Triangular tiling

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Triangular tiling
Tiling 3 simple.svg
Type Regular tiling
Vertex configuration 3.3.3.3.3.3 (or 36)
Tiling 3 vertfig.svg
Face configuration V6.6.6 (or V63)
Schläfli symbol(s) {3,6}
{3[3]}
Wythoff symbol(s) 3 2
3 | 3 3
| 3 3 3
Coxeter diagram(s) CDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch.png = CDel node h1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
CDel node h.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch hh.png
Symmetry p6m, [6,3], (*632)
Rotation symmetry p6, [6,3]+, (632)
p3, [3[3]]+, (333)
Dual Hexagonal tiling
Properties Vertex-transitive, edge-transitive, face-transitive

In geometry, the triangular tiling or triangular tessellation is one of the three regular tilings of the Euclidean plane, and is the only such tiling where the constituent shapes are not parallelogons. Because the internal angle of the equilateral triangle is 60 degrees, six triangles at a point occupy a full 360 degrees. The triangular tiling has Schläfli symbol of {3,6}.

Contents

Conway calls it a deltille, named from the triangular shape of the Greek letter delta (Δ). The triangular tiling can also be called a kishextille by a kis operation that adds a center point and triangles to replace the faces of a hextille.

It is one of three regular tilings of the plane. The other two are the square tiling and the hexagonal tiling.

Uniform colorings

A 2-uniform triangular tiling, 4 colored triangles, related to the geodesic polyhedron as {3,6+}2,0. Triangular tiling 4-color.svg
A 2-uniform triangular tiling, 4 colored triangles, related to the geodesic polyhedron as {3,6+}2,0.

There are 9 distinct uniform colorings of a triangular tiling. (Naming the colors by indices on the 6 triangles around a vertex: 111111, 111112, 111212, 111213, 111222, 112122, 121212, 121213, 121314) Three of them can be derived from others by repeating colors: 111212 and 111112 from 121213 by combining 1 and 3, while 111213 is reduced from 121314. [1]

There is one class of Archimedean colorings, 111112, (marked with a *) which is not 1-uniform, containing alternate rows of triangles where every third is colored. The example shown is 2-uniform, but there are infinitely many such Archimedean colorings that can be created by arbitrary horizontal shifts of the rows.

111111121212111222112122111112(*)
Uniform triangular tiling 111111.png Uniform triangular tiling 121212.png Uniform triangular tiling 111222.png Uniform triangular tiling 112122.png 2-uniform triangular tiling 111112.png
p6m (*632)p3m1 (*333)cmm (2*22)p2 (2222)p2 (2222)
121213111212111112121314111213
Uniform triangular tiling 121213.png Uniform triangular tiling 111212.png Uniform triangular tiling 111112.png Uniform triangular tiling 121314.png Uniform triangular tiling 111213.png
p31m (3*3)p3 (333)

A2 lattice and circle packings

The A
2 lattice as three triangular tilings: + + Compound 3 triangular tilings.png
The A
2
lattice as three triangular tilings: CDel node 1.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch.png + CDel node.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch 10lu.png + CDel node.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch 01ld.png

The vertex arrangement of the triangular tiling is called an A2 lattice. [2] It is the 2-dimensional case of a simplectic honeycomb.

The A*
2
lattice (also called A3
2
) can be constructed by the union of all three A2 lattices, and equivalent to the A2 lattice.

CDel node 1.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch.png + CDel node.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch 10lu.png + CDel node.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch 01ld.png = dual of CDel node 1.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch 11.png = CDel node 1.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch.png

The vertices of the triangular tiling are the centers of the densest possible circle packing. [3] Every circle is in contact with 6 other circles in the packing (kissing number). The packing density is π12 or 90.69%. The voronoi cell of a triangular tiling is a hexagon, and so the voronoi tessellation, the hexagonal tiling, has a direct correspondence to the circle packings.

1-uniform-11-circlepack.svg

Geometric variations

Triangular tilings can be made with the equivalent {3,6} topology as the regular tiling (6 triangles around every vertex). With identical faces (face-transitivity) and vertex-transitivity, there are 5 variations. Symmetry given assumes all faces are the same color. [4]

The planar tilings are related to polyhedra. Putting fewer triangles on a vertex leaves a gap and allows it to be folded into a pyramid. These can be expanded to Platonic solids: five, four and three triangles on a vertex define an icosahedron, octahedron, and tetrahedron respectively.

This tiling is topologically related as a part of sequence of regular polyhedra with Schläfli symbols {3,n}, continuing into the hyperbolic plane.

*n32 symmetry mutation of regular tilings: {3,n}
SphericalEuclid.Compact hyper.Paraco.Noncompact hyperbolic
Trigonal dihedron.svg Uniform tiling 332-t2.png Uniform tiling 432-t2.png Uniform tiling 532-t2.png Uniform polyhedron-63-t2.png Order-7 triangular tiling.svg H2-8-3-primal.svg H2 tiling 23i-4.png H2 tiling 23j12-4.png H2 tiling 23j9-4.png H2 tiling 23j6-4.png H2 tiling 23j3-4.png
3.3 33 34 35 36 37 38 3 312i39i36i33i

It is also topologically related as a part of sequence of Catalan solids with face configuration Vn.6.6, and also continuing into the hyperbolic plane.

Triakistetrahedron.jpg
V3.6.6
Tetrakishexahedron.jpg
V4.6.6
Pentakisdodecahedron.jpg
V5.6.6
Uniform polyhedron-63-t2.png
V6.6.6
Heptakis heptagonal tiling.svg
V7.6.6

Wythoff constructions from hexagonal and triangular tilings

Like the uniform polyhedra there are eight uniform tilings that can be based from the regular hexagonal tiling (or the dual triangular tiling).

Drawing the tiles colored as red on the original faces, yellow at the original vertices, and blue along the original edges, there are 8 forms, 7 which are topologically distinct. (The truncated triangular tiling is topologically identical to the hexagonal tiling.)

Uniform hexagonal/triangular tilings
Fundamental
domains
Symmetry: [6,3], (*632)[6,3]+, (632)
{6,3} t{6,3} r{6,3} t{3,6} {3,6} rr{6,3} tr{6,3} sr{6,3}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.png
Tiling Dual Semiregular V4-6-12 Bisected Hexagonal.svg Uniform tiling 63-t0.svg Uniform tiling 63-t01.svg Uniform tiling 63-t1.svg Uniform tiling 63-t12.svg Uniform tiling 63-t2.svg Uniform tiling 63-t02.png Uniform tiling 63-t012.svg Uniform tiling 63-snub.png
Config. 633.12.12(6.3)26.6.6363.4.6.44.6.123.3.3.3.6
Triangular symmetry tilings
Wythoff 3 333 333 333 3 3
Coxeter CDel node 1.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch 10lu.pngCDel node.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch 10lu.pngCDel node.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch 11.pngCDel node.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch 01ld.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch 01ld.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch 11.pngCDel node h.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch hh.png
Image
Vertex figure
Uniform tiling 333-t0.png
(3.3)3
Uniform tiling 333-t01.png
3.6.3.6
Uniform tiling 333-t1.png
(3.3)3
Uniform tiling 333-t12.png
3.6.3.6
Uniform tiling 333-t2.png
(3.3)3
Uniform tiling 333-t02.png
3.6.3.6
Uniform tiling 333-t012.png
6.6.6
Uniform tiling 333-snub.png
3.3.3.3.3.3

There are 4 regular complex apeirogons, sharing the vertices of the triangular tiling. Regular complex apeirogons have vertices and edges, where edges can contain 2 or more vertices. Regular apeirogons p{q}r are constrained by: 1/p + 2/q + 1/r = 1. Edges have p vertices, and vertex figures are r-gonal. [5]

The first is made of 2-edges, and next two are triangular edges, and the last has overlapping hexagonal edges.

Complex apeirogon 2-6-6.png Complex apeirogon 3-4-6.png Complex apeirogon 3-6-3.png Complex apeirogon 6-3-6.png
2{6}6 or CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel 6node.png3{4}6 or CDel 3node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel 6node.png3{6}3 or CDel 3node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel 3node.png6{3}6 or CDel 6node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel 6node.png

Other triangular tilings

There are also three Laves tilings made of single type of triangles:

1-uniform 3 dual.svg
Kisrhombille
30°-60°-90° right triangles
1-uniform 2 dual.svg
Kisquadrille
45°-45°-90° right triangles
1-uniform 4 dual.svg
Kisdeltile
30°-30°-120° isosceles triangles

See also

Related Research Articles

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Rhombicuboctahedron Archimedean solid with eight triangular and eighteen square faces

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Truncated octahedron Archimedean solid

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Truncated dodecahedron

In geometry, the truncated dodecahedron is an Archimedean solid. It has 12 regular decagonal faces, 20 regular triangular faces, 60 vertices and 90 edges.

Hexagonal tiling

In geometry, the hexagonal tiling or hexagonal tessellation is a regular tiling of the Euclidean plane, in which exactly three hexagons meet at each vertex. It has Schläfli symbol of {6,3} or t{3,6}.

Square tiling Regular tiling of the Euclidean plane

In geometry, the square tiling, square tessellation or square grid is a regular tiling of the Euclidean plane. It has Schläfli symbol of {4,4}, meaning it has 4 squares around every vertex.

Truncated hexagonal tiling

In geometry, the truncated hexagonal tiling is a semiregular tiling of the Euclidean plane. There are 2 dodecagons (12-sides) and one triangle on each vertex.

Truncated trihexagonal tiling

In geometry, the truncated trihexagonal tiling is one of eight semiregular tilings of the Euclidean plane. There are one square, one hexagon, and one dodecagon on each vertex. It has Schläfli symbol of tr{3,6}.

Truncated square tiling

In geometry, the truncated square tiling is a semiregular tiling by regular polygons of the Euclidean plane with one square and two octagons on each vertex. This is the only edge-to-edge tiling by regular convex polygons which contains an octagon. It has Schläfli symbol of t{4,4}.

Rhombitrihexagonal tiling Semiregular tiling of the Euclidean plane

In geometry, the rhombitrihexagonal tiling is a semiregular tiling of the Euclidean plane. There are one triangle, two squares, and one hexagon on each vertex. It has Schläfli symbol of rr{3,6}.

Trihexagonal tiling Tiling of the plane by regular hexagons and equilateral triangles

In geometry, the trihexagonal tiling is one of 11 uniform tilings of the Euclidean plane by regular polygons. It consists of equilateral triangles and regular hexagons, arranged so that each hexagon is surrounded by triangles and vice versa. The name derives from the fact that it combines a regular hexagonal tiling and a regular triangular tiling. Two hexagons and two triangles alternate around each vertex, and its edges form an infinite arrangement of lines. Its dual is the rhombille tiling.

Snub trihexagonal tiling

In geometry, the snub hexagonal tiling is a semiregular tiling of the Euclidean plane. There are four triangles and one hexagon on each vertex. It has Schläfli symbol of sr{3,6}. The snub tetrahexagonal tiling is a related hyperbolic tiling with Schläfli symbol sr{4,6}.

Elongated triangular tiling

In geometry, the elongated triangular tiling is a semiregular tiling of the Euclidean plane. There are three triangles and two squares on each vertex. It is named as a triangular tiling elongated by rows of squares, and given Schläfli symbol {3,6}:e.

Cubic honeycomb

The cubic honeycomb or cubic cellulation is the only proper regular space-filling tessellation in Euclidean 3-space, made up of cubic cells. It has 4 cubes around every edge, and 8 cubes around each vertex. Its vertex figure is a regular octahedron. It is a self-dual tessellation with Schläfli symbol {4,3,4}. John Horton Conway calls this honeycomb a cubille.

Tetrahedral-octahedral honeycomb Quasiregular space-filling tesselation

The tetrahedral-octahedral honeycomb, alternated cubic honeycomb is a quasiregular space-filling tessellation in Euclidean 3-space. It is composed of alternating regular octahedra and tetrahedra in a ratio of 1:2.

Heptagonal tiling

In geometry, a heptagonal tiling is a regular tiling of the hyperbolic plane. It is represented by Schlafli symbol of {7,3}, having three regular heptagons around each vertex.

Truncated heptagonal tiling

In geometry, the truncated heptagonal tiling is a semiregular tiling of the hyperbolic plane. There are one triangle and two tetradecagons on each vertex. It has Schläfli symbol of t{7,3}. The tiling has a vertex configuration of 3.14.14.

Rhombitrioctagonal tiling

In geometry, the rhombitrioctagonal tiling is a semiregular tiling of the hyperbolic plane. At each vertex of the tiling there is one triangle and one octagon, alternating between two squares. The tiling has Schläfli symbol rr{8,3}. It can be seen as constructed as a rectified trioctagonal tiling, r{8,3}, as well as an expanded octagonal tiling or expanded order-8 triangular tiling.

Order-3 apeirogonal tiling

In geometry, the order-3 apeirogonal tiling is a regular tiling of the hyperbolic plane. It is represented by the Schläfli symbol {∞,3}, having three regular apeirogons around each vertex. Each apeirogon is inscribed in a horocycle.

References

  1. Tilings and Patterns, p.102-107
  2. "The Lattice A2".
  3. Order in Space: A design source book, Keith Critchlow, p.74-75, pattern 1
  4. Tilings and Patterns, from list of 107 isohedral tilings, p.473-481
  5. Coxeter, Regular Complex Polytopes, pp. 111-112, p. 136.
Space Family / /
E2 Uniform tiling {3[3]} δ3 hδ3 qδ3 Hexagonal
E3 Uniform convex honeycomb {3[4]} δ4 hδ4 qδ4
E4 Uniform 4-honeycomb {3[5]} δ5 hδ5 qδ5 24-cell honeycomb
E5 Uniform 5-honeycomb {3[6]} δ6 hδ6 qδ6
E6 Uniform 6-honeycomb {3[7]} δ7 hδ7 qδ7 222
E7 Uniform 7-honeycomb {3[8]} δ8 hδ8 qδ8 133331
E8 Uniform 8-honeycomb {3[9]} δ9 hδ9 qδ9 152251521
E9 Uniform 9-honeycomb {3[10]}δ10hδ10qδ10
E10Uniform 10-honeycomb{3[11]}δ11hδ11qδ11
En-1Uniform (n-1)-honeycomb {3[n]} δn hδn qδn 1k22k1k21