tessellation in Euclidean 3-space. It is composed of alternating regular octahedra and tetrahedra in a ratio of 1:2.

The bitruncated cubic honeycomb is a space-filling tessellation in Euclidean 3-space made up of truncated octahedra. It has 4 truncated octahedra around each vertex. Being composed entirely of truncated octahedra, it is cell-transitive. It is also edge-transitive, with 2 hexagons and one square on each edge, and vertex-transitive. It is one of 28 uniform honeycombs.

In geometry, the truncated heptagonal tiling is a semiregular tiling of the hyperbolic plane. There are one triangle and two tetradecagons on each vertex. It has Schläfli symbol of t{7,3}. The tiling has a vertex configuration of 3.14.14.

In geometry, the rhombitriheptagonal tiling is a semiregular tiling of the hyperbolic plane. At each vertex of the tiling there is one triangle and one heptagon, alternating between two squares. The tiling has Schläfli symbol rr{7, 3}. It can be seen as constructed as a rectified triheptagonal tiling, r{7,3}, as well as an expanded heptagonal tiling or expanded order-7 triangular tiling.

In geometry, the order-7 truncated triangular tiling, sometimes called the hyperbolic soccerball, is a semiregular tiling of the hyperbolic plane. There are two hexagons and one heptagon on each vertex, forming a pattern similar to a conventional soccer ball with heptagons in place of pentagons. It has Schläfli symbol of t{3,7}.

In geometry, the octagonal tiling is a regular tiling of the hyperbolic plane. It is represented by Schläfli symbol of {8,3}, having three regular octagons around each vertex. It also has a construction as a truncated order-8 square tiling, t{4,8}.

In geometry, the rhombitrioctagonal tiling is a semiregular tiling of the hyperbolic plane. At each vertex of the tiling there is one triangle and one octagon, alternating between two squares. The tiling has Schläfli symbol rr{8,3}. It can be seen as constructed as a rectified trioctagonal tiling, r{8,3}, as well as an expanded octagonal tiling or expanded order-8 triangular tiling.

In geometry, the order-3 apeirogonal tiling is a regular tiling of the hyperbolic plane. It is represented by the Schläfli symbol {∞,3}, having three regular apeirogons around each vertex. Each apeirogon is inscribed in a horocycle.

In geometry, the order-6 apeirogonal tiling is a regular tiling of the hyperbolic plane. It has Schläfli symbol of {∞,6}.

## References

1. Tilings and patterns , p.102-107
2. "The Lattice A2".
3. Order in Space: A design source book, Keith Critchlow, p.74-75, pattern 1
4. Tilings and Patterns , from list of 107 isohedral tilings, p.473-481
5. Coxeter, Regular Complex Polytopes, pp. 111-112, p. 136.

## Sources

Space Family ${\displaystyle {\tilde {A}}_{n-1}}$${\displaystyle {\tilde {C}}_{n-1}}$${\displaystyle {\tilde {B}}_{n-1}}$${\displaystyle {\tilde {D}}_{n-1}}$${\displaystyle {\tilde {G}}_{2}}$ / ${\displaystyle {\tilde {F}}_{4}}$ / ${\displaystyle {\tilde {E}}_{n-1}}$
E2 Uniform tiling {3[3]} δ3 hδ3 qδ3 Hexagonal
E3 Uniform convex honeycomb {3[4]} δ4 hδ4 qδ4
E4 Uniform 4-honeycomb {3[5]} δ5 hδ5 qδ5 24-cell honeycomb
E5 Uniform 5-honeycomb {3[6]} δ6 hδ6 qδ6
E6 Uniform 6-honeycomb {3[7]} δ7 hδ7 qδ7 222
E7 Uniform 7-honeycomb {3[8]} δ8 hδ8 qδ8 133331
E8 Uniform 8-honeycomb {3[9]} δ9 hδ9 qδ9 152251521
E9 Uniform 9-honeycomb {3[10]}δ10hδ10qδ10
E10Uniform 10-honeycomb{3[11]}δ11hδ11qδ11
En-1Uniform (n-1)-honeycomb {3[n]} δn hδn qδn 1k22k1k21